At Modena, in Italy, within a circle of four miles around the city, whenever the earth is dug and the workmen arrive at the distance of sixty-three feet, they come to a bed ot chalk, which they bore with an auger, five feet deep. They then withdraw from the pit before the auger is removed, and upon its refraction the water bursts up with great violence, and quickly fills the well thus made, the supply of water being neither affected by rains or droughts. At the depth of fourteen feet are found the ruins of an ancient city,— houses, paved streets, and masonic work. Below this again is a layer of earth, and at twenty-six feet walnut trees are found entire, with leaves and walnuts upon them. At twenty-eight feet soft chalk is found, and below this vegetables and trees.