Army Aeroplanes in France THE question of organizing an aeroplane service or the army is occupying much attention in france at present, specially in view of the coming military maneuvers which will take place in the fall. M. Messimy, the new Minister of War, is taking active measures to make use of aeroplanes in the best possible way. The maneuvers will no doubt bring out many useful points, and at the same time will give some further data for organizing an aeroplane corps for the army. Steps are already being taken to do this. One plan is to have a reserve aeroplane corps which does not belong to the active army, but can be called into requisition when it is needed. Last year a number of pilots were called upon for an aeroplane service in this way, among others Latham, who then resumed his army position of lieutenant, and Breguet and other pilots acted in t1e same way. This year will see a greater number of well known pilots who have made their records within a recent time, among others Vedrines, and they will take part in various operations during the maneuvers. In principle, the Iilots go through their annual period of 28 days which is required of all private citizens up to a certain age. They will therefore not receive any money compensation, but will be rewarded by honorary distinctions or rise in grade. It will be remembered that Latham, Leblanc and others already received decorations owing to their performances in the military servic8. A point to be considered is how to recruit the aeroplanes themselves. The Minister considered at first that this could be done by having one or several aeroplanes kept in hand by each constructor so that they ( ould be called upon for use in tb^e army in case of need, and the constructor would also furnish the pilot, receiving an annual premium of $1,000 for the aeroplane. However, this plan has its drawbacks, as we fnd that aeroplanes are being quickly improved at present, and they would likely be out of date very soon. This reason led to considering another plan, that is, a requisition of the aeroplanes from their owners, such as has already been decided upon for automobiles, and as each citizen is already considered as nominally belonging to the army, it is natural that he should bring his machine into service at the same time bould this be needed. At all events, whatever may e the plan adopted, it is certain that active measures will be taken to organize the aeroplane corps. On the other hand, the Navy Department is taking steps in. the same direction. M. DeJcasse, the new Minister of the Marine, considers it best to take the pilots which are trained by the War Department in its various establishments, in order to avoid multiplying the number of training grounds. The Nayy Department will then proceed to purchase the aeroplanes which ' it needs. Commandant Daveluy, a prominent naval officer, is already appointed as chief of the aeroplane service, and he formerly distinguished himself by his treatises on naval tactics. The headquarters will be at the naval port of Toulon where is stationed the Mediterranean feet, and aeroplane grounds have been already laid out near the naval docks. We already mentioned that aeroplanes are to be one of the features of the next naval maneuvers, and they will be used in connection with battleships and submarines. Now that Aubrun found that he could sight a submarine when under water, this will no doubt be made one of the features of the maneuvers, and some interesting results may therefore De expected. An International Aero Map By Our Paris Correspondent WITH the modern progress of aeronautics, and especially with the coming of the aeroplane, the need <of specially adapted maps to serve as a guide to airmen has become strongly felt. What is wanted is Essentially a ciear and thoroughly readable map from which the pilot can gather everything he needs, while all unnecessary and confusing detail is omitted. This, however, is not enough. We must have large conspicuous signals laid down on the ground and on the roofs of buildings. Prof. Alphonse Berget, the noted Paris scientist, the head of the department of Physical Geography at the University, gives the following account of the recent meeting of the delegates of the International Aeronautic Federation, which assembled at Brussels to discuss these questions. The chair was taken by Prince Roland Bonaparte and all the leading countries wefoe represented. America sent Mr. Edgar \. Mix; the German representatives were Mr. IHiedemani of Cologn, and Dr. Berson, the holder of the worlds altitude record, Commandant Von Frankenburg and others. The Austrian delegates were Commt. Th. Scheimpflug and Dr. Peucker of Vienna. Belgium was represented by Col. Jeanne, Mr. l. Jacobs, President of the Aero Club, and others. Among the French representatives were, in addition to the chairman, Prof. Berget, Mr. Serven and others. It was decided from the beginning to deal separately with the two questions of the map and the ground signals, equal importance being attached to each. The subject of the .map was taken up first, and, thanks to the friendly feelings and unity of views which prevailed at the meeting, excellent progress was made. It was decided that each country should prepare an aeronautic map upon a standard scale of 1: 200,000, and further that the map of each country should be sub-divided and cut up into small sections correspond- The Paris sub-section showing the method of designating the sectional parts. ing to degrees of latitude and longitude. The longitudes are numbered from the Greenwich meridian and the latitudes from the equator. The French map will be drawn up along the general lines laid down by Commt. Talon. This method has been adopted by the Aero Club on account of its great clearness, after consultation with some of the leading experts. France will be divided into 75 sub-sheets, each measuring 16 x 24 inches. These sheets will be laid out according to the poly-conic projection method previously adopted for the 1:100,000 map of the Department of the Interior and also for the world map. To facilitate the proper assembling of the sub-sheets, they will be grouped together in a large rectangle, and each rectangle will be indicated by two letters. A capitai letter denotes the longitude. The letter “A,” for instance, includes the section lying General view of aero-map of France. between the meridian at Greenwich and 8 degrees east longitude. The small letter on each sheet refers to latitude, one sheet taking in five degrees. Thus, for example, the sheet “A I” takes in the greater part of France and includes a numor of sub-sheets. All the sub-sheets bear the letters “A 1.” The main sheet is divided into seventy-five sub-sheets, each in- eluding one degree of longitude and fve degrees -01 latitude and carrying at the bottom a number from 1 to 15 for longitude and at the side a number from 1 to 5 for latitude. Thus the sub"sheet upon which the city of Paris shows is designated A 1 03.4. It is these sub-sheets, measuring 16 x 24 inches, which the aeronaut will carry with him on board. Each country is to draw up its own maps with reference to this general plan, but is at liberty to choose its own method of indicating the details, except that electric power lines will be shown by lines of red crosses. As regards the second point under discussion, nanlfly, the ground signals, it was decided that the matter could not be properly dealt with until more experier_ce had been gained with diferent kinds of signals. Submarines and Aeroplanes .SOME very interesting experiments have just been carried out in Cherbourg, to test the capabiliti.3s of an aeroplane in detecting and locating submarine craft. The aviator who few the machine in these tests was Aubrun, the well-known champion, who volunteered to give his service;, saying that he was convinced that he could sight a submarine even when submerged at some depth from the water. The machine he used was a Deperdussin. A series of experiments was organized in which two torpedo boats and two submarines took part, as well as a steam tug designed to take the aeroplane. All the trials took place on one day, with a light wind and calm sea, and comprised two diferent sets of experiments. In the frst set, the aviator was told the approximate location of the submarines. Aubrun had no difculty whatever in locating the frst submarine, which was partly out of the water. On the approach of the aeroplane it plunged and disappeared. The aviator then went in search of ti seconu submarine and located it under water at a distance of about two miles from the frst. During these trials, which took place about three miles out at sea, Aubrun rose frst to 500 feet and then few at a. thousand to twelve hundred feet. The second tria was more difficult, but lead to complete success. In this case no indication whatever was given as to the location of the submarines, which were submerged under water. Aubrun made a fresh start from the rround and then rose to a height of about one thousand feet, sailing in large circles ,of 1,500 to 1,800 feet diameter over the sea. The sun was very low by this time, making it harder to view the sea bottom. Before long Aubrun discovered the light refected from a periscope, and after that it was a comparatively easy matter to locate the submarine, which appeared as a black mass moving at ahout 20 feet depth. Auburn then returned to the ground after having been up about 20 minutes. It .appears to be now heyond question {that an aeroplane fying as high as 3,000 feet from the earth can detect a submarine, while on the other hand the periscope of a submarine will not give a recognizable image of a fying machine at more than 1,500 feet. However, it is not altogether an easy matter to locate a submarine when the aeroplane is flying high, and the pilot must be specially trained for this work. In view of the very favorable results obtained so far it is intended to continue the trials which have been begun. For the purpose of locating submarines and torpedo boats probably a rather slow aeroplane flying at about 50 miles an hour is quite sufficient. On the other hand for scouting purposes a very rapid flyer is needed. What is particularly wanted at the present juncture is a set of maneuvers in searching for submarines lying at a depth of 60 to 100 feet under water, the aeroplane flying at different heights, and und,] conditions both of still water and rough seas. Floating mines also are to be searched for, and combined maneuvers, in which battleships, torpedoes, submarines and aeroplanes take part should form part of the programme. When the aviator has discovered a submarine, he discloses its location to a torpedo boat by dropping a buoy into the water. The Population of London AOCORDING to the latest census returns for the administrative county of London, the total population for Greater London is 7,252,963. The area of the administrative county of London is 116.8 square miles. The area of Greater London, which includes all parishes within 11 miles of Charing Cross, is 693 square miles. In 1910, the five boroughs of New York boasted of 4.776,883, although the population is now estimated at more than five million.