THEhandling of waste materials and refuse from a great city is a vast problem. When it is understood that New York city must dispose of at least 6,000,000 tons a year, or almost 20,000 tons per day, and that all or, nearly all of this material must be transported to -sea and dumped in not less than twelve fathoms or 72 feet of water, which means a tow of from 22 to 25 miles from the Battery, some idea will be gained of the magnitude of the undertaking. At the present time and for a number of years in the future there will be added to this a vast quantity of excavation resulting from subways. While a considerable portion of this material is transported within the harbor limits and used for solid fill in reclaiming waste land and shallow water, all of it will haye to be transported on some kind of water craft. At the present time there are only two classes of vessels handling this material—the ordinary deck scow carrying the material upon the flat deck, from which it is unloaded either by hand or mechanical device, usually a grab bucket, and the so - cal 1 e d dump scow or bottom dumper, constructed with certain pockets or openings through the center which are closed b y swinging doors in the bottom, retained in place by chains and mechanical devices. Into these pockets the material to be transported is delivered, and when the scow has been removed to sea or to some other part of the harbor where the material is to be used, the gates a r e opened and the material deli v-ered through the bottom. While each of these devices is particularly fitted to do the work for which it was designed, neither can do the work of the other. The unloading of the deck scow is a slow and tedious matter, either by hand or with mechanical d e vi c e, and it is practically impossible to unload the dump scow otherwise than through the bottom. The dump scow is further handicapped by not being able to handle certain material, such as earth containing more than ten per cent of rock or mixed with boards, timbers or other refuse, which would either bridge across the openings when the bottom doors are opened or fail to leave the scow through the bottom, due to entanglement or a tendency to float. The bottom dumper is further handicapped by the fact that if loaded in very cold weather, the bottom layers will freeze and the whole mass gradually assume such a condition as to be immovable until warm weather returns, or, as a last resort, by the use of dynamite, which will more often destroy the scow and render it useless without extensive repair. The reluctance of the bottom dumper to deliver all of its material through the bottom, has given rise to the practice of the towing captains called “bumping,” which means, after the' gates have been opened and the material refuses to leave, the tug is used as a battering ram, repeatedly butting into or bumping against the scow to dislodge the reluctant material. As the unloading usually occurs at night and far but at sea, often in heavy weather, and as the captain dislikes very much to return to port with half a cargo, the practice often results in discharging some of it through the hole made by the tug. Besides the work of handling refuse from cities, there is a vast amount of work in handling rock for breakwaters in making new harbors and improving old ones. The craft herewith illustrated is intended to retain the deck-loading feature of the ordinary deck scow and to make possible a very much superior and more certain means of unloading. In other words, the material is loaded on the deck in the ordinary manner and towed to any place within the harbor, and the material removed by mechanical means from the deck; or it may be towed to sea, when, by the manipulation of certain valves from the interior, it will turn completely over, depositing material positively and quickly and with every assurance that none of the load will be brought back. By referring to the drawings it will be seen that the scow is practically rectangular in cross-section, with rounded ends. As it is intended to work either NEW TYPE OF SELF-DUMPING SCOW side up, the bow is required to be vertical. The interior is divided by four longitudinal watertight bulkheads, one near each bow, extending from the bottom to the top of the scow, and two intermediate bulkheads extending between two false bottoms which are located from six to nine inches above the light draught water line of the scow. The scow is framed longitudinally with heavy trusses on four feet centers, well braced diagonally and secured vertically with tie rods. The framing is of exceptionally heavy scantling throughout, well braced and stiffened with knees and breast hooks at bow and stern. The larger drawing shows the operating machinery. Considering the scow as loaded down to full load line with two feet freeboard, the operating wheel in the drum is turned, and through the transmission mechanism the valves are opened, admitting water to the space between the two false bottoms. This water, being free to flow from side to side, gathers at one side and gradually lists the scow until it assumes the position shown in the third of the smaller engravings, where it has about reached the point of unstable equilibrium. The continued entrance of the water causes the scow to gradually turn up on edge. and finally fall over to the position shown in the fourth of the small engravings, finally coming to rest in the reversed position. There are valves or openings near the top and bottom of each compartment. All these valves are opened at the same time, the upper valves, when the scow is loaded, allowing the air to escape as the water enters at the lower openings. When the scow has reversed itself, the water which has entered will run out through the lower openings, due to the fact that the reserve buoyancy below the false bottom is sufficient to raise the bottom or deck six or eight inches above the light water line, after which the valves may be left open and closed at any time before the scow is reloaded. Perhaps the most novel feature of this scow is the arrangement by which it is possible for the operator to remain within the scow while it is being reversed; and it was, of course, a matter of great interest as to how rapidly the scow would turn. Repeated timing has shown that from the time the valves are opened until the scow assumes the vertical position o n edge, fifteen seconds elapse, As the drum is 8 feet in diameter, during this time. the operator has to move one quarter of the revolution or 6 feet, and while the remaining quarter turn is completed in from two to three seconds, the operator travels another 6 feet around the circumference of the drum, steadying himself by grasping the central spindle abo u t which the operating wheel turns. The whole turning movement is surprisingly slow and deliberate. Severe Hailstorms THE destructive effects of large hailstones are most frequently experienced in subtropical r e-gions at a considerable altitude above sea-level. Some of the most severe hailstorms have occurred in India. At Belgium, December 22nd, 1884, 12 persons were killed, 78 injured, and 170 head of cattle and 560 sheep destroyed by hail. In the State of Bhor, October 5th, 1893, the hail covered the ground to the depth of 4 to 6 feet; 6 persons were buried beneath it and perished, while 835 head of cattle were killed. The most severe of these visitations occurred May 1st, 1888, when in the Moradabad district alone about 250 persons perished. In the United States one of the worst storms of this character occurred September 5th, 1898, in Nodoway County, Missouri. The path of the storm was about three miles wide and eighteen miles long, its greatest violence being felt over a region of four square miles east of Clarmont. At one point in this region the fall of hail was so heavy that a drift unprotected by any artificial means remained lying on the ground for four weeks after the storm. At the end of that time people in the neighborhood were found gathering the hail for the purpose of making ice cream. During the storm cylindrical pieces of ice were picked up four inches long by about two and a ha'f in diameter. The growing corn was practically all destroyed; in a field of eighty acres only one stalk was left standing.
This article was originally published with the title "Self-dumping and Automatic Baling Scow"