The vise is a tool of such universal application that no mechanic can do without it. The improvement shown in our engraving is intended to serve better in general work than the old hand vise, and has some special adaptations impossible to the old one. Having parallel faced jaws, it takes a good hold of the work and gripes it securely with but little strain on the thumbscrew. But the main feature of peculiarity is its shank, around which a dotted line in the engraving shows the foTm of a wooden handle very convenient in filing a rol]. ing piece. This handle may be slipped off and the shank inserted in a half-inch hole in the bench, when it becomes a neat permanent vise for light work. This shank is turned round, with parallel sides to fit lathe chucks, and is also ta" pored at the end to fit the bit stock. In the upper end of the shank is a deop countersink, and central with it is a vertical groove in the face of the jaws, by which arrangement twist drills, and all tools with regular shaped shanks, are held firmly and perfectly coincident with the axis of revolution as the jaws are moved by a right-and-left thread so that they move equally to and from the center. So this tool has not only the many uses of a perfect hand vise, and light bench vise, hut serves all the purposes of a drill chuck, at one third its cost. It supplies a great need long felt by mechanics and amateurs, by serving to hold, either in lathe or bit stock, all sizes and shapes of shanks, from three-quarter inch down to the smallest shanks employed. We have often called the attention of those wishing to engage in manufacturing, to the large profit derived from the production and sale of light staple articles, the parts of which may be duplicated by machinery. From its many uses and perfect adaptation, we think the vise herein described and illustrated cannot fail to recommend itself. Further information to any one wishing to purchase the entire right of the United States may be had by addressing the inventor, W. X. Stevens, of East Brookfield, Mass., to whom a patent was granted Sept. 28, 1869. making; Foundations In Marshes. A new process of making foundations for bridges in marshy soils has, according to the Railway Times, been recently used on a branch line of the Charentes Railway Company, in France. This line crosses a peat valley to thejunction of two small rivers ; the thickness of peat was so great that any attempt to reach the solid ground would have been very expensive. In order to obtain cheaply a good support for the bridge, two large masses of ballast, accurately rammed, were made on each bank of the river, and a third one on the peninsula between the two. The slopes of these heaps were pitched with dry stones, for preventing the sand from being washed away by the rain or by the floods in the rivers. Over the ballast a timber platform is laid ; thiB platform carries the girders of the bridge, which has two spans of about 60 feet each. When some sinking down takes place, the girders are easily kept to the proper level by packing the ballast under the timber platform ; this packing is made by the plate layers with their ordinary tools. This simple and cheap process has succeeded quite well. The same difficulty was overcome by a diff erent plan on an ordinary road near Algiers. This road crosses a peaty plain nearly one mile broad ; the floods and elasticity of the ground prevented the formation of an embankment. The road was to be carried over a viaduct across the valley, but the foundations of this viaduct presented serious difficulties); the thickness of peat or of compressible ground being nearly 80 feet. It was quite possible to reach the solid ground with cast iron Vbes sunk.with compressed air, or with any other system, but neither the implements nor the suitable workmen were available in the colony, and it was a great expense to bring them, and especially the workmen, from France. The use of timber piling was of course out of the question, as timber is very expensive in Algiers, and quickly becomes rotten ; but there was a set of boring implements with the men used to work it. The engineers began boring holes 10 in. in diameter down to the solid ground. These holes, lined with thin plate iron pipes, were afterward filled with concrete up to the level of the ground. Each of these concrete columns bear a cast iron column ; these columns are properly braced together and support the girders of the viaduct, which is divided into spans of about 20 feet, and is 20 feet high over the ground. I This system has succeeded very well, and is to be extended to another large valley.
This article was originally published with the title "Stevens' Patent Hand Vise"