On the 26th ult., in the U. S. Circuit Court, this city, foJt.a Bell Telegraph—E. Crehore , et al., against H. Johnson, for infringment of “ Jackson's Patent.” A verdict was rendered tor the plaintiff with 6 cents cost ; the point of infringment was a spring"for setting the ma chine before using. Mr.' (i'i. t ll. we believe, is the oldest inventor of Bell Telegraphs in this city. His first patent expired some years ago. turning.—Plaintiff, W. Hale ; defendant, A. E. Brooks.—This was an action brought against defendant for an infringement of a patent to W. Hale and Allen Goodman, of Dana, Mass., in July, 1845. for making pianoforte legs. The jury gave a verdict of $2,355,77—tor the use of one machine—a pretty heavy verdict. In both cases these patents were sustained. Judge Betts was on the bench, and gave v ery charges. The shock of an earthquake was felt between. 4 and 5 o'clock A. M., on Tuesday, Nov. 9, throughout England and Ireland. No damage done.Machinery and Tools as they are.—The Steam Engine. (Continued from page 83.) Direct-Action Engines—This class of engines derives its appellation from the manner in which the motion of the piston is transmitted to the crank, which is placed directly over the cylinder and connected to the piston rod. either by the agency of a connecting-rod or even, in some instances, the latter is dispensed with, and the piston-rod itself connected to the crank pin. Attempts are frequently made to classify direct-action engines into three or four varieties ; some arranging them according as they are made with a parallel motion, or from using, instead, a guide motion, but these small minutire are features not sufficiently distinctive to constitute different varieties. Other modes of classification are equally objectionable, tor the truth is, when this form of machinery became popular, almost every maker had some peculiar arrangement or modification of his own. From this circumstance there has arisen an endless variety of direct-action engines, many of which have already fallen into oblivion, leaving only the better sorts still in use. We shall therefore briefly sketch the outlines of a few that stand conspicuous, but before doing so, will make a few remarks on the benefits and disadvantages which result from this substitution for the beam or side-lever engine. We have stated whence they derived their name, but the position ot the crank directly over the cylinder, is itself a great evil, compelling the constructor, in the most simple forms of this class, to a choice of two evils—either to have a short stroke and short connecting-rod, or to place the paddle shaft excessively high, to which evils there must be added great friction and consequent wear. Their chief recommendations are, that they allow the length of the engine- room to be diminished by one-third, and the weight of the machinery to be at least two- fifths less than heretofore. There is an important difference between the naval and mercantile marine, which should not be lost sight of; in vessels of war it is of the first importance to keep as much ot the machinery as possible beneath the water-line, so as to be secure from injury during an engagement, hence a good engine might be rejected for the government service, although well adapted for a merchant vessel, and on the contrary an engine adapted for the navy might not be advisable for the latter purpose. The engine of this kind which ranks first in estimation at present, and not without reason, is the Oscillating Engine. On this account, and because there are several peculiarities about it, we shall describe this sort of engine rather more fully ; it must, however, be premised that the oscillating principle has lately been applied to machinery differing much in form, but in the following we shall more particularly refer to the engine most generally used. Its peculiar feature, and from which it derives the name, is, the swaying or rather oscillation of the cylinder:—the piston-rod is provided with a head and strap, so as to connect directly with the crank-pin, without the intervention of a connecting-rod, but it is evident that, as the piston moves up and down in a straight line, an arrangement is necessary to allow of the rotary movement of the crank, this is effected by the cylinder having two gudgeons or trunnions on it, midway between the top and bottom, so that when placed in bearings it can oscillate freely, and will yield to the motion of the crank as the latter is impelled by the piston-rod. The bed-plate is formed with plum- mer-blocks tor the reception of the cylinder gudgeons, and there are firmly attached to it eightwrought-iron eolumns,which support the top frame or entablature, this latter having on it the main plummer blocks in which the shaft revolves. We have mentioned that the cylinder moves to-and- fro on its central bearings, but here a difficulty occurs,—how to supply it with steam ; this is accomplished by making the gudgeons or trunnions hollow, one being for the reception of the steam, and the other to convey the exhaust steam to the condenser. The communication between the slide-valve casing and these hollow gudgeons, is by two passages that are carried around the cylinder, and form part of the same casting. The slide casing oscillates with the cylinder, and the manner in which the valve is worked is also peculiar, for it is evident that the distance between the eccentric and the weigh- shaft which moves the valve is continually changing. This is arranged by means of a trame, which moves up and down when the notch in the eccentric rod is made to grasp a stud m the centre of the above frame. There is a curved slot in the lower part of the frame, in which moves a roller giving motion to the weigh-shaft, so that as the frame moves up and down the slide-valve partakes ot the motion, and when it is requisite to reverse the engine, the operation is effected by moving the frame with a lever suitably attached. Between the two cylinders are placed the condensers, air and feed pumps, 'c.; frequently only one condenser and air-pump are used for the two cylinders, which arrangement is liable to the objection that if the air-pump gets out of order the whole machinery is disabled, An intermediate crank shaft is employed to work the pumps. Some modifications have lately been introduced, affecting chiefly the condensing apparatus, the mode of admitting the steam, and the use ot two light separate slide valves instead of the heavy single valve casing, so as to improve the balance of the cylinders. Oscillating cylinders have also been applied to that kind of framing which is formed with two inclined planes, on which the cylinders are placed so that they incline to each other and as regards the vessel are fore-and-aft to it, or in other words, stand in a line with the. keel, a position which causes less strain on the vessel. With this arrangement only two cranks are required, which can be connected by a drag-link, and there is a Considerable diminution of weight and friction,—the same framing is also often used tor fixed cylinders. The Trunk Engine is another variety which atter being neglected for some time, has lately been placed in several large vessels and found peculiarly well adapted for giving motion to the screw propeller. Its peculiarity consists in connecting the piston-rod to the piston by a joint, so that it works freely instead of being keyed on tight. A rectangular trunk or casing, bolted on the piston, encloses the rod and passes steam-tight through the cylinder cover, so that the upper end of the piston-rod, being attached to the crank-pin, is able to sway to-and-fro within its casing, whilst it impels the crank. The Gorgon Engine is another form, absurdly deriving its name from the vessel in which this iorm of engine was first used. For several years it was highly esteemed, but is now receding in favor, and with reason, for the other direct- action engines already described are far superior. Its main characteristic is ia attaching the piston-rod to the crank overhead by a short connecting-rod, which entails the evil of a short stroke and other disadvantages. Two cylinders to each engine is another variety, in which case the two piston rods are connected by an arm (called a T-piece from its shape) , and the connecting-rod is attached to the lower part of the T-piece, thus allow ing it to be very long ; this engine is, however, expensive and bulky. The long connecting-rod, which is so great a desideratum, is obtained by other makers in another way, who fashion the lower part in a forked-shaped so as to extend over a cross-head and side rods, to which latter it is attached. Before leaving this subject we think it right to mention that the employment of the double cylinder expansive engine. for steam vessels, has lately attracted considerable attention. While discussing the economy of the marine engine, we shall make a few brief remarks on the rule adopted by some writers, tor finding the capacity of the air-pump, which, according to them, should bear a fixed ratio to that of the cylinder, that ratio being usually as one to eight, this has been already mentioned, except that the word “ capacity “ must be substituted for “diameter.” This ratio, it can be shown, is only an approximation for the. quantity of water required for condensing varies, of course, according to the temperature of the exhaust steam. Another element to be taken into account, is the normal state of the injection water, for the temperature of the ocean differs greatly in various parts ot the world. Again, if surface condensation is employed, the size of the air-pump can be very much reduced, as its sole office is that of removing the condensed steam and the uncon- densed vapor, but not the injection water.. (To be Continged.)
This article was originally published with the title "Patent Cases"