THE work of up buiIding our modern navy goes on apace. Although the progress is not as rapid as some of us could wish, in quality we are more than holding our own; for what we lack in numbers we gain in gun power and in the high quality of the personnel. We present an illustration of the latest of our dreadnoughts, the “Utah,” which, with her sister ship, the “Florida” now approaching completion at the New York Navy Yard, represents an advance, in many important particulars, on the “Delaware” and “North Dakota” The illustration is from a photograph taken during the recent speed trials of the “Utah” over the Government course at Rockland, when she con-sid3rably exceeded her contract speed of 20.75 knots, the maximum average speed being 21.8 knots. The “Utah” was authorized by Congress on May 13th, 1908. The contract for her construction was let-to the New York Shipbuilding Company at Camden, N. J., on November 24th, 1908. Her keel was laid March 15th, 1909. She was launched December 23rd of the same year, and the contract date for her completion was July 24th, 1911. She will probably be delivered over to the Government early in August. It will be noticed that in her general appearance she conforms closely to the “Delaware” and “North Dakota,” having two cage masts, two funnels, and mounting ten 12-inch guns in fve turrets placed on the longitudinal center line. Two of the turrets are placed forward of the conning tower, the guns of the after turret firing above the forward turret, the ship being thus able to fire four 12-ineh guns dead ahead and through a wide arc of training on either beam. The three remaining turrets are placed aft of the mainmast, the foremost of these three being carried to an elevation sufficiently higher than the after two turrets to enable its pair of guns to fire above their roofs, thus giving a concentration dead astern and through a wide arc of training on each beam of four 12-inch guns. Because of the center line position of all the turrets, the whole battery can be trained through an unusually wide arc on either beam of the vessel. The “Utah” is 521¥ feet in length over all, or about 3 feet longer than the “Delaware,” and she exceeds that ship in beam by 3 feet, the “De.]aware” being 85 feet 2¥ inches broad, and the “Utah” 88 feet 2% inches. She also draws about a foot and a half more water at her mean draft, which is 28 feet 6 inches. As the result of this enlargement, her displacement at normal draft, when she is carrying two-thirds of the full supply of stores and fuel, and a full supply of ammunition, is 21,825 tons, as compared with 20,000 tons displacement of the “Delaware” when she is carrying two-thirds of her full supply of ammunition and stores. When fully loaded her displacement is 23,033 tons. The “Utah” is driven by Parsons turbines whose powe. is delivered to four propellers. The contract called for a speed of 20.75 knots, with 28,000 horsepower, but on trial, as we have seen, she exceeded this by fully one knot. Her bunker capacity is 2,500 tons of coal, exclusive of 400 tons of oil fuel. The defensive elements of the “Utah” are unusually complete. The main belt is 7 feet 111h inches wide, extends 6 feet 6 inches below the water line, has a thickness at the top of 11 inches, and at the bottom of 9 inches. The upper belt, which extends to the gun deck, has a thickness of 10 inches at the bottom and 8 inches at the top. The casemate armor is 6% inches in thickness, and it is associated with l¥-inch splinter bulkheads. The barbettes are protected by 11 inches, and the turrets by 12-inch front and 8-inch side armor. The battery consists of ten 50·caliber, 12-inch guns, and sixteen 5-inch, 50-caliber guns for protection against torpedo boat destroyers and torpedo boats. There are two submerged torpedo tubes, for the discharge of the new high·speed 21-inch torpedo, which has an effective range of over 4,000 yards. An important feature in these shins is the good commawl of the guns, due to the sufficient freeboard of the ship. Forward, the freeboard of the “Utah” is about 2G feet, and aft about 18 feet. The guns of the foremost turrets are about 31 feet above the water, turret Ko. 2 about 38 feet, turret No. 3 about 29 feet, and turrets Nos. 4 and 5 about 23 feet above the water. When the “Utah” goes into commission she will be in command of Capt. W. S. Benson. Pigments from Odd Sources THE ingenuity of the manufadurers of pigments for the use of artists has been so severely taxed within recent years that they have been obliged to employ for. the purpose all manner of animal, vegetable and mineral substances. Even Egyptian mummies have been utilized in this way by the manufacturers. It appears that the corpse of the old Egyptian was preserved in the finest bitumen, and that the remains thus treated in the centuries gone present, on being unwrapped to-day, an appearance quite like that of light-colored leather. Now it has been discovered that, when the bitumen and the leather-like remains are ground down by machinery, there is obtained therefrom a beautiful brown pigment, especially prized by painters of portraits, who claim that this pigment is parUcularly effective in depicting cer, shades of brown hair. Among the other colors obtained from .strange sources may be mentioned Prussian blue. This is made by fusing the hoofs of horses with impure potassium carbonate. Sepia is the dark fluid discharged by the cuttlefish to render the water opaque for its own concealment when attacked by its (memies. The cochineal insect furnishes crimson and purple lake and carmine; while ultramarine is procured from the precious metal Imown as lapis lazuli. Raw sienna is natural earth from Sienna, and, when burnt, bfcomes burnt Sienna, Gamboge Is the yellow sap of a tree that grows in Siam.
This article was originally published with the title "The Battleship “Utah”"