The most important departments in this exhibition are, 0r were at the time this article was penned, still incomplete. The only machine running was Baxter's portable engine illustrated on page 363, last volume of the which was attracting much observation. In fact it may be set up and put to running with as little trouble as a parlor stove, and needs scarcely more attention. Owing to the still chaotic state of the machinery department we are obliged to defer a detailed notice of the machinery, of which there will be a much more extended display than has ever before been brought together at a Fair of the American Institute. We are, however, enabled, partly from personal observation and partly through the assistance of Erastus B. Bigelow:. Esq., President of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, also President of the Bige- 1 ow Carpet and the i nventor of the power carpet looms, and other important improvements in woolen machinery, to furnish some facts reMing to the held by the above Association under the auspices of the American Institute. The object of this exposition, as announced in the Bulletin of the Association for January, is to show to the country “ the extent, variety, and development ofthe American wool industry, and the support which it affords to other departments of productionto make known to the American people their dependence upon their own productions, and serve to create that public sentiment in favor of the products of our own soti and labor, which is indispensable to the proper' success of our manufactures, and which, at the same time, will, by emulation and example, elevate the standard of this industry and its dependencies.” It was desired ly the Association to make the exposition eminently national, and to this end they asked for “ the co-oporat. of persons engaged in all the departments of the wool industry North and South, East and West; of those not concerned with the Association , as well as its members ; of producers in all the industries and arts, directly auxiliary to the wool industry; of manufacturers of fabrics of every description, composed wholly or in part of wool, and of made-up articles from such fabrics ; the growers of raw material; the manufacturers of dyes and chemicals, and furnishers of supplies of all kinds for this industry ; and the makers of machinery of every description, used di- © 1869 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. rectly in the manufacture of woolen or worsted fabrics;” in fine, the committee hoped “ to see displayed at this exposition every natural or artificial product directly contributing to, or resulting from the American wool industry, and all such instruments of production as are applicable thereto." So fcr the exhibition of machinery, raw materials, chemi- cals,and general supplies forthe wool industry, is very meager. Such machines as are present will be noticed hereafter with other machinery when power is supplied to put them in operation. The committee may, however, congratulate themselves on the DISPLAY OV FABRICS, which is undoubtedly a finer representation of the present condition of the wool industry in the United States than was hoped for by the most sanguine. We wish the advocates of free trade might ask themselves, while looking at this splendid collectionexhibiting as it does immense success achieved against countless difficultieswhether victory must now be turned into ignominious defeat, by withdrawing from the American manufactures that protection through which they alone can exist? We wish they would ask themselves, even admitting the truth of their repeated assertions that protection is enriching the American capitalist at the expense of the American consumer* whether it is better to enrich BRITISH CAPITALISTS at the expense of American consumers, than to keep the profits of this trade in 001' own commonwealth. The wool industry in this country is now only fairly prosperous. That is the whole truth in regard to this matter. Money invested in it pays no more profit than would be entirely within the margin considered as perfectly legitimate in other lines of trade. Those who croak about huge monopolies increasing the wealth of the rich at the expense of the poor, are many of them making far larger profits upon capital invested, than woolen or iron manufacturers can average by the exercise of the sev3rest economy, and the use of the ' most approved appliances in the production of these staples ; and a large majority of those croakers are men, who are either immediately engaged in the importation of foreign goods, or are, directly or indirectly, interested in such importations. We trust this fine display of American woolen goods will convincc many hitherto wavering on the tariff question, that such protectioj^as we advocate (not prohibition, as the apostles of froo trcrae would make the public believe, but such protection as permits of fair competition with foreign manufactures) is absolutely necessary for such a development of our national resources as becomes a powerful and indepen. dent commonwealth. This exposition is also of the greatest importance for the reason that the fabrics exhibited are from the regular and general stock of tli'cl country. No prizes have been offered and competition has not stimulated the exhibitors to show better goods that they can average. We therefore see here, a genuine sample of the American wool industry with none of its defects covered and none of its merits exaggerated. One of the most interesting, if not the most important of the fabrics shown in this department is the AMERICAN BUNTING, manufactured under patent by the United States Bunting Co., Lowell, Maes. Our readers are well aware tIat the old style of bunting was made into flags by sewing strips of different colors together, and the stars or other devices were also stitched on, or inserted into material of a different color. The American bunting ie first woven like the old, but in dyeing tho stripes, stars, or other designs are colored in the piece so that no sowing is necessary. We are informed that flag- makers are universally adopting this bunting, and that no less than 3,000 yards per day are now made at the works of the company. To witliin a very short time all our flags were made of English bunting, so that even our national banner was a humiliating witness to our dependence upon the industry of other nations. American genius has, however, triumphed over the disabilities which involved su^ a necessity. Now the American flag may be made of American wool by American labor, and “long may it wave” over a land independent in deed as well as in name. Another most im portant line of goods on exhibition is AMERICAN CARPETS, among which the goods manufactured by the Bigelow Carpet Company are conspicuous for beauty of design and color as well as quality of tho textures. This company exhibits Brussels and Wilton carpets, and Wilton rugs and mats, the beauty of which will be acknowledged by all who see them. Tho manufacture of these goods is now well developed and fairly prosperous. Alexander Smith&Co., of Yonkers, Y., exhibit a line of Axminster carpets, which we regard as fillly equal to imported goods of the same class. There were, at the time of the present writing, as yet no tapestry carpets on exhibition, though the superintendent of the department, N. Kingsbury, Esq., informed us that there would be in a few days. This gentleman is an extensive American wool manuftcturer, and the success of this exhibition is largely due to his courteous and energetic supervision. The Hartford Carpet Co. exhibit samples of Brussels, which, however, do not, in our own opinion, properly represent the character and variety of the goods made by this firm, which sustain n,n excellent reputation. It is, however, due to this company to state that Brussels carpeting is only an incidental branch of manufacture with them, their worksbeing chief. ly devoted to the production of ingrains. The Lowell Manufacturing Co, exhibit tt .rich and choice display of two,ply mid three-ply ingrain carpets, which can- m- probaiiiy h«, «xe»ii«f!. 11,1'e- sotersiljt to ?b.s company but to the country. The same company exhibit a line of LASTINGS, a new and important article of manufacture in this country, and which, through the enterprise and perseverance of the company, has become well established. The same company also exhibit a first-class line of reps. There are only a few manufacturers who make this class of goofs in this country, of whom we believe this company ranks first. The manufacture of lastings may be said to have been literally created by the late tariff. It could not exist before the imposition of that tariff, and it now lives only through such protection. This material enters largely into the shoe m'lnu- facture, and is therefore of great importance. Every yard of it used in the country ought to be made in the Un4Ited States. The Crossley Co., of Bridgeport, Conn., exhibit PRINTED WOOLEN GOODS, consisting of crumb cloths, felt druggets, robes, linings, etc., etc., a fine showy line of goods, and very attrac'-ivo. The Lippet Woolen Co., of Woonsocket, R. {., astonished us by the great variety and exquisite quality and finish of the large variety of FANCY CASSIMERES they exhibit. The silk mixed goods produced by this firm are specially elegant, the silk used being made by Cheney Bros. , of Hartford ; these goods owe, therefore, nothing to foreign labor in their manufacture. Good goods of this kind are considered as difficult to produce ; though many establishments in America, are, we believe, producing goods that can be ranked with the original textures made at Elbeuf, in France, of which they are perfect imitations. As first class the goods of the Lippet Woolen Co. must be ranked, and nothing but prejudice could induce a preference for imported rather than these silk-mixed cassimeres. The Pacific Mills, of Lawrence, Mass., have, in our opinion, as fine a show-case of goods, and as tastefully arranged, as any tobe met with on the floor, consisting of MOUSSELINE DE LAINES AND WORSTED GOODS, a great variety, which we cannot particularly specify. The reputation of these manufacturers, always high, must inevitably gain by this display. If we mistake not this is the largest woolen manufacturing establishment ia, the United States, and its officers are most active and intelligent supporters of the cause of American industry as opposed to importation of foreign wares. The Washington Mills, of Lawrence, Mass., exhibit a beautiful line of WOHSTED POPLINS AND TARTANS in a great variety of styles. They also exhibit a fine class of Thibets, flannels, broadcloths, shawls, table-covers, cassimeres, etc., etc. This is one of the most extensive lines exhibited, and a fine example of American progress in the woolen industry. These poplins were never made in this country until last year. This company has also succeeded in producing the Scotch cassimeres in great variety and perfection. This is considered as one of the most important ofthe recent triumphs achieved in t'he card-wool industry of the United States. The Salisbury Mills are also represented by a fair l;ne of goods. We wore unable to obtain much information as to this company's manufactures, and this was the case also with several other establishments, having goods on exhibition not yet arranged and labeled. This must be our excuse for passing some meritorious displays without notice at this time. If We find it possible to again return to this interesting department we will endeavor to do them full justice. Scheppers Bros., of Philadelphia, exhibit a beautiful case of WORSTED DRESS GOODS AND ALPACA8. which cannot be excelled by any imported goods of the same class. These gentlemen came to this country from Germany, where they formerly conducted the same manufacture, being induced to come through the protection afforded by the tariff on manufactured woolen goods. This alone enables them to compete with foreign manufacturers, and its removal would compel them to abandon their business in this country. So it seems protection not only keeps money at home, but draws it from abroad. Free trade apostles will please take notice of this sig nificant fact. Upon this point the Btj^e/in of the Association, for July, remarks that “ the present, exodus of skilled workmen from the manufacturing towns of England to this country, so alarming to British employers, exhibits the European estimate of the rewards for labor offered under our protective system. Under this system we appropriate, not only workmen, but employers and establishments; we import, not merely people, but arts. Such an acquisition is truly, as Fuller styled the immigration of wool-spinners and weavers to England in the reign of Edward III., “ a treasury of foreigners.' ' It was thus that England was enriched from France, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and so France was enriched from Holland and Germany, in the time of Louis XV. The Scheppers Bros., in a letter to the New York Tribune, dated June 14, 1869, make the following statement of the reasons which iniluced. them to come to America, which is important as showing the light in which intelligent foreigners view the subject of protection in this country: “Believing that under the American policy of protection the finest silk- finish alpacas and poplins can be manufactured here cheaper and better than they can be imported, we have come here from Belgium to cast in with youto consume your wool, to employ your labor, and Lo supply you with home manufactures superior to the finest foreign.' ' Banendahl&Co., of N ew York city, exhibit many different grades of goods, from fine and rich to common and cheap tf'r ordinary two. The alieap goods are of good quality, and are w!llJ 9,(\apt«d to the trae of tkilte valuta dttrllbiMt, aow than style and finish, though both the style and finish are superior for goods of this class. The Conshocken Woolen Mills, Benjamin Bullocks' Sons, Philadelphia, exhibit a large assortment of BROADCLOTHS, ' which demonstrate a commendable progress in the manufacture of this class of textures. The Lawrenceburg Woolen Mills, of Lawrenceburg, Ind., exhibit through their apnt, A. T. Stewart, of New York city, aline of excellent cassimeres, for which they have justly acquired a high reputation. Some of these goods, as well as some of the cassimeres noticed above, are of kinds difficult to make, and the success already attained is highly creditable to the ability of their producers. 'Vm, Duncan&Sons, of Franklin, N. J., exhibit a case of goods, consisting of FLANNELS, TABLE-COVEHS, CASSIMERES, AND SILK-EMBROIDERED PIANO-COVERS, and other goods, which we have not space to name. The character of these goods adds greatly to the interest of thi8 d epartment. Tlie cashmeres and the blankets especially will attract universal attention as a specimen of American manufacturing taste and skill, in which qualities these manufactured excel. They have also carried the manufacture of printed woolens to a very high point c.f perfection. We are very glad this feature of the exhibition has been so well carried out, though, from the known energy and enterprise of the officers of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, we have felt sure, from the first, it could not fail of proving one of the great attractions of the Fair. There are many reflections in which we are tempted to in. dulge at the close of this brief and necessarily imperfect sketch. No one can look through this collection without be. ing impressed with the extent to which the wool industry has been developed in the United States under the present pro' tective system. To secure permanency and further progress it will be necessary to keep the tariff on raw material so adj usted that manufacturers may be placed in the same position as though this material were duty free, while the tariff on manufactured goods should be maintained at just such a standard as will compensate for the difference of wages paid in Europe and in this country. Thus both the fatal alternatives of crushing this industry or of depressing American labor, may be avoided. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE. The old days when farming: was done by “ main strength and ignorance,"' have given way to wiser methods. Year after year inventors have been able to gradually transfer labor from man to beast, and thus lessen the severe work of the farm. But little of the old-time “ hard work “ remains. Digging potatoes and the loading of hay upon wagons are in a measure unvanquished, although inventors are vigorously attacking them, and the time cannot be far distant when the modern system of farming made easy, will be completed by the addition of perfect machines for the performance of these kinds of work. We shall, in the present article, only review the display of AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. In this department we see no very marked advance since the last exhibition of the American Institute, yet, when we consider the perfection to which agricultural machinery had been carried in 1867, we ought not to expect an advance so great as to supersede, to any very appreciable extent, the improvements then exhibited. There is enough here, however, to command earnest attention. The MOWERS AND REAPERS constitute, of course, a conspicuous class. It is safe to s,y that in these machines the United States can beat the world ; and there should have been a better representation of manu-' facturers throughout the country than is apparent in this exhibition. Quite a number of the most prominent manufacturers, however, exhibit machines, most of them familiar to our readers. Five machines seem to attract more attention than others on the floor, namely, the Wood's Mower, the Wood's Self-raliing Reaper, manufactured and exhibited by the Walter A. Wood Mowing and Reaping Machine Co., Hoosick Falls, N. Y., the Perry Mower, made and exhibited by the Ames Plow Co., Boston, Mass., the Columbian Mower and Reaper, mado and exhibited by the American Agricultural Works of New York, and the Buckeye Mower and Self- raking Reaper, exhibited by Adriance Platt&Co., of New York. Without any derogation from the special merits of other m'lchines on exhibition, it may be said that the ones mentioned are specially worthy of mention. The Wood's machines took the first premium at the Paris Exposition of 1867, on a competitive trial in the field, and the Perry Mower also took a premium at the same trial. The Buckeye justly meets with favor from a large proportion of American agriculturists, and is preferred by many to any other. All of these machines have, if we mistake not, met with a formidable rivaJ in the Columbian Mower and Reaper, which, although we have never seen it in actual work, we are confident contains every ele ment of a good substantial and easy running machine. The Nishwitz's Improved Mower and Reaper, made and exhibited by F. Nishwitz, of Williamsburgh, N. Y.; the Climax Mower, which has its gearing entirely inclosed in a cast-iron box about three feet long, one foot high, and one foot broad, made by the Corry Machine Co., Corry, Pa., and the Etna Mower and Reaper, manufactured and exhibited by the Etna Manufacturing Co., of Salem, Ohio, are good machines, and well worthy of public favor, The Walter A. Wood Mowing B,nd Reaping Maohine Co. will shortly exhibit the machine exhibited by them at the Paris Exposition, which 18 probably as highly finished as any ffiaehine of this kind ever w!l;dei ft sost th"! sompmy fifteen 11.teidf®d d.olllbl'si OCTOBER 2, 1869.] Mtniifu 219 We saw no thrashing machine on exhibition except a hand machine adapted for work in a small way. The exhibition of PLOWS is also meager, the principal exhibitors being Griffing&Co., of New York; Collins&Co., of Collinsville, Conn., K. H. Allen&Co., of New York, and the American Agricultural Works of New York. Among these the Hartford Cast Cast- steel Turf and Stubble Plow, exhibited IIy Collins&Co., and the Corn Plow exhibited by the American Agricultural Works are the most noticeable. Some very peculiarly constructed harrows are also exhibited, some with revolving blades, some with revolving frames, and some the use of which would be hard to guess without an explanation which no one was on hand to give. Au interesting feature of this department is found in the COTTON AND HAY PRESSES, of which there are several worthy of special mention. Chapman's Cotton and Hay Press, made and exhibited by Whitney&Co., of Boston, Mass., seems one of the most effective presses for cotton we have m(lt with. The pressure is applied to the follower by means of short links, through a very peculiar and ingenious series of clutches eng^ing with two upright square bars, one on each side of the press. These clutches are operated by levers, so that a motion, comparable to nothing more nearly than to steps in walking, is imparted to them. No perfect description of this press can be given without diagrams,but it is a most simple and effective machine,one of its advantages being, that \vhen.e bale is stitched and banded, the follower may be easily and rapidly raised to the proper hight without reversing the motion which imparts the pressure, as is the case with screw presses. The Albertson Hay Press, made and exhibited by James M. Albertson, of New London, Conn., a segmental screw press; the Dederich's Parallel Lever Cotton and Hay Press, exhibited by the Whitlock Exposition Co., New York city ; a toggle link press, born in Albany, and the Ingersoll Hay Press, made and exhibited by Ingersoll&Dougherty, Greenpoint, N. Y., are also all powerful, convenient, and substantial presses. Among the MINOR IMPROVEMENTS may be noticed the potato-digging plow made by K. H. Allen&Co., of New York city, which is a low double mold-board plow with prongs extending rearward to separate the roots from the earth.( The hand cider and wine mills exhibited by Griffing&Co., of New York city, the Hovey's Patent Wine and Cider Mill and Press Combined, and the Daniell's Improved Cider mill are very neat, and, as shown by their practical working at t;he exhibition, effective, portable machines, occupying very little space, but very well finished, and substantially constructed. Bendix's Potato Planter, like an expert accountant, operates on two rows at a time, covering them, it is claimed, by the same op ation, in a most thorough, satisfactory, and perfect way, with one man and a horse performing an amount of labor executed in the usual manner by twenty men. Lozier's Hay and Grain Loader is a system of pulleys attached to a swinging arm hinged to an upright standard, so that a rope may raise a horse hay fork with a large mass of hay which may be swung to any part ot the wagon. The rope is wound up by the motion of the cart wheels, and by a simple device, may be quickly released to lower the fork when the hay is dropped into the wagon. There are the usual quantity of straw and root cutters, and other minor implements on exhibition, among which we saw nothing specially new or remarkable. Among those articles difficult to class in a deSCription of tjtis kind we notice P^rindle's Patent Agricultural Steamer, a fine piece of apparatus evidently constructed upon sound scientific principles. All sorts of general cooking and steaming of forage for animals can be economically done in this apparatus without any danger of burning, and it may be used to heat water, or even to perform distillation. This excellent steamer is manufactured and exhibited by K. II. Allen&Co., of New.York city. Also worthy of special mention is the cut hay in bales manufactured and exhibited by the Hudson Hay Cutting and Baling C jmpany, of New York city, a new, and we understand, rapidly increasing branch of business. The Egg Carrier, Dorn&Seeley's patent, is another Albany invention, and a good thing. It consists of a series of trays with loose canvas bottoms and paper partitions, set one over the other in a sort of crate. The eggs placed in these partitions do not touch each other or any solid material whereby they may become broken, and may be thus' transported long distances in perfect safety without the additional weight of the oats in which it has hitherto been the custom to pack them. The exhibition of SCALES seems confined solely to the Sampson Scale Company, of New York city, who exhibit hay, iron, and other styles of their celebrated scales. These, though not perhaps strictly belonging to the agricultural and horticultural department, are placed therein as a matter of convenience, and are therefore noticed in this connection. On the whole there is much of interest and encouragement in this department of the exhibition. Agricultural Improvements. The meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society at Man” choster, besides showing improvements in live stock and farm and dairy produce, made clear to all beholders that the application of machinery to agriculture has become more and more practicable. There were Marly eight thousand mil,. shines and imploments exhibited, this fact implies % largo M>d li.v«ly dawvl, Arnnjtg them w.rg Ws^ pit^ forks, which, by a combination of poles, ropes, and pulleys, will fork hay or barley from a wagon to the top of the tallest rick with surprising rapidity. Plows are made to effect eight furrows at once by the aid of a steam engine ; and steam cultivators loosen at once breadths of from nine feet to eigihteen feet, and work to a depth of six inches. No wonder that the number of those enterprising persons increases who undertake to plow farms in any part of the country by contract. Another contrivance lays down iron shoes as a sort of endless rail under the wheels of carts on soft roads ; andthus another farming difficulty is overcome. And hard roads are not neglected, for a 15-tun roller has been constructed which bites up the surface of an old road, and presses down solidly a layer of new macadam at the rate of half an acre in ten hours, and at a cost of a farthing a square yard (superficial).