Building a detector the size of a 10-story building two kilometers underground is a strange way to study solar phenomena. Yet that has turned out to be the key to unlocking a decades-old puzzle about the physical processes occurring inside the sun. English physicist Arthur Eddington suggested as early as 1920 that nuclear fusion powered the sun, but efforts to confirm critical details of this idea in the 1960s ran into a stumbling block: experiments designed to detect a distinctive by-product of solar nuclear fusion reactions--ghostly particles called neutrinos--observed only a fraction of the expected number of them. It was not until 2002, with the results from the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Ontario, that physicists resolved this conundrum and thereby fully confirmed Eddington's proposal.