BLADE GUARD.—Thomas T. Woodward, Ansonia, Conn.—This invention relates to a new and useful improvement in a detachable guard for cutting blades. STEAM TRA.p.—Samuel Bonser, Dover, N. H.—This invention relates to' a device for discharging the waters of condensation from' a steam-heating or other steam apparatus. CORN PLOW.—W. H. Bott, York, Pa.-The object of this invention is to construct a simple, light, and convenient plow, adapted to cultivating, plowing corn, etc., and which shall be readily adjustable to suit the work required of MACHINE FOR TURNING RAKE HEADS.-A. T.and N. M. Barnes, Tiffin. Ohio.-The object of this invention is to provide for public use a machine for turning heads for horse hay rakes and other shafts of similar construction, which shall perform the work more expeditiously and conveniently than any machine heretofore employed for the purpose. ELEVATED RAILWAY.-Wm. H. Rand, Brooklyn, N. Y.-The object of this invention is to improve the construction of elevated railways so as to reduce their cost and render them stronger and safer, more beautiful in appearance, and better adapted to the different methods of propulsion than any heretofore brought into public use. MACHINE FOR CUTTING- OFF THE ENDS OF CIGARS.-J. G. Maier and G. W. Schaeffer, Baltimore, Md.—The object of this invention is to provide for public use a neat, simple, cheap, and easily operated machine, which will cut off the end of a cigar without breaking it. In connection with this machine are arranged a box for holding the cut-off cigar ends, roughened surfaces for igniting the match, and one or more match holders. WIND MiLL.—Isaac H. Sutton, Coon Rapids, Iowa.-Thls invention relates to improvements in wind mills, and has for its object to provide a wind- regulating, and stopping and starting device, or gate for increasing or diminishing the area of the buckets exposed to the wind. ATTACHING RUDDERS TO PROPELLERS.- A. A. Scanle, Nyack, N. Y.—This invention relates to improvements in attaching ru.dders to propellers, and consists in attaching two rudders in advance of the propellers, one u^der each quarter, for the better protection of the same against striking upon bars and rocks, and for insuring a better action of the water on the rudders before it has been disturbed and set into cross currents by the propeller. GOVERNOR.-M. Murphy, Charlotte, N. C.-This invention relates to improvements in governors for valves of engines, water wheels, 'etc,, the object of which is to provide a simple and cheap device, also to provide an ar. rangement whereby the same may be adjusted, while in motion, to vary the actionfor increasing or diminishing the speed of the engine or wheel. MACHINE FOB GUMMING, PUNCHING, UPSETTING, AND CUTTING.—S. D. Hicks, New London, Wis.-This invention relates to improvements in iron workers' apparatus, and consists in the arrangement, on one portable base, of gumming devices, punching devices, tire-upsetting devices, and shearing devices, the gumming and shearing devices being arranged to be operated by one and the same hand lever, and the upsetting and punching devices by another lever. PORTABLE STcvE.-JohnBannihr, Hempstead, N. Y.—This invention has for its object to furnish a simple, convenient, effective and inexpensive portable cooking apparatus, whichmay be used in the house or out ofdoors AS may be desired Qr convenient, WATER WHEEL.—J. G.Fredenburr and W.V.Andrews, Newcastle, Cal.- This invention consists in the form of the buckets & the manner of connecting them to the rim of the wheel. The faces of the buckets receiving tihe water represent spiral concave forms, so shaped as to give the water which is discharged against them when at the lowest position, first, an upward or radial direction, and then a lateral direction away from the wheel, calculated to utilize as much as possible the unspent force of the water, which is commonly lost in these wheels by the immediate escape of the impact, and also calculated to discharge the water away from the wheel so as not to clog or impede its motion. ANIMAL TRAP.—J. L. Tusten,Winona, Miss.-This invention comprises the combination, in a box or case, of two compartments with a. hinged and vertically swinging door between them, of a horizontally swinging door opening into the first compartment, a hinged platform within the said first com - partment, suspended from a pair of knuckle-jointed bars, one of which is connected to the outer door for closing and opening it by the action of th e weight of the animal on the platform,a counter weight for closing the doo' and a drop catch for securing it, under a simple and efficient arrangement whereby theanimals secured are caused to reset the trap. TRACTION ENGINE.—George N. Tibbles, Hudson City, N. J.-This invention relates to certain new and useful improvements in the construction of a traction engine, which is intended to take the place of the ordinary dummy engines now in use. The object of the invention is to avoid the necessity of putting on an extra pressure of steam to ascend a steep incline, by the use of a movable fulcrum in a slotted lever connected with the cross-head. WINDMILLS FOR PUMPING.-L. D. Parsons, Tremont, N.Y.-This invention relates to new and useful improvements in windmills for pumping water and for other purposes. ATTACHMENT TO SPOOLS OR BOBBINS.—Marcus Browl Westhead, and Robert Smith, Manchester, England.-This invention relates to a revolving drag placed upon the end of the spool or bobbin, and through which the thread or twine passes, whether such drag be adapted to the spool or bobbin or so as to be detached therefrom and applied to another spool or bobbin. SHEET-METAL Hoops FOR TUBS, BUCKETS, AND OTHER SIMILAR VESSELS . -L. A. Fleming, New York city.—This invention consists in forming one end of a metallic hoop with rivet clips struck or cut from the end of the hoop, which fit into slots in the other end of the same hoop; these clips are then driven to a head like an ordinary rivet, and the hoop is firmly joined thereby; thus the use of rivets is avoided, and the hoop secured in a rapid and economical manner. THRASHING MACHINE.-William H. Perry, Ripley, Ohlo.—This invention relates to a new and useful improvement in upper shoes for grain-thrashing machines, and it consists in a novel construction ofthe same, whereby the blast is made to act !I).ore efficiently upon the grain than hitherto, and the grain deprived of smut and other light impurities, which are directed from, or not allowed to pass into the face of the feeder or operator, as is now the case. CAR BRAKE.-M. S. Borthwick, Montana, Iowa.—This invention relates to improvements in car brakes, and hasfor its object to provide a simple arrangement of devices, whereby the car brakes as now commonly arranged for operation by hand may be brought to bear, by power derived from the moving wheels of the truck, when required, the said devices being so arranged thatthey may bebrought into contact with the wheels, either by the brakeman on the platform of eachcar or by one at either end of the train. MANGLE.—James B. Westwick, Galena, Ill.-This invention relates to now aud useful improvements in mangles, and consists of improved arrangements of devices forworking a table reciprocatingly under a pressing and smoothing roller, on which table the clothes to be mangled are spread, thepressing and mangling roller being provided with adjustable weights for varying the pressure. APPARATUS FOR SHAPING EARTHEN JARs.-.Joseph H. Baddeley, Greensboro, Pa.-This invention consists in the employment of a molding jar, wherein the clayis molded to the required exterior form, and in the em. ployment therewith of a tool adapted to shape the interior of the jar, and to form the channel forthe cover; also, in an arrangement of the support of the said toolfor holding it while turning, and for removing it from the finishedjar, for the removal of the latter from the lathe. SECURING TYPE IN FoRMs.-Samu'el Anderson and'Thomas J. Folan, Stapleton, N. Y.—This invention relates to improvements in means for securing type in forms irregularly for fancy printing, and it consists in accomplishing the same by casting plaster of paris or other similar substance while in a plastic state, around the same when arranged in the order required, which solidifying no.Gs the tvne sufficiently for the work required, and which may be readily broken up ana separated from the type when they are to be changed. BACK STRAPS FOR HAMES.—Charles Drew, Newark, .N. J.-This invention relates to improvements in the construction of back straps of harnesses for horses and other animals, and has for its object to provide an improved manner of attaching the binding for the same. ENDLESS CHAIN WATER WHEEL.-H. S. Stewart, Yreka, Cal.-This invention has for its object to furnish an improved water wheel, which shall b,. so constructed as to utilize a much larger proportion of the power of the water than can be done with water wheels constructed in the ordinary manner; and which shall also be so constructed that it may be taken apart and transported from place to place as required. FIRE SHovEL.-John Fox, New York city.—This invention has for its object to furnish an improved shovel, so constructed that it maybemade with one blow,instead ofits being necessary to strike it several times before it is brought to theproper shape, as is the case when the shovels are made in the ordinary manner, and which shall, at the same time, be a stronger and better shovel. SASH FASTENING.—Samuel Reed, Rising Sun, Md.—This invention has for its object to furnish an improved wire saw sash fastening, by means of which the sash may be fastened, closed, or opened to any desired extent, either at the top or bottom, or both, and which shall be simple in construction and effective in operation. GANG PLOW.—James B. Hunter, Ashley, Hl.-This invention has for its object to furnish an improved gang plow, simple in construction, effective in operation, and adjustedfor larger or smaller plows, as the character of the plowing may require. CAR STARTER.-T. S. E. Dixon, Janesville, Wis.-This invention has for its object to furnish an improved device for attachment to horse cars, and other wheeled vehicles, by the use of which the power will be first applied to revolve the wheels of the vehicle, and thns start it with less effort than when the draft is applied directly to the body of the car. FURNACE FOR CONVERTING PIG IRON INTO STEEL AND FOR PURIFYING AND OXIDIZING OTHER METALS AND MiNERALs.—Alois Thoma, New Yorkcity.-This invention has forits object the construction of a converting furnace, which allows a continuous operation, and in which, therefore, a much larger quantity of material can be treated in a given time, than can be done in those furnaces which require removal of old contents before the new can be put in. ORGAN STOP HANDLE.—William Boyrer, New York city.-This invention has for its object to so construct the handles of organ stops, that the notices painted or printed upon the same. can be readily seen by the organist. MACHINE FOR SHAPING BOOT AND SHOE SOLFS.—S. D. Tripp, Lynn, Mass. —This invention comprises a method of compression, by rollijtg the soles between a last and former of peculiar construction, specially adapted for action upon all parts of the soles, whether of uniform o;- varying thickness. CHURN.-C. J. Miller, Jr., Richmond, Ky.-This invention relates to _ a new churn, which is so constructed that it will serve to produce butter with great rapidity and without loss of cream. The invention consists tn 'the use © 1869 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC NOVEMBER 27, 1869.] 849 of a fluted churn, and In the construction of the bame with a peculiar double winged dasher. MAC^^E FOR BRANCHING ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS.—Ambrose Giraudat, New York city.—This invention relates to a new machine for securing branches, leaves, flowers, or other ornaments, to the stems of artificial flowers by means of two layers ofthreads applied to the wire stem. The small stems ofthe said branches, leaves, or flowers, are secured between the two layers ofthreads, ofwhich the upper one is wound, in one or more threads, closely around the main stem. BENCH VISE.-O. H. Gardner, Fulton, N. Y.-Thisinvention consists in so shaping the shank of the rear jaw of a vise, that its lower pivot is in line with the center of the upper clamping plate, so that the said jaw willwork on a center and not bethrown off the bench. The invention also consists In so shaping the shank of the front jaw, that the center of its ball will be in line with the face of the jaw, for the purpose of obtaining greater accuracy of motion. PENCIL AND RUBBER HOLDER.—J. A. Kemmis, New Orleans, La.-This invention relates to improvements in cases for holding pencils and rubbers, designed to provide a convenient article for carrying in the pockets and for use. It consists in a peculiar arrangement of sliding spring pencil holder and spring rubber holder within a tubular case. REAPING MACHINE.—Robert Morris, Salem, Ind.—This invention relates to improvements in reaping machines, having for its object to provide a simple and improved afrangement of means for obtaining the motion for the cutter bar ; also an improved arrangement of means for raking and delivering the gavels; also, an improved arrangement- for suspending the apron and cutter bar from tne frame of the machine, so as to dispense with the wheels comnionly applied at the outer side of the apron . HOEING MACHINE.—H. “Y. Clapp, Northampton, Mass.—This invention oiisis1s,first,inanarrangementuponatruck of two or more wheels, of wo o' more hoes or spades moving to and from the row, as the machine II <>ves along by motion derived from the truck wheels, so as to scrap® or oe the earth up to the roots of the plants, the said spades or hoes being a used above the ground when moving away from the plants, and down into contact with it when moving up towards it. 'The invention consists, secondly, ia the combination with the said hoes or spades, ot a shield for gathering the tops of the plants and holding them up, so asnot to be covered or injured by the hoes. Tilis invention consists, thirdly, in the combination of the said hoes ofcultivators, arranged to operate in the ordinary way, and provided with means for raising and lowering them ; also for guiding one pair of the said cultivators, which run close to the plants, laterally by the feet, and it consists. fourthly, in certain arrangements of parts for working, guiding, and acljusting the spades and cultivators. HAND-SPINNING MACH ;l'E.-James Rice, Prairie Creek, Ind.-The object of this inventil'Jn. is to provide a hand-spinning machine, which may be readily acljusted as to hight, so thatthe operator may work it when either standing or sitting. It is also arranged by inclosing the gearing in a case for safety ane for a better appearanc e. COTTON CULTIVATOR.—R. I. Draughon, Claiborne, Ala.—This invention consists ofa pair ot rotary cutters for working on each side ofthe row,and another rotary cutter for working transversely thereto, for chopping out the plants at intervals ; the said rotary cutters being suspended from a frame on two wheels by vibrating supporting frames, having means for raising or lowering them, as required, and deriving rotary motion from the axle of the said two wheels ; they are also arranged for adjustment obliquely for discharging the earth directlybehind or laterally. CRANK, AXLE, AND TREADLE FOR VELOciPEDE.—McVlintock Young, Frederick, Maryland.-This invention relates to.a new manner of constructing treadles for velocipede cranks,, with an object of making them both light and reliable, as well as of cheap construction, and to a novel construction of erank axle and crank to enable the latter to be formed on the former, PRESS FOB MOLDING BOOT AND SHOE SOLES.-S. D. Tripp, Lynn, Mass.- This invention relates to a machine for molding or forming the soles of boots and shoes so that they sliall correspond in shape with the last. VELOCiPEDE.-George Louden, Brooklyn, N. Y.—This invention relates to II new and useful improvement in velocipedes, and consists in the method of applying the power for driving it. EXPLOSIVE pROJECTiLE.—John Jobson, Derby, England.—The object of this invention is to admit of the head, or fore end or part of the projectile being split or broken up into a number of definite forms or parts, and to facilitate the separation and distribution of parts composing the cylindrical or parallel portion or body of the projectile. CRANK FOR HARVESTERS.—H. L. Wanzer, Lanesville, Conn.—The object of this invention is to furnish means for varying the velocity of the cutters of harvesters to accommodate the machine to the nature of the work and speed of the team; and also to compensate for the wearing away of the knives by grinding. ELECTRO-MAGIET.—W. E. Davis, Jersey City, N. J.-The object of this invention is to so construct the spools or cores of electro-magnets by a new system of winding the wires around them, that the electric current will move rapidly, and uniformly enter both spools, and thereby produce a more decisive action upon the same and the armature. DITCHING MACHINE .-Henry Benett, Linden, Cal.-This invention consists of a large drum, having two end rims united by steelor other bars, suitable for Gutters, arranged parallel with the shaft and pitched slightly out ofthe radial lines,between which are followers which recede and permit the cutters to settle into the earth to fill the spaces between them, and are thenforced out to disoharge the earth after it has been carried up by the Wheel against a scraper following in the rear, and serving asaguide to pre- ventthe discharge, until the earth has been carried to the proper point t o be delivered to an elevating and spouting apparatus, which the invention also comprises. ENVBLOPES.-F. W. Eberman, West Salem, Ill.—This invention consists In making the flap, which is folded over on the body part in sealing, of two thicknesses, either by folding the edges of the flap, (intended for the purpose) over on itself, or by pasting other narrow strips thereon, and arranging the paste on the flap or the other part, so that it will be pasted down to the body part, at some distance from the edge of the flap, leaving a narrow strip of the outer edge free to be taken hold of by the thumb and finger for tearing open, the two thicknesses thus formed rendering the paper strong enough to overcome the a-dhesion of the paste. In some cases it is proposed, When the additional thickness of paper is to be formed by pasting on strips, to attach the said strips to the body- of the envelope, and to seal the edge of the flap to the strips. BISCUIT PANS.—J. C. Milligan, Brooklyn, N. Y.—This invention relates to an improved mode of uniting small biscuit pans together in clusters, lind consists in providing the said pans with horizontal flanges around the top, and joining them together in rows, lapping the flanges and riveting them, joining two or more rows together in right lines, in both directions, or in zigzag lines, as may be preferred. The invention also consists in binding the whole together by wires or other bars, extending around or along the sides of the clusters, at the outer edges of the outer pans, and turning the edges of the flanges over them. STEAM CUT-OFF.-H. Lombard, San Francisco, Cal.—This invention consists of a hollow conical or tapered valve, receiving the steam at one end, and delivering it at one side to ports in a circular tapered seat, leading to the cylinder, and exhausting through the other side from the same ports, and at the end opposite the receiving end, which valve is provided with a eentral auxiliary valve connected with the governor, and operating to vary the opening of the live steam passage; also to separate the passage of the said valve longitudinally to form the live steam and exhaust passages. PLOWS.—W.K. Pool, Havannp,Ala.—This invention relates to an improved method of fastening plows detachably .to the stocks, for the purpose of changing them forplows or shares of different shapes and kinds for different kinds of work.