so many men, and the parents of so many men, Who are interested in modern science read the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN that one is tempted to take the opportunity of this special number on Industrial Chemistry for some intimate discussion on the invitation which this science extends. What is Industrial Chemistry, how may one become an industrial chemist, and what opportunities for achievement does it offer? The writer is prompted to this because in his positional capacity he is this year at the receipt of an unprecedented and altogether un-Iooked-for number of inquiries and personal visits from men and their parents who are just as ignorant of this matter as they are interested. These inquiries arise through the vague, but entirely valid, idea that there are some remarkable contemporary opportunities in Industrial Chemistry. Leaving for the nonce the nature and scope of these opportunities, let us settle the meaning of the term-What is an industrial chemist? The fact is that the in Qustrial chemist and the training he ought to have, is to·day a subject of warm debate among those of us who follow applied chemistry. As is usual in such discussions, the trouble·factor lies in our varying definitions. To one man, an industrial chemist is a chemical engineer, to another, he is a “works chemist,” to a third, he is a routine analyst, to a fourth, a scientific researcher, and so on. There are thus many types of industrial chemistry, and many kinds of each type and each kind with its own allure. Industrial Chemists are all alike in this, however, that they are interested in applying chemical knowledge to practical and useful ends. The industrial measure of what is practical and Ilseful is the dollar, and the only material difference between Pure Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry is that with the Industrial Chemist the dollar sign inevitably enters into every chemical equation; a subordinate differenre is that many industrial chemical reactions are carrierl Ollt by the ton instead of by the gramme. How, then, is one to become an industrial chemist? Ohviously, by learning Chemistry. An industrial chemist may have some Iowledge of engineering, or of biology, or, for that matter, of psychology (all the bettel if he has), but the sine qua non is Chemistry. Chemistry is Chemistry; and since it is quite imposslble to obtain it self-taught, the novice must enter some institution of learning fcr the requisite training. It is just at this point that he needs guidance. If the young man is too old to undergo the school· training that would enable him to matriculate into one of the higher institutions of learning, if ;,e has responsibilities, such as the support of mother and sisters: that would make it inadmissible for him to proceed in his own interest, or if he recognizes that he is not so endowed intellectually that he could expect to survive creditably in the severe class·room and laboratory training that university-chemistry infers, then by all means let him enter a trade·school. He could not do better, in fact, than to enter for a training the scope and character of which is presented in this number by Prof. Allen Rogers, of Pratt Institute. Nor would he by so doing cut himself off from a genu;ne success. The industries are in point of fact desperately in need of scientific foremen; i. e., of men educated in chemistry and mechanics to an extent that enables them to cO'overate sympathetically and practically with the officials of the company for the elimination of waste and for progressi ve factory' practice; in addition, educated foremen may become superintendents, and superintendents managers, and managers presidents. But if, on the contrary, the man concerned is interested in chemistry for its own sake, if he eagerly desires to become, genuinely, a scholar in chemistry fully equipped to add to the world's sum of lmowledge both pure and applied, and if he has none of the hamper-ments stated above, then his course may be as follows: Before stating this, however, there ought to be said that any man proposing to become an industrial chemist should satisfy himself that when he is ready for work he will be able to qualify under the follow:ng d<HYlands: (1) Training (scholarship). (2) Creative, power. - (3) Personal integrity. (4) Physical health. (5) Practicality; i. e., creative power under the control of common sense. (6) The ability to govern workmen and to man- age foremen. (7) Personal qualities that would commend him to the offic:als of the com!lany. From this list it may easily be imagined that industrial chemistry is no game for old ladies or for little children. Granted, however, that the man feels that he can fulfill these requisites, he has alternative courses. He may enter the course in industrial chemistry in any one of the great universities or institutes of technology. In such a course, he will receive, together with a general theoretical and practical survey of the different fields of industrial chemistry, a considerable amount of pure chemistry, some eng:neering, shop practice, factory law, etc. Such a course in industrial chemistry, admirable in its scope and purpose, is offered by Prof. Whitaker, of Columbia University. The result of such a training is likely to be a man well trained up to his limits, hard·headed, practical and of great ultimate use to the factory which he enters in installing or managing the chemical end of an industrial plant-decidedly, in fact, a man that knows what he lmows. The danger is that having been trained in multa, not multmn, he may have a wrong conception as to his immediate use in such a factory; and since it is impossible under such conditions to give a comprehensive chemical training in a course of four years, he is likely always to be limited in his power to apply contemporary discovery to practical ends. Still, the industries need, and, indeed, must have men of this very type, and there is now and in the future there will be for them a continuous acceleration of demand. If the man concerned, through his nataral qualities, desires to do this kind of thing, this is the kind of tbing he desires to do-and there is as much opportunity for him as he could well desire. The alternative course advises the man to enter the university carefully prepared to forget that he is purpcsing to become an industrial chemist, but instead of that, in a comprehensive way, a chemist. His course is to take all the chemistry that the curriculum prescribes or permits, and with it what other cognate or cultural study his time affords. His course will require some four years of undergraduate study followed by two or three years of gradI;ate study. At the end of this time, if he is the young man I take him to be, as a young doctor of philosophy' indorsed by his university, he is prepared to take and can obtain an industrial position. He may enter this position without any pretense of knowledge as to the processes involved, but he may take the writer's word for it that, other th:ngs being equal, he will speedily surpass competitors who have experienced the other forms of training; he will, in fact, have nothing to limit him in becoming a supreme authority in his chosen field. It may be suggested, that seven years of university tra'ning is a long and costly course. As for time, it is worth it; as for cost, in the case of a man for whom alone industrial chemistry would be worth while, it certainly does not require a rich father. The ideal condition for the r:ght kind of a man to enter the university assumes that his monetary resources do not exceed five cents; in other words, the price of a car·fare to get there. In the University of Kansas, thirty per cent of the students make their way, in whole, through the university, and sixty per cent in part. There is no man to·day worth his salt who cannot, depending solely upon himself, make his way through the university to the appointed end. After passing through whatever training the man's circumstances or inclinations dictate, he may enter various types of industrial work, in which his training equally with his other qualities will determine whether or not he will stick or advance. (1) Routine Analysis.-Such positions are filled for the most part by young men with but a modicum of chemical training or by chemists who have a particular liking for that type of work. Salaries for men doing routine testing work vary from sixty to one hundred dollars a month, but may yIeld as high as two hundred and fifty dollars a month. Advancement depends mainly upon qualities that serve to qualify men for executive work. A large number of such positions are open to·day in all parts of the country-in general commercial laocratories; in manufacturing laboratories, pharmaceutical, metallurgical, beet·sugar laboratories, etc., sanitary laboratories, and in various other fields of effort. Such routine positions are particularly valuable for chemists in training, in providing temporary positions by which a supporting income may be obtained for collegiate expenses together with valuable experience. (2) Government Positions.-The Bureau of Chemistry, of Soils, and of Standards, of Mines, the Geological Survey, and various other branches of government constantly employ and are ·continually looking for skilled young chemists regularly' graduated from the universities. While the salary stipends are not as great as the holders of these positions could for the most part obtain in industrial or even in instructional work, the positions themselves are exceedingly advantageous in confirming the training of the universities and in throwing the man into positions in field·work where initiative, self-reliance, fortitude and other manly qualities are developed. The danger related to such positions is that too long continuance in such work is likely to develop the chemist into a bureaucrat, sometimes of rather an offensive type. Chemical positions under government are good stepping·stones to desirable industrial positions. As is the case generally, the demand for good men in such pOSitions far exceeds the supply. Apart from federal positions, all the States require and use many chemists in food, water, fuel, mining, criminal and other work. (3) Works Chemists and Chemical Engineers.-These positions are rapidly on the way to become some of the most attractive in the whole field of industrial chemistry. As a member of the Committee on Employment of the Chemists' Club of New York, it is interesting to watch the character of the applications that continually arise from the various industrial companies seeking chemists. For example, the following positions are open: C}wmiRt YClscd in the manufacture of vinrgal'. I1igh ;l'ndo industrial c}('mif;t 01 1'0s(,UI'Ch (ngiIH)('l'; work 11pO) coppeL If"ad and tin alloys. ('xplosi v('s, etc. .an npcoed to do work in connection with toil('t altcif's. Chemist fO drug compan.. Assistant chemist to manufacture complete line of tab1('ts An A 10. 1 laboratory man for wholesale drug lulJoI'atol'Y· Man thoroughly trained in laboratory work ; a good manufadH]er of pharmaceutical products. Man with practical experience in the n. S. P” ti'lt Office work. Chemist to ('ondtld: invrstigntions on (-lip (lis( illation of woed fot turpentine. rrwo men who have hnd rX}Hli(,lce in work on Roils, i'ped n nd agl'icultural PlOoucts. Chemist 'l nd snpe1'inb'ndent ror slllphul'ic neill an<l alullI plant. Assislanl chClnlst for phnnnac('utical \o1'k. l{an needed cxpel'hencpd in v<l'uishpR, japans, and llaints. 'Vork of expcrimental charactpl'. Analytical cbemist for powder company. Assastant organic research clH'mist, of congfnial pcrsonality; must be thoroughly trainpd in organic ('}H'mistry. Instructor of junior and senior stndents practically ,'ntil'ely in chemical t ec hnology; engineering tn\ ining l'rqnil'ed. CbcmaRt needed for the manufacture of Ol'(linnl'Y phal'ma(eutical preparations. Chemist for analytical work of a pharma c clltical lahorator', includ!ng drug assaying. l,:nr zinc ane chemical comp any, man ' cx)Yel'ienerd in the Il:nnufactuling of snlphul'ic acid ly the chamlwl' process. Chemist in oil iahoratol'Y· Assistant chemist, fats, oils. analytical work. ( Continued on paue 2{;».)