Electrified Artificial Rain for Agriculture A New System of Irr igatio n WE have had occas ion in these co lumns to refe r repeate dly to exp er iments carried on by Sir Oliver Lodge and others on the influence of electricity on. the growth of plants. Mr. Emilio Olsson of Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, at present in the United States, has, of late years, been giving his attention to the practical development of a process in which it is proposed to make use of electrified water for sprinkling fields. The inventor claims that his experiments demonstrate the practical utility of such a procedure. The benefits which are said to be secured are two-fold. First, there is a direct ad vantage to the plants, and secondly. Mr. Olsson states that according to his observations various harmful insects and other organisms are destroyed because of his process. The need of artificial irrgation is severely felt in many places where, owing to the nature of the climate, long terms of drought have to be contended with. It is particularly in such districts as these that Mr. Olsson proposes to introduce his system, by the aid of which he expects to increase the crop and to combat effectually drought, insects \nd other troubles. The cost of the Olsson system is estimated at a figure which is quite moderate as compared with the benefits to be derived. The cost of installation for the sprinkling apparatus is figured at $50 to $100 per acre, according to local conditions. The system is very simple. The water is raised to a suitable height by a motor or traction engine. The supply may be drawn from a, river, stream, artesian well, or any other suitable source. Two high towers may be installed, from which pipes are suspended by means of suitable supporting cables. The pipes supply circular spray nozzles which revolve automatically, and five to ten acres of land can readily be thus supplied with an evenly distributed shower of water. When it is desired to use electrified water, a reservoir is used, into which the water is pumped, to be subsequently distributed in the manner indicated above. The reservoir consists of an iron tank placed on an insulated support and charged from a dynamo supplying 0.5 ampere at 110 volts. The iron wall of the tank serves as positive pole; the negative pole consists of a copper wire insulated all except the tip. It is claimed that certain chemical reactions take place in the water, with production of oxygen, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide at the anode, and that certain of the products formed are benefcial to the plants. Mr. Olsson further suggests that this electrification of the water would tend to purify it and render it better adapted for drinking purposes. Mr. Olsson has installed his apparatus in a plantation near Buenos Aires and states that by the use of six sprinkling nozzles at a height of 5 meters above ground some six hundred acres of 6'ound under cultivation were treated with very beneficial results. 'he apparatus has also been adopted by the munieipality of Buenos Aires and is giving satisfaction in the public parks and gardens in that city. Mr. Olsson also states that during the long drought from which the republie suffered for over six months in 1910, he was able to produce a very fine erop of alfalfa and vegetables and to supply the owners of race horses with fresh fodder. By installing a system of artificial irrigation over some part of their erop, farmers should be able to insure themselves against drought, falling back upon artificial sprinkling in case natural rain fails. Incidentally the interesting suggestion IS made that the water line be used at the same time to carry the current for lighting and other purposes. Mr. Olsson's invention has been protected by a number of patents, and the inventor has shown much perseverance in working out the details of his method. . Swedish Milking Machine A MILKING machine · has been developed in Sweden whic h imitates the process of hand milking as nearly a possible, that is by compressing the teat from top to bottom, but without drawing down upon it. Each teat enters a small metal box in which is a fixed rubber plate lying along one side of the box, while a movable rubber sheet is driven forward by two pistons, lying one above the other, so that the pressure is made first by the top piston and then by the bottom one, as in hand milking, After this, the pistons are thrown off · by an automatic device and the process begins again. , A funnel·shaped rubber bag takes the milk and it flows from here into a containing vessel of suitable shape. There is one front and one rear milking box and these are held in a forked support which is strapped to the animal. The rubber plates and bag are the only parts to come in contact with the milk and these can be very easily cleaned, so that there is no diffeulty about this part. Any kind of an air compressor is used to operate the pistons and it is driven by electric “otor or gasoline engine or even by horse drive. The air pipes are led along the stables and at each stall is a fitting upon whieh a rubb er tu be leading to th e m ilker is i p laced. Tw o mi lkers can take care of eight or ten such machines for milking one hundred cows in two hours, where seven or eight milkers would be needed for hand milking. The animals do not seem to object to the machine and keep quiet during the operation. Notes for Inventors An Automatic Elevator-door Lock.-'he Otis Elevator Company, as assignee of Axel Magnuson of New York city. has obtained a patent for operating apparatus for the locks of elevator doors, No. 998,624. The lateh is associated with the door and its operating deviee is separate from and independent of the ear and is automatically operated only when the car is opposite or near the door. Westinghouse Turbine Patents.-George Westinghouse of Pittsburg has obtained patent No. 998,820 for turbine-blading, and No. 998,821 for a condensing-turbine. The turbine-blading includes in connection with the rotor having annular rows of blades, the stator, the blade carrying elements and circumferentially extending rows of stationary blades on the elements, the elements being mountable on the stator. The condensing-turbine is a re-ontrant turbine in which the casing is divided into a stationary part and a eo vel and the fuid diseharge devices are located entirely in the stationary part. Coin-handling Machinery.-In a eoin-handling machine, patented No. 998,830, to Universal Coin Wrapping Machine Company of New Jersey, as assignee of Chas. S. Batdorf of Brooklyn, is provided means for adjusting the coin-advaneing and coin-wrapping mechanism to agree with the size of the coins to be wrapped ad with the length of the packages. A Peculiar Laminated PropeIler.-Spencer Heath of Washington, D. C. has ¦ patented No. 998,897, a bladed propeller, consisting of interior laminations of soft wood, and exterior lamination, of hard wood, with hard wood portions forming the extremities of the interior laminations. Hair Washing Hoods.-Most women resent the difficulties and inconveniences incident to the washing of the hair by the ordinary processes. Orlando B. Salisbury of New York city has obtained two patents, Nos. 998,803 and 998,804, for hair-washing hoods. He provides a hood to fit the head and neck sufficiently large to inclose the hair and supplied with suitable means to admit and discharge the water and having, on its interior, flexible fingers which may be manipulated from the outside to aid in the washing operation. An Old Patent on Cooling Houses.-Now that the subject of cooling dwelling houses in hot weather has attracted general attention largely through the ingenious efforts in that direction of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell at his Washington residence, it may be worth while to call attention to a patent, No. 246,781, issued in September, 1881, and now expired, to R. S. Jennings of Baltimore, Md., for an air-cooling apparatus which provided a eooling chamber having screens of fibrous materials arranged longitudinally and vertieally and which, in practice, were moistened with a eooling liquid. The apparatus presented in tbis patent has a special interest since it was used in eooling the White House dming the hot period when the wounded President Garfield lay suffering from the assassin's bullet, and the descriptive portion of the patent refers to “the use of the hereinbefore described apparatus at the Executive Mansion, Washington, District of Columbia. “ Patents to Corporations.-Among the patents issued .Tuly 2.th, 1911, are five patents and one reissue to the United Shoe Machinery Company, and eight patents to the General Ilectrie Company. A Negro Patent Examiner.--Henry ].;. Baker of Mississipp is tho only representative of the colored race in the examining corps of the United Stated Patent Office. Mr. Baker is a second assistant examiner in the division of Prineipal Examiner Pond, who has tllP classes of bridges, hoisting, excavating, hydraulie engineering and metallic building structures, which includes, of course, struetural iron working, and all allied arts. Mr. Baker, in addition to his duties in the Patent Office, is engaged in the compilation of a work in which he will be absolutely unique. He is the only individual who has a complete list of all the patents issued to negroes, and it is his purpose to embody them into a work of some sort, probably a book, giving a brief history of each inventor, the nature of the invention and the amount of success in the field of invention achieved by members of his race. The compilation of these statistics has neeessarily been an arduous one, and has required an exhaustive correspondenee with applicants and inventors in all parts of th(l globe. Naturally, many colored inventors fail to offer any evidence as to the race to which they belong, as that is not a requirement made of an applicant for patent. But through the eourtesy of attorneys and the aid of his fellow examiners, Mr. Baker has been able to gather together what he considers is practieally a eomplete catalogue of inventions by eolored persons. Billings Lectures on Patent Law. The Hon. Cornelius C. Billings, Jirst Assistant Commissioner of Patents, has aecepted the invitation of the president of the Washington College of Law to deliver a series of lectures on Patent Office practice, before the classes of that college. Mr. 174 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN August 19, 1911 Billings is thoroughly conversant with every phase of procedure within the Patent Office. He commenced his career in the capacity of assistant examiner and has occupied every position in the office at one time or another. He became principal examiner by due course of advancement; was law examiner, examiner of interferences, aeting exariner of trade-marks and designs, and a member of the board of examiners-in-chief. The present commissioner selected him for the position of assistant commissioner, and when the offeo of first assistant commissioner was created by Congress to meet the growing demands of the judicial branch of the offee, Mr. Billingp reeeived the appointment. During the absence of Commissioner Moore in South Ameriea for four months in 1910, Mr. Billings was aeting commissioner, so that the sjatement that he has filled every office in the Patent Office is specifically true. Considering the duties which he discharges in his present place, in the hearing and deciding of appeals in patent cases, which deeisions are final so far as the Patent Office is concerned, there is no doubt that his course of lectures at the Washington College of Law will be of the greatest interest and value. A Commission for Supervision of Patents."The Minnesota Electrical Association and the St. Louis seetion of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers have ldopted resolutions petitioning President 'n to urge in his message to CongrASS the establishment of a permanent cummissiun or depnrtment or the government for the snpervision of patents and similar properties. It is thought that the functions of the Patent Office, as at present organized, stop short of that point where they eould be of the greatest value to inventors, owners of patents and stockholders all over the country. The Patent Office has no control over patents after they are granted, and the electrical organizations named above, while recommending the establishment of a commission to supervise patents, trade-marks, etc., do not contemplate the robbing of the Patent Office of any of its existing functions. Rather there is a desire to inerease those powers. Whether or not such a eommission would savor of paternalism, it cannot be denied, but if, as contemplated, it should exereise a power somewhat similar to those of the Interstate Commerce Commission, mueh good might be accomplished in the business world. The preservation of the rights of inventors, manufacturers and investors through a supervisory board or eommission would in all likelihood be preventive of fraud and infringement to a large degree. Phonographic Advertising.-An advertising device, having an advertiser exhibitor and a phonograph to announce the adverti ement as it is displayed, is shown in a patent, No. 998,721, to George A. Stafford of Belchervillo, Texas. It has a motor which, through suitable mechanism, operates to display advertisements successively and the motor also operates the phonograph to announce the advertisements. Putting Out Gasoline Fires.-In our issue of July 15th, we stated that there was not yet a fire extinguisher especinlly adapted to put out fires “accompanied by the burning of gasoline or resultant gases.” A manufacturer calls to our attention his own product, which is widely advertised, and whieh consists in exeluding oxygen and preventing eombustion. His is what he calls the “ gas blanket” principle, applicable to all kinds of fires, even those of electrienl origin. The substance which he uses is an absolute non-conductor with a dielectric strength of 500,000 volts per cubic inch. Legal Notes The Chartreuse Liqueur Case.-The Rupreme Court, in an opinion delivered by Mr. Justice Iughes, hns confirmed the right of the Charthusinn monks in the well-known trade-mnrk for liqueur or cordial. In reciting the facts, so far as the Court deemed it neeessary to state them, the deeision says that: For several hundred years prior to 1903-save for a comparatively brief period following the French Revolution-the order of Carthusian monks occupied the monastery of the Grande Chartreuse, near Voiron. in the Department of Isire. in France. This was their :other House. There. by a secret process, they made the liqueur or cordial which, at first sold locally, became upwards of f lt fty years ago the subject of an extensive trade and is known throughout the world as Chartreuse. The monks originally ma"ufactured the liqueur at the monastery itself and later at Fourvoirie, close by. It was marketed here and abroad. in bottles of distinctive shape. to WhICh were attached labels bearing the inscrip-ti?n “ Liqueur Fabriquee a la Gde. Ohartreuse,” WIth a facsimile of the signature of L. Garnier, a former Procureur of the 9rder. and its insignia, a globe, cross and seven s'tars; and these symbols, with “Gde. Chartreus e” underneath, were also ground into the glass. In 1876, tthhe then Procureur registered two trade-marks in the Patent Office, and these were re-registered in 1884, under the act of 1881. In the accompanying statement the one was said to consist “of the word ' Chartreuse,' accompanied by a facsimile of the signature of L. Garnier,” and the other “ of the word-symbol 'Chartreuse; “, and the combinations in which these were used were described. In the year 1903, having been refused authorization under the Fre,ch law of July 1st", 1901, known as the ASSOCiatIOns Act, the congregation of the Chartreux was held to be dissolved by operation of law, and possession was taken of their properties in France by a “sequestrating administrator and liquidator,” appointed by the French Court. Forcibly removed from their former establishment, and taking their secret with them. the monks set up a factory at Ta r ragona, in Sp ain, ane there, according t,o their ancient process, they have continued the manufacture of the liqueur, importing from France such herbs as were needed for the purpose. The French liquidator, Henry Lecouturier, employing a skilled distiller and chemical assistants, undertook, by experimentation, to make at Fourvoirie a liqueur. either identical w ith, or resembling as closely as possible, th e fam ous “Chartreuse,” and having succeeded in this effort to his satisfaction he placed his product upon the market under the old name. The liquidator's cordial was shipped to this country, and sold here in bottles of precisely the same description and with the same marks and symbols which had been used by the monks; if there was any difference, it is frankly stated to have been unintentionaL On fnnl hearing the Circuit Court held that the registered marks constituted good and valid trade marks and the sole and exclusive property of the Charthusian monks or fathers. The Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the decree with some modifications which affect only the paragraph containing the injunction. In considering the argument that the mark is a geographical name, Justice Hughes says: If it be assumed that the monks took their name from the region in France in wltich they settled in the eleventh century, it still remains true that it became peculiarly their designation. And the word “Chartreuse,” as applied to the liqueur, which for generations they made and sold, cannot be regarded in a proper sense as a geograplcal name. It had exclusive reference to the fact that it was the liqueur made by the Carthusian monks at their monastery. So far as it embraced the notion of place, the description was not of district, but of the monastery of the order- the abod e of the m onks-and the term, in its entirety, pointed to production by the monks. In considering the effect upon the U. S. trade-mark rights of the liquidation proceedings in France, the decision, after referring to certnin House of Lords and Court of Appeals proceedings in the related case in England, says: If, through his experiments, the liquidator had not succeeded in making a liqueur which resembled that of the monks, ho would have had no business to transact so far as the liqueur was concerned, and the transfer, by operation of law, would not have availed to give him one. But the property in the trade-marks in this country did not depend upon the success of the endeavors of the liquidator's experts. The monks were enabled to continue their business because they still had the process, and, continuing it, they enjoyed all the rights pertaining to it, save to the extent to which. by force of the local law, they were deprived of that enjoyment in France. The decision has a special interest in its bearing upon so-called geographical marks, for, after eiting Canal Company v. Clark, 13 Wall. pg. 324; Columbia Mill Company v. Alcorn, 150 U. S. 460; Elgin National Watch Company v. Illinois Watch Company, 179 U. S. 665, the Court says: "The familiar prineiple, however, is not applicable here;” and points out that “so far as it embraced the notion of place, the description was not of a district, but of the monastery of the order; the abode of the monks-and the term in its entirety pointed to production by the monks. “ Recently Adjudicated Patents.-Out of ten adjudicated patents reported in the Patent Office Gazette of July 25th, 1911, eight patents were sustained by the courts, and infringement was found in four cases. One of these was in the ease of the Gillette razor patent, No. 775,1:4, in Gillette Safety Rnzor Company v. Clark Blade&Razor Company (C. C.) 187 Jed. Rep. 149. sol;76 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN AUj·usL 19, J 91 i William Napier Shaw (Continued from page 163.) For a decade and more the most promising investigations in meteorology have been those relating to the exploration of the upper air. Accordingly, we find that Dr. Shaw has taken a leading part in securing to Great Liritain the enviable position she now holds in the field of “aerology.” I need only refer to a recent publication of the Meteorological Office, “The Free Atmosphere in the Region of the British Isles,” a large part of which was Dr. Shaw's individual product, to illustrate his and the office's activity in this field. Another recent development of meteorology is the discovery of striking correlations in atmospheric conditions at points on the earth's surface far remote from one another. Dr. Shaw has, within this branch of the science, devoted special attention to the relation borne by the southeast trade wind to the other currents of the general circulation, and to the secondary phenomena connected with them. This led him a few years ago to the discovery of a remarkable parallelism between the fluctuations of this wind and those of the rainfall in southern England. To the present writer meteorology appears to be just now entering upon an era of much enhanced prestige, due to circumstances that may be stated in the following syllogism: Aeronauts must cultivate meteorology. We shall all soon be aeronauts. Ergo, we must all cultivate meteorology, which henceforth must be looked upon as one of the most useful and important, branches of science. Conversely, meteorologists must turn their attention to the problems of aeronautics. The director of the Meteorological Office is a member of the Advisory Committee on Aeronautics appointed in April, 1909, by the British government. The membership of the committee includes some of the highest scientific talent of England, with Lord Rayleigh as president. To its admirable report for 1909-10 Dr. Shaw contributes four memoirs on meteorological topics of interest to aeronauts; and in these memoirs he shows how fully he realizes and how unreservedly he accepts the new tasks of meteorology. Besides the textbook of physics already mentioned, and scores of scientific papers and reports, Shaw has written a book on heat and one on ventilation. On the latter subject he is probably the highest authority in England, and he has been called upon, from time to time, to report on the ventilation of various public buildings, including the House of Commons. In recent years he has found time to deliver a number of lectures on meteorological subjects—as reader in meteorology at the University of London, and in other capacities—some of which are about to be published in two volumes entitled “Forecasts of Weather” and “The Climates of the British Possessions." His academic honors include the LL.D. of Aberdeen, 1906; Sc.D., Dublin, 1908; Sc.D., Harvard, 1908; and Sc.D., Manchester, 1910. He is an honorary member of the Meteorological Societies of Austria, Germany and Mauritius. In 1908 he was president of Section A of the British Association. In 1909 he attended the installation of Lowell as president of Harvard University, representing his college, Emmanuel, which was also the alma mater of John Harvard. In 1910 he received the Symons gold medal of the Royal Meteorological Society. The Knight Valveless Engine (Continued from nage U>8.) stroke of the motor the exhaust passage begins to open. The inner sleeve is moving down with the piston, and the passage is between the lower edge of the inner sleeve slot and the lower edge of the junk-ring in the head, the outer sleeve being practically stationary at the top of its stroke. The outer sleeve starts on its downward stroke, and, gaining in speed as the inner loses, leaves a clear opening for the exhaust. The piston is now one third up on its exhaust stroke, and the passage is closed by the upper edge of the outer sleeve slot in passing the lower edge of the exhaust port in the cylinder, as the piston reaches its top center. The four cycles or strokes of the engine( suction, compression, explosion, and exhaust) have now been completed; the crank has turned twice; the eccentrics have driven the sleeves once, and the cycle of operation is now ready to be repeated. The timing shown is not different from that ordinarily used in poppet valve engines. Any timing of the valves can be secured, however, by varying the “lead” between the eccentrics that operate the two sleeves and by properly locating the slots in the sleeves. The amount of valve opening is practically unlimited and is governed by the width of slot in the sleeves and the “throw” of the eccentrics that drive and determine the travel of the sleeves. This valve area need not be much greater than that of a poppet valve. The equivalent of increased valve area is gained, however, by the directness of the valve openings and the absence of restrictions in the gas passages made possible by this construction. The fourth diagram of Fig. 2 shows that the compression space is contained entirely within the inner sleeve and that the fit or clearance between the sleeves has no effect either on the amount of the compression or upon the tightness of the compression space. The diagram also shows the general shape of the combustion chamber. It is evident that a minimum amount of surface is presented for the volume contained, so that the ideal spherical shape desired in gasoline motors is approximated. The simplicity of the entire valve mechanism is apparent. The number of parts are few. All the working surfaces are cylindrical and consequently capable of easy and accurate machining. The -bearing surfaces are large and easily fitted, and with a fair amount of lubrication should last indefinitely. The operation and movement of the parts present no new principle in mechanics. The operation of these sleeve valves is absolutely quiet, accurate, efficient, and absolutely independent of the speed of the engine, which last feature is in great part responsible for the improved performance of Knight automobile motors. A test of two motors identical except for the valve mechanism will show a certain decided increase in power in the sleeve valve motor, an increase in power which becomes more and more apparent as the speed of the engine increases. At low speeds the difference is not noticeable, for the cam and spring operated valves are then at their best. At high speed, however, the action of the poppet becomes very uncertain and the “timing” is uneven. The sleeve valve is not affected by high speed. The resistance offered to the passage of exhaust and inlet gases by the shape of the poppet valve openings is far .greater than that of the sleeve valves. This limits the power output of the poppet valve motor. Continued use of the Knight motor seems to improve it. The sliding sleeves apparently lap themselves into a better working fit. The lips of the slots in the sleeves remain clean and no difficulty in the lubrication or cooling of the motor is likely to develop. The lubrication is generally effected by a splash system. In other words the oil is lifted from the base of the engine by the connecting rods and thrown upon the walls of the piston and sleeves. The sleeves are generally provided with a number of oil grooves, and the oil is lifted both by the wiping of the surfaces and the suction of the motor. The cylinders are cooled by water. The usual centrifugal pump circulates water, through the water jacketing of the cylinder and down into the water-jacketed head. The motor here shown is of 414-inch bore by 5%-inch stroke. The travel of the sleeve is 1% inch. There are now upward of six thousand of these Knight type motors in successful operation and their development and manufacture in this country will be watched with interest. Lessons of the 1911 International Cup Race (Continued from page 170.)COlnparative Features of the Types sTHE third race fur the Grand Prix of aeroplan-ing-the cup and prize created by James Gordon Bennett-was held at Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, on the 1st of July. the first race-that won by Curtill in 1909--was over a distance of ,20 kilometers. The following year the race, held at Belmont Park, for a distance of 100 kilometers, w,as won by Grahame-White. Tho distance this year was increased to 150 kilometers. Curtiss victory in 1909 was a splendid one, and well earned; the race of 1910 can but h described as a. “fluke Although the steady fying of Grahame-White won him much sincere praise, the unfortunate accident to Leblanc robbed him of the prize in the moment of victury. This year's race, however, far surpasses previous contests, in the .rilliancy of the fying and the highly instructive and latisfactory results gIven by it. 'rhe best talent uf three of the greatest manufacturing concers-othe BIeriot, the Wright, and the Nieupurt-was set to the task of producing not only the speediest creation but one that would outwit its rivals in maneuvering and reliability. The monoplane proved itself the most adaptable ,type for speeding and the biplane the most easiIy cuntrulled, the perfectiun of “banking,” landing, and steady flying exhibited by the diminutive Wright, attracting much favorable comment. The order of fnishing and the ofcial elapsed tm' of the con testan ts fo How: Weymann (U. S. A.), 1 huur 11 minutes 36 1/5 seconds; Leblanc (France), 1 huur 13 minutes 4 0 1/5 seconds; Nieuport (France), 1 huur 14 minutes 3 7 3/5 secunds; Ogilvie (England), 1 huur 49 minutes 10 2/5 secunds. Chevalier and Hamel, the furmer on a Nieuport munuplane and the latter on a Bleriot monoplane, started in the race but did not finish. Weymann flew a Nieuport monoplane, and made an average speed of just 78.1 miles an hour. Leblanc on his Bleriot racer averaged 75.91 mIles an hour, Nieuport on a monoplane of his On make attained an average of 74.94 , while Ogilvie made 51.2 miles an hour, including time for a stop. The latter'R speed of flying not cunsidering the stop was 54 miles an huur. Nieuport's speed was rather surprising in view of the record he made at Mourmelon on June 16th with the same 70 horse-power monoplane-100 kilometers at a rate of 80.24 miles an huur. Difference in atmospheric conditions might aCCDunt for this. mann is a very noticeable fwct and one deserving uf the closest study. The victory was primarily one for the Gnume motor and the French aeroplane industry in general, giving Dnly a small insight into the enUl'maus leadership ]rauce holds over the rest of the world in the development of the aeroplane. By no stretch of the imaginatiDn can the victory be laid to be one for America except on what might be classed a technicality. Weymann nut Dnly few a French machine equlPped with a FrenCh mutur but recei v ed hs f y i n g instruction in France under the tutelage of French, experts. Those who are pluming themselves on the great victory for America have therefure cause to hesitate. May the ountest of 1912 exhibit a more pronounced example of Yankee industry. This race is the frst from which ,cuncrete and valuable conclusions can be drawn; and i results point tu many advantageous features that s,huuld be intruduced intu the next Gordun Bennett race to make it a means of stimulating greater perfection and of representing the highest achievements in aeronautical engineering. Before pointing uut impurtant deductiuns ubtained from a study of the machines and their ,perfurmances, a brief descri p t i on Df each is given, accDmpanied by plans and elevations drawn to the same scale, thus enabling a graphic comparisun to be made. ''HE NU;UPORT MONOPLANE. The winning machine is a distinct type, bearing little rf any resemblance to the almost standard types, t,be BleI'iot or Antoinette. The most important features in its design are the profile of the wings, the great reductiun of head resistance, and the exquisite form and prDportioning of the various parts. Weymann's Nieuport wais equIpped with a 14-cylln-del', Gnome engIne rated at 100 H.P. ThIs drove at almost 1,500 R.P.M., a two-bladed Regy prupeller, 7 feet in diameter. This machine, due to itl high puwer, appeared to the spectaturs tu fairly leap into the air, and dart about with arruw-like swiftness and precision. (Oontinued on page 176.) The central frame, very deep at the front and of a significant fusiform shape, is entirely covered with fabric, reducing the air resistance immensely but adding in skin-frictional resistance. The shape of the body in section is rectangular, thus giving a large area of vertical and horizontal surface to aid in turning and in maintaining any given direction. Weymann and the other Nieuport pilots were able to negotiate the sharp turns with more ease in a calm than in a wind but were never able to attain the degree of “banking” repeatedly exhibited by the Wright. The large area of “directive” surface given by the body, would prevent any such sharp pivoting as is obtainable with the Dayton product. The shape and sections of the plane are given in the diagrams. The entering edge of the plane profile is smooth and lacks any pronounced dipping. The plane is thinnest at the outer ends and thickest near the center of each wing— a curious feature that adds considerably to the strength. The disposition of the seat in the frame and the shape of the rudders and tail are evident. The fixed semicircular tail surface is non-lifting and in fact is at a slight negative angle when the machine is in full flight. The two semicircular flaps at the rear of it constitute the elevation rudder and are operated by the forward-back motion of a large control lever. This same lever, when moved from side to side, operates the small single rudder for direction situated at the extreme rear. The most noticeable and admirable feature of the entire design is the extreme reduction in the number of stay wires and projecting spars. Outside of the body the only source of pure head-resistance is a four-piece mast to which the planes are braced and the simple chassis. The latter consists merely of a strong ash frame and skid and two wheels mounted on a laminated steel spring—a magnificent combination of simplicity, utility, and strength. The planes are double surfaced, 28 feet in span and with a chord measuring 6 feet 10 inches at the body, gradually decreasing to 5 feet 8 inches at the tips. The plane is warped for transverse control by means of a foot yoke actuating the inclined rod appearing on the chassis and to the ends of which the warping wires are attached. The entire length of the machine is 25 feet. The surface area of the supporting plane is in the neighborhood of 150 square feet. The weight with operator and fuel as flown in the race was nearly 700 pounds. This gives a loading of 4.6fi pounds per square foot. The aspect ratio is roughly 5 to 1. Weymann flew his Nieuport tail-high at an extremely low angle of incidence, often 1 degree or less—an interesting and suggestive fact. THE BLKRTOT XXIII. This racing type of Bleriot flown by Hamel and by Leblanc was originally about 22 feet in span. But at the last moment M. Bleriot deemed it wise to clip the ends of the wings, finally reducing the span of the machine used by Leblanc to almost 17 feet. The chord of this typo measured 3% feet, so that the surface area was in the neighborhood of but 60 square feet! This is less than the area of the elevation rudder, alone, on the old 1909 Wright biplane. The appearance presented by this machine was in consequence little short of ridiculous. At the front end of the long tapering frame was mounted the 100 H.P. 14-cylinder Gnome engine driving a Regy propeller, the same kind of power plant used by Weymann. Major Squier once defined the limit of the aeroplane as a helicopter flying horizontally; M. Bleriot is evidently aiming for this goal—with what success remains to ibe seen. The entire length of the apparatus was about 24 feet. The rudders at the rear and the warping were operated by the usual Bleriot “cloche” and pedal system. The weight with aviator aboard was nearly 550 pounds, thus giving a loading of over 9 pounds per square foot of surface, the high-water mark in aviation. The angle of incidence used in flight by Leblanc was much higher than that of Weymann—approximately 7 or 8 degrees. In straightaway flight the speed of Leblanc is said to have been tremendous, but on turns he was forced to go so wide that he lost ground, and eventually the race. Hamel, lacking the expert- LEGAL NOTICES 1ATENTS If you have an invention which you wish to patent you can -write fully and freely to Munn&Co. for advice in regard to the best way of obtaining protection. Please send sketches or a model of your invention and a description of the device, explaining its operation. All communications are strictly confidential. Our vast practice. extending over a period of more than sixty years, enables us in many cases to advise in regard to patentability without any expense to the client. 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Booklet free. General Acoustic Co.” 2 Beaufort St., Jamaica, N.Y. City. Paris branch, 6 Rue dHanovre. PATENTS FOR SALE. FOR SALE.-Patent No. 998,411. Boys' Pocket Baseball Game. Professional scores. Sheet metal, rubber or fiber about four inche8 square. Will sell on royalty basis of one cent each, and a guarantee of $600 per year payable quarterly. Highest uuarantee gets a sure Will-ner. M. Shea, 41 Tilden Ave., Newport, R. 1. ARTIWICIAL RAIN.-New sY8tem of irrigation combined with electrified water. Best and cheapest fertilizer. See illustrattonon page 1730f tbis issue. Patented. Capital wanted 'o exploit, same. Patent for sale for reo moving scale from fruit trees. E. Olsson, 32 W. 9th St., N. Y. City. FOR SALE. lntire Patent Right fur U. S. of my improved Belt Ruck shown in another column of this paper. Has been in every day use for one year and proved to be practical and valuable. Will name very low price. Address, Robert L. Smith, Box 52i, Lincoln. Nebraska. WANTED. LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE WANTED. Splendid income assured right man to act as our representative atter learnlJK our business thoroughly by mail. Former experience unnecessary. All we reqmre is nonesty, abIlity. ambition and willingness to learn a lucrative business. No Holicitmg or traveling. 'l'bis is an e.cep tiona] opportunity for a man in vour section to get into a big paymg business without capital and become independetlt for life. \rite at once for full particulars. Acdress, E. R. Marnen, Pres. The National Co·Opera tive Real Fstatc Company. I 378, Marden Building, Washil/ton. D.C. WANTED-To communicate with machinery dealers and those interested in tbe stone induBtry. also the names and addresses of cement experts. Worth while. Address Quarry Supt. Porbondar, Kathiawar, India. MISCELLANEOUS. !REK-'MNVESTIN? FOR PROFIT” Magazine. Send me your name and 1 will mail you this Uagazine absolutely free. Before you invest a dollar any-where-get tbls magazine -it is worth $10 a copy to any man who intends to invest *5 or more per montb. Tells you how $1,000 can grow to $22.000 -how to judge diO·erent cJasses of mveftments j the Real 11;arning Power of your money. This magazine six months free if yon write to·day. I. L. Barber. Publisher, 423. 28 W. Jackson Blvd .• Chicago. MAKE BIG MONEY operating a Daydark Post Card Machine. Photo postal cards made and delivered on the spot in ten millutes in the open street. No dark room lleces8ary—it does not require an experienced photographer to make first·class pictures. Pays a gross profit of 500 per cent. Write today for free sample and catalogue. Daydark Specialtv Co .• Dept. V, St. Louis. MO'ORCYCTES CHEAP.-Send to-day for free catalog ot new and used motorcycles. Also motorcycle ae. cessories and attachable motor outfits tor converting e icycles into motorcycles. Shaw Manufacturing Company, Dept. 24. Galesburg. Kans. METAL NOVELTIES MANIlFACTURED.-Tborof hly equiP¥gd factory with every facility :a up to date Jevice for m; 1nuficturing : l 1 r no;elties. Especially well equipped for press work. 'he Horton .anufacturing Company, Bristol. Conn. LISTS OF MANUFACTURERS. COMPLETE lASTS of manufactorers in all liuEs supplied at. short notice at :O(lerale tates. Small and special lIsts compiled to ( rder at Vll"ious prices. Es· l imates shOUld be obtained I advance. .Address MUHn&Co .• Inc.• Lhst Department, Box 773. Iew r ork. INQUIRY COLUMN Inauiry No. 9'246.—Wanted, addresses of parties having raw materials or minerals containing potash in any form. Inquiry No. 9247. Wanted, to buy a Parmelee aerated water. Inquiry Mo. 9254.— Wanted, the name and address of manufacturers of lead pencils and pen holders, such as arc used for printing aGvertisements on. Inquiry No. 9255.— Wanted, to buy a patent roller, a ball-bearing axle, which could be purchased on a royalty oasis; it must be cheat) and fully proved. Inquiry No. 925t>. Wanted addresses of parties having Pitchblende deposits, if able to ship ore. Inquiry Mo. 9**257. Wanted addresses of firms selling second-hand water turbines-Inquiry No. 9258.—Wanted addresses of parties having gem materials to offer in any part of the world. Inquiry No. 9259.—Wanted to buy a machine for removing the coating of a filbert. Inquiry Mo. W260.—Want addresses of parties able to ship corunduni, garnet, flint, emery or any materia] suitable as an abrasive. MMffiirtHirtMiiliiWiii ftWrfllitrfiJiTiHil August 19, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 177 ness of Leblanc, came to grief on the first turn, being unable to recover from the inclination because of the inadequacy of his supporting surface. This is a feature 'for which this type deserves to be severely criticised. It merely points to what an absurd sacrifice M. Bleriot went to gain a little in speed. the wright biplanE. This “Baby” type is already familiar :to many, and will ,be recognized as a counterpart of the small machines flown at Belmont Park last year. Mr. Ogilvie used an N. E. C engine rated at 50 H.P. and with it attained a speed only slightly greater than with the 30 H.P. Wright engine used by him last year. The biplane measured 21% feet in span, and 31h feet in depth. The total area was 145 square feet. The aspect ratio was over 6 to 1, and the loading about 6 pounds per square foot. The rudder and control systems are precisely the same as on all the standard Wright types. Mr. Ogilvie introduced an innovation in fixing to the next to last strut near either end of the main biplane cell, single vertical surfaces, to act as keels. These doubtless added to the resistance but Mr. Ogilvie found that they aided in steering. The noticeable fact about this machine in flight was the manner in which it appeared to “drag” as comipared with its swifter competitors. This in a measure was due to its lower power, but more ]articularly to its very much higher resistance. The main features in which the types differ may be summed up as follows: The Nieuport had a light loading and a very small angle of incidence, which, added to the small resistance of the •framing, made the total resistance to be overcome by the propeller thrust very small. The Bleriot had a high angle of incidence, a frame of considerable resistance, and a very small surface. The power plants being the same, it is evident that the Bleriot, with almost only one-third of the surface, offered as great a resistance to motion as did the Nieuport. This does not only speak well for the Nieuport but badly for the Bleriot. The Wright was lower powered but had a medium loading with a very high framing resistance. comparative FEATURES. The sections of the planes of these three types are given. M. Eiffel in his classic experiments has investigated all theRe sections. For the Wright, the best ratio of lift to drift is obtained in the neighborhood of 2 or 3 deg.; for the BIeriot at 3 deg. and for the Nieupart at 6 deg. The normal angle of flight of the low-powered Nieuport is at 6 deg.-the most efficient one. Any higher power for the same weight, results in higher speed only upon reducing the angle of incidence. The speed does not inCrease proportionally with the horse-power. Upon using a 100 H.P. motor-—as did Weymann-only a slight increase of speed is attained over a 70 H.P. Since he appeared to be flying at as Iow an angle as possLble, the conclusion is at once drawn that for lifting this particular weight of machine a limit 'has been reached. Upon 'further increasing the motive power, to offset the tendency the machine would have to ascend, it would almost appear necessary to actually add weight to it, to hold it down. This merely emphasizes the precise balance that exists in aeroplane design between weight, speed, and power. M. Eiffel's investigations show a particularly interesting difference in the aerodynamics of these types. On the Wright, he found the distribution of pressure to be very high at the extreme entering edge region of the plane, the pressure decreasing in intensity toward the rear. On the Bleriot the total pressure, suction on the upper face and pressure on the under face, was a maximum at one-fifth of the chord from the leading edge, but as on the Wright, decreased sharply toward the rear. On the Nieuport, a different situation was found. The pressure was a maximum much nearer the center of the plane, sloping easily to the front and the rear, thus indicating a far more uniform intensity and distribution of pressure. This has a great deal to do with explaining the bigh efficiency of the Nieuport product. LESSONS OF THE RACE. What the Wright gained in strength and stability it lost in its inherently higher resistance-at once stamping the biplane as a slow-speed machine. The monoplanes at last proved themselves beyond doubt the ideal type for rapid flying. Two important considerations result from actual observation of the flight of Weymann's Nieuport and Leblanc's Bleriot. Had Weymann ,had less surface on the straight stretches he could have attained a much higher average speed, but at the turns in order to “bank” with a proper degree of safety and rapidity he needed every square inch of surface he 'had. On the other hand Leblanc had about as little surface as possible for straightaway flight, but on turns he was forced to go far out of his course and skid to an alarming extent. Had Leblanc been provided with more surface at the turns he could have “banked” more sharply and thus greatly increased his average speed. The two facts point unerringly to the immense advantages that would be possessed by a machine with variable surfaces-reduced to a minimum in straight flight, and ispread to a maximum in landing, starting, and negotiating sharp turns. Never before has the Teal significance of the variable surface aeroplane been more powerfully suggested—a key to still faster flight. 'he important anl pronounced characteristics exhibited by the machines in making sharp turns should permanently fx these as one of the characteristic requirements of the contest. To further test the machines more difficult maneuvers should be made imperative, such as clearing certain altitudes and turning both to right and left. In addition to this time should be taken from standstill to standstill, thus bringing into the contest the highly important elements of starting and alighting. It is not unlikely that the 1912 cup race will see speeds of 90 miles an hour reached and perhaps surpassed. Etching Metals by Electricity (Continued from page 17[.) [The Editor of the Home Laboratory will be gJad to receive any suggestions for this department and w ill pay for them, promptly, if available.] Etching Metals by Electricity By A. J. Jarman THE etching of metals by electrical energy does not seem to have received the attention it deserves. It must be borne in mind that wherever any chemical body is employed to perform etching, there also is electrical action. Many times when etClhing by electricity has been attempted, the protective top bearing the inscription has been eaten away before any appreciable depth has been attained. This has been caused by the employment of an unsuitable etching fluid, or the protective top was not sufficiently resistant to the separated element or ion liberated by the electric energy. By a little study of the chemical bodies employed for etching either copper, zinc or steel, such as nitric add, perchloride of iron, sulphate of zinc, and chromic acid, it has been found that these bodies are not the best suited for electrical etching. The real point to be considered is the effect of the liberated element upon the metal. Several solutions have been found that will answer the purpose well, and it is safe to predict that in due time the etching of metals by electric energy will become universal, because by the employment of electrIcity, it can be as readily ascertained how far the etching has proceeded, by noting the amperage and the time elapsed, or, in other words, quantity of electricity employed. This, according to Faraday's law, is proportional to the quantity of metal dissolved. By the electrolytic method one man could perform all the etching of six plates in the same time that it takes to etch one by the usual processes. For the protective top, any of the preparations may be used that are employed at present for ordinary etching, such as albumen, fish glue, enamel or bitumen. For the information of those who are not acquainted with the above preparations it may be stated that the following will give results that can be depended upon, bearing in mind that where water is mentioned, distilled water is meant at all times. SENSITIZING SOLUTIO: FOR ZINC. The white of one fresh egg (albumen). Distilled water ................... 6 ounces Bichromate of ammonia .......... 20 grains Dissolve the bichromate of ammonia in two ounces of the distilled water. The remaining four ounces of water must be added to the albumen, which must now be well churned into a frothy mass for two or three minutes. Add two drops of strong aqueous ammonia to the egg .mixture, ·using the egg beater, then add the bichromate mixture, beat again well, add half an ounce of pure photographic akohol, using the egg beater again, so as to insure perfect incorporation. After the bichromate has been added to the albumen, the mixture becomes sensitive to light, and therefore all subsequent steps should be carried out in red light, or at any rate in subdued daylight. Allow the mixture to stand over night, then filter it through a tuft of absorbent cotton pressed lightly into the neck of a clean glass funnel, placing a flat strip of glass into a wide mouth bottle diagonally under the tip of the funnel, so that the sensitive albumen mixture falls drop by drop upon the glass strip. The object of this is to prevent the forming of air bubbles. The filtering must be conducted undtr a deep orange colored light. If copper or steel is to ,be employed, the following mixture must be made: SENSITIZING SOLUTION FOR COPPER. Photo-engraver's fish glue ...... 211' ounces Albumen (fresh) .............. % oun(e Bichromate O'f ammonia ........50 grains Dissolve the bichromate separately, add this to the fsh glue and albumen. The mixture must now be well churned by a rotary egg whisk or beater, then fltered as described for the zinc sensitizer, but preferably twice. The etching solution must be made up, and kept in a glass battery jar. The etching solution given here is a special mixture for electricaZ etching only. ETCHING SOLU1ION. A saturated solution of common saU, about 3 pints Hydrochloric acid ...........2 fluid drachms Water ......................5 ounces This solution will keep well. The use of hydrochloric acid is to correct for the liberated sodium hydroxide which is formed by electrolysis; the libec-ated chlorine performs the etching, and combines with the zinc or copper, forming chloride of zinc or chloride of ,copper. In the case of steel, perchloride 'f iron is formed. Each metal must be etched in a separate solution. It will ;be 'Observed that, after etching, the solution for zinc will remain white, that for copper will turn green, and the solution for steel will become a brilliant yellow. To perform the etca-.ing, an ordinary half-tone negative (reversed) must be employed, or .for line etching an ordinary dense line negative, made by the wet collodion process. Procure a few pieces of zinc plate about one-sixteenth of an inch thick, the same as used by photo-engravers. Carefully clean the plate by wiping it all over, back and front, with a warm solution of common washing soda. Rinse the plate in clean water, and allow to dry. This operation is simply to rid the surface of any greasy matter introduced by handling. The plate First arc lamp, Sir Humphry Davy, 1808 From an old engraving, 1812. must now be cleaned thoroughly, with fine pumice powder and water, by placing it Lace up upon a clean board, using a clean rag dipped into the pumice powder, and rubbing well up and down, not in circles. The plate must be reversed, so that the bottom end becomes the top, and the rubbing continued until, when washed with water from a faucet, the water will remain free and even all over, showing no greasy streaks or spots. Now drain the plate after it is well washed in running water all over, and pour a small quantity of the sensitized albumen mixture (under an orange light) upon one end of the plate. Halftone electric etchmg on copper. From an old photograph. Tilt it so that the water is driven before the albQ-men, and allowed to run off. Drain the plate; then pour a small quantity of the sensitive mixture upon the opposite end and drain this off, allowing only a small quantity to remain UP0l the plate, which must now be gripped tightly at one comer by a pair uf flat-nose pliers, and held level over the flame of an alcohol lamp, or small gas stove. Blow upon the surface with the breath, so as to aid evaporation of the water. Care must bO taken that the plate does not become too hot, be(ruse this would cause the albumen to become insoluble. The plate now being dry, may be laid upon the negrtive, which has previously been placed in a photographic printing -frame. A piece of felt is placed upon the back of the zinc plate, the back adjusted, and the springs, which should be very stiff, hitched into place. The negative must be allowed to rest upon a stout piece of flat glass in the printing frame. The frame can now be placed in the sunlight. If this is very bright, and the negative is a clear and brilliant one, the exposure will be about one minute and a half to two minutes. The frame must now be returned to a room illuminated by a deep orange colored light, the zinc plate removed, laid back down upon a stout sheet of glass, and a small India rubber roller, which has been carefully rolled up with a small quantity of lithographic ink, is passed over the printed surface 'f the zinc, roIling from front to back. The plate may now be reversed, and rolled until the surface presents a uniform gray coating of ink all over. Now place the inked plate into a tray of clean water, let :t remain for five minutes, then take a tuft of wetted absorbent cotton, and carefully wipe the inked surfaee still under the water, when, if the exposure has been right, a beautiful print in minute dots or lines will present itself upon the surface of the zinc. The plaie must now be removed, washed under the faucet, and carefully dried, then powdered all over with dragon's blood, the exooss being removed by tapping the back with a sharp blow of a hammer handle, holding hammer head in the hand. The surface must now be lightly brushed with a flat camel's hair brush and the plate heated over a gas f'ame, until it begins !O smoke faintly. Then lay it upon a piece of cold metal for about two minutes, when it will be ready for the etohing bath. Two cells of the size and kind described in the SCIEN1IFIC AMERICAN of May 28th, 1910, page 445, will form the battery for generating the requisite electrical energy. The elements must be coupled in series, viz., the carbon of one cell connected by a piece of copper wire to the zinc of the next. A piece of sheet copper, zinc, or brass must be soldered to a copper wire and attached to the zinc cylinder of the free element. This will form the cathode. It must be remembered that electrical etching is the reverse of electroplating. The piece of zinc bearing the ink image must be brushed over every part that is not to be etched, ,with either shellac varnish or a thin coating of asphaltum varnish, which is best done when the plate is warm. This ,protection will 'revent the plate from being attacked, except where the required etching is to take place. The plate must now be attached to the remaining carbon element of the battery, by simply soldering a tin or brass garter clip to the end of a strip of copper wire, the right kind of clip being one of those with saw-like teeth. This will grip the plate perfectly, and allow easy removal. The plate, now being firmly gripped, must be quickly lowered into the salt solution. Instantly gas will be evolved from the cathode, while the metal exposed between the dots will begin to dissolve. After two minutes' aC'tion the plate should be lifted and examined, when in nine eases out of ten it will be found to be satisfactory. Dip the plate into the liquid again for three minutes, then remove it, and pour a gentle stream of clean, cold water over the surface. Now use a biconvex lens of about four-inch focus to examine the surface, -when it will be found that for all ordinary printing purposes, the etching wi1l be deep enough. The albumen top will hold well in this etching solution, because it is well known that albumen becomes coagulated in a strong solution of common salt. If upon examination it is found that the etching is not deep enough, the plate should be very carefully brushed all over the surface with a flat camel's hall brush; then washed, dried and the ink roller carefully passed over the surface again; then warmed to partly set the ink, powdered again with dragon's blood, heated to melt this again, cooled off, and etched again for two or three minutes. As a rule, this second etching is not required. The surface must not be rubbed with absorbent cotton, because the edges of the etch are very sharp, and the fiber of the cotton will adhere very tenaciously. The plate may now be oleaned with either wood alcohol and ammonia, eor if asphaltum has been used, ben2ine or turpentine must be employed to remove it. When the plate is cleaned, it can be trimmed at the edges, and pinned to a wooden block to make it type high, ftted in with type in the usual way, inked up and printed. If the etching is to be done upon copper, the fsn glue enamel must be used, because it is better suited for copper than the albumen resist. Procure a piece of sheet copper the same as used by photo-engravers, that has been faced, polished and buffed, Clean it in the same way as describe! for zinc. Use (Continued o page 177.) the fish-glue preparation in the same way as the albumen, draining the excess only partially off the plate. Then insert it in a whirler, spin this around at a moderate speed over the flane of a gas stove, about one foot above the flame. In the course of about two minutes the plate can 'e removed :rom the whirler, stood on end to cool, then placed upon a negative that has been made with a screen of about 100 lines to the inch. The pad of cardboard is now placed upon the back of the plate. The back board is inserted, and fixed with considerable pressure so as to insure complete contact. Now place the frame out in the sunlight. An exposure of from two to five minutes will be required. Take the printing frame to the dark room, remove the plate under 'an orange,colored light and pour over it a solution of aniline violet in water. A teaspoonful of the dye to a pint of water is about the right amount. Drain off the dye and allow a very gentle stream 0f water to flow over the plate. Wipe the surrace with a tuft of wetted absorbent cotton; this must be done with great care, and a very light touch. The image will now appear in beautiful violet dots all over the plate, which must be allowed to drain and dry, or it may be replaced in the whirler, and dr1ed in the same manner that was used to set the sensitive coating. The image must ' now be 'urnt in. Take the plate, grip it with ,a pair of flat-nose pliers at one corner, hold it over a gas-stove flame, turned down rather low. Turn the plate around, keeD-ing this up until the image seems to disappear. Continue the heat and motion until the image turns to a medium chestnut brown. Remove the plate at this stage, brush the back and edges all over with asphaltum varnish, aHow to cool, when it is ready for the etching. This must be carried out in just the same way as for zinc, using a separate bath of salt and acid, while the time for etching will •be about the same as for zinc. This protective top is called enamel; it will resist the etching liquid perfectly. I the etching is to be made in very fine dots, only two or three minutes is necessary, when the face can be brushed well over in eleal water, the asphaltum, varnish The Wamer Auto-Meter Is the "Hall-Mark of QUALITY" on an Automobile pROSPECTIVE buyers and those in doubt decide on the quality of the car from the speed indicator it carries. Note Why This Is True- The speed indicator is the most-looked-at thing on a car. The driver refers to it constantly every instant the car is in motion. Aside from indicating speed and distance it is used to check up every important operation of the car-to determine the efficiency of tires, how much gasoline per mile is being used, and in many other ways it audits the car s peiormance. Because of its marvelous sensitiveness and accuracy, and its ability to continuously give perfect service during the life of many cars, the Warner Auto-Meter is the speed indicator used on the choicest and best cars everywhere. The Warner is so generally used on Quality cars that its presence on an automobile is accepted by the motoring public as evidence that the car itself is good and reliable. It is an everyday occurrence to hear one motorist say to another: “ I don't see the name of the car, but it must be a good one, for it has a Warner on it." It is logical that it should be so. Car designs are so uniform that it is difficult to tell one car from another-or the poor from the good by looking at them. For the points which make one car better than another are concealed under the hood-or the foor-or are covered with paint and varnish. The Warner Auto-Meter is always in plain sight. Its supreme quality is generally known. It implies the same quality throughout the car. Of course there are the uncaring in the automobile world as elsewhere. Anything that runs is to them a “good automobile.” Any speed indicator is “' good “' if the hand moves. The term “sweet running motor” has no meaning to them and “' accuracy and exactness” in the speed indicator is a secondary considera-ation to price. We cannot sell-nor do we want to-the man content with inferiority and who puts price before performance. One part of our trade is drawn from the car manufacturer who makes a good, reliable car-and who refuses to be influenced by the fact that “' he does not make it and is thereby not responsible, “ to equip his good car with an inferior and unreliable speed indicator. Such manufacturers e i the r equip with the Warner or insist that their dealers and agents recommend it as of even quality with their car. The other part of our trade comes from the car buyer who purchases a good car and desires every item of equipment to be in harmony with it. Those who care, specify and insist on the T HE Warner can be secured through reputable Automobile dealers in any city or town in the United States. Warner branches are maintained in all the principal cities for the convenience of these dealers and their customers. Inquiry to Beloit or at our branches is invited for Warner literature. W arner Instrument Company Main Offices and Factory 1184 Wheeler Ave., Beloit, Wis. Branch Houses Maintained at Atlanta Pittsburgh Boston Cleveland Kansas City Portland, Ore. Buffalo Denver Los Angeles San Francisco CChicago ^ Detroit New York Seattle Cincinnati Indianapolis Philadelph ia St. Louis Canadian Branch, 5 59 Yonge Street, Toronto, Onto (131) Model M2, Price $125 Other Models from $50 Jo $145 See Catalogue 178 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Allgust I D, IDII E^S-KEROSENE gasoline, distillate—any fuel We Pay the Freight oiL C h e ape s t, Safest, Simplest PO WER for Electric Lighting, Wa t e r S y ste m s, Vac uu m Cleaners. everything. Comple t e plans furnished, expert ad v i ce . Adapted, for basementi anvwbere. Women can operate. Comes cnm-plele. Ten exclusive revul utionizing teatlues. FREE TRIAl, No ohligation till satisfied. 10·yp;\1· gl1fU'au tee. “Ejm-yine Facts” {ree ; tvritefor it NOW. ' J ELLIS ENGINE CO. 52 Mul\eH St. Detroit, Mich. 3-12J: DID Beachy have confidence in his Curtiss Motor when he .ew over Niagara Falls and under the Bridge? Everybody knows he must have had absolute confidence. Are YOU going to have as much confidence in the motor YOU are goin g to install in Y OUR aeroplane ? You can't if it isn' t a Curtiss. There's a reason for it. Acquaintance develops confidence. Why not start right! 30 H. P. 4 cyl. Power Plant 40 H. P. 4 cyl. Power Plant 60 H. P. 8 cyl. Power Plant 75 H. P. 8 cyl. Power Plant One of these you will eventually buy. Get our proposition now. PromPt delivericJ. cunlSS lOTOIt lOlPANY Hammondsport, N. 1'. Curtiss A eJ'opiane Motor ELECTRIC Dy^!m!S SPECIAL MACHINES Grinders Polishers ROTH ELECTRIC MOTORS 198 Loomis Street. Chicago. 1115. RIFE RAM A Water Supply solves many farm troubles. Have plenty of w a t er without pumping expense or bother-jult install an aUT o ma tic Rife Ram. Raises water 30 ft. for each foot of fall-no trouble or pumping expense . Sat isfaction guaranteed . Book let, plans, estimate, Free. Kife Engine Co., 2533 Trinity Bdg., N.Y. The fi:;t The Pump that Costs Nothlug to Operate First coS rt !s nOthing ;hen compared with the day-aftei r; operating expense of pumping cost is the only cost when yon install a Niagara Hydraulic Ram It is autol!ltie. l ly opemted by water pressure, Supp lies every part of the f arm and home with r'H lnin g water withou t tr ouble or expense. Write for eatalogle AA a nd guaraTlteed estimate! NIAGARA HYDRAULIC ENG1NE CD. 750 Hee(l Ulilg. Phila. Fllctory, Chester, Pa uf'WII^m Corliss Engines, Br m wer s and Bottlers' Machinery U no VILTER MFG. CO. 899 Clinton Street, Milwaukee, Wis. us MASO NS N EW PAT. WH IP HOIST (S save expense and li ability in cident to Elevators-T Adopted by principal storehouses in New York&Boston Manfd” by VOLNEY W. lASON&(0., Inc. l-rovldence. H. I •• U. 8. A. Solders and Soldering f If you want a complete text book on Solders and the art of Soldering, giving practical, working recipes and formulr which can be used by metallurgist, the goldsmith, the silversmith, the jeweler, and the metal-worker in general, read the following Scientific American Supplements: I 112, 1384, 1481, 1610, 1622, 1434, 1533, price 70 cents by mail. f Order from your newsdealer or from MUNN & COMPANY, Inc. 'ublishers, 361 Broadway, New York Veeder Counters to register reciprocating movements or revolutions. Cut full size. Booklet Free. VEEDER MFG. CO. 18 Sargeant St., Hartford, Conn. Oyc1ometerR. O(ometers. • Tachometers. Counters and Fne O astings. Represented In Great BrItain by larkt&Co", Liml'RO, 6 City Road: F inahury Square, ;&'don: E. C; Fr:, by Mkt St Co., LiMited, 107 Avenue Parmentier, Psrls; Germany, Austria-Hungary Lvpw, l.OlW&&Co., Huttea Strasse 17.2m, Berlin. ,nd Scandinavia removed, as in the case of zinc, the plate trimmed and mounted in just the same way upon a wooden block. The current used in this case, penerated by the battery described, will be about three or four amperes, and the electromotive force three volts. Fig. 1 of the illustration was etched as described on zinc, and Fig. 2 upon copper. im (<QT1D” Large Line of 01 /Ml Attachments LATHES For Foot or Power Ruitable for fillt' aeciiriito work in 1 1U repui r shoJl, garngf, tool room and m[ldliue shOll. Send for (atlllogne R SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 695 “ater Stree t Seneca Falls, N. Y •• U.S.A. THE SEBASTIAN Ii-INCH ENGINE LATHE HIGH GRADE LOW PRICE Automobile Builders. Garages. Repair and Genera I Jobbing Shop s find this the ideal lathe for their work. Catalog free. The S ebastian Lathe Co . 120 Culvert St., CinCinnati, Ohio This GRINDER Has no pumps, no valves. No piping required to supply it with water. Always ready for use. Simplest in construction, most efficient in operation. Price will interest you. F.&Jno. Barnes Co. Established 1872. P^ 1999 Ruby St. Rockford, III. V8u USE GRINDSTONES ? If so we can supply you. All sizes mounted and lnmolnted, always jkepc in stock. Remember, Ws mnkB a specialty nf selecting at o nes for all special purp(se., :end fo r catalogue*'0 ." The CI,EVELAND STONE O . 6th Floor. Hickox Bldg., Cleveland, 0. Models&Experimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY • •• E. V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankfort St., N. Y. MODELS :fS7M/,W/?/M% Experimental&Model Work Circular and Advice Free W m. G ar d am &' S on, 80-86 Park Place, N. Y. _____________________________. THE SCHWERDTLE STAMP CO. j SEEL STAMPS LETTERS&fiGURES. BRIDGEPORT CONN. Complete lists of manufacturers in all lines supplied at short notice at moderate rates. Small and special lists compiled to order at various prices. Estimates should be obtained in advance MUNN&CO. Inc. PUBLISHERS List Department Box 773 New York t' To manufacture MgA: -f.; SPECIALTID, 20 years , : ' Is, Tools aod Special! Machinery, Expert work, Complete equipment. ?ATlONIL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS 4 12 So-Cllnton Street, - Chicago, III. How Manufacturers Can Increase Their BUSINESS Read Carefully, Every Week, the Classified Advertising Column = IN THE Scientific American Some week you will be likely to fnd an inquiry for something that you manufacture or deal in. A prompt reply may bring an order. WATCH IT CAREFULLY m M aglca I A ppara t US. Grand Book Catalogue. 'ver 700 engraVIngs 25c, Parlor Tricks Ca t alogue. f ree . M ARTINK A&CQ .. Mfrs., .»3 S ixth Ave .• New York RUBBER Expert Manufacturers Fine Jobbing Work PARKER, STEARNS & CO., 288-290 Sheffield Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. HUHEfOll IlIBRlCATlsVo"? ANYTHING •«•*• tCHBESLYa -;: 118.124 North Clinton st. YacaMi(U !£tf£USA CRUDE ASBESTOS DIRECT FROM MINES R. H. MARTIN, OFFICE. ST.PAUL BUILDING 220 B way, New Yurk, PREPARED ASBESTOS FIBRE lor Manufacturers use AllgUst lD, IDll SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN l,!l A PLAN for INVESTORS We invite your inquiries regarding our pJan for the purchase of Railroad and Industrial Stocks, whereby WE COM B1NE Higher Inco m e ' In crease in Value, Absolute Safety, on purchases of active listed securities. We will send you upon request description of this plan, which is superior to buying stocks upon partial payments WitllOut eliminating partial payment advantages, "rRAC11CAL LVESTMENTS" LEAVITT&GRANT Established 1903 buhers Consolidated Stock Exchange, New York 55 Broadway, New York Branch Office-48 West 22nd Street Valuable Books Handy Man's Workshop and Laboratory Compiled and edited by A. RUSSELL ROND. l2mo., 467 paaes, 370 illustrations. Price, $2.00. t This is a compilation of hundreds of valuable sugaestions and ingenious ideas fOf the mechanic and those mechanically inclined, and tells how all kinds of jobs can be done with home-made tools and appliances. The suggestions are practical, and the oolutions to which they refer are of frequent occurrence. It may be regarded as the best collection of ideas of resourceful men published, and appeals to all those who find use for toois either in the home Of workshop. The book is fully illustrated, in many cases with working drawings, which show clearly how the work is done. Concrete Pottery and Garden Furniture By RALPH C. DAVISON. 16mo., 196 pg, 140 illustrations. Price, $1.50. *i This book describes in detail in a most practical mannef the various method3 of casting concrete for ornamental and useful purposes. It tells how to make all kinds of concrete vases, ornamental flower pots, concrete pedestals, concrete benches, concrete fences, etc. Full practical instructions are given for constructing and finishing the different kinds of molds, making the wire forms of frames, selecting and mixing the ingredients, covering the wire frames9 modeling the cement mortar into form9 and casting and fnishing the various objects. With theinforma. 6 given in th is book, any handy man o r novice can make many useful and ornamental objects in cement fOf the adornment of the home or garden. The information on color “ work alone is worth many times the cost of the book. .ny of these books will be sent, postpaid, on receipt of advertised price MUNN&CO ., Inc., 'Pub/I'shers 36) Broadwav New York City A safe, very brilliant, power-I ful, steady, white I light, la letter than | eJectrioityorftcctylene \ I and cheaper than k:-r.:j-{ sene. Every J Amp 1st a -fimpleto self-con. tuhii'd miniature . llglil wurka. | Oleuu—bright —odorlpss -poi'tahlii, ilafleitioT.r I 2()o etyl&) for every purpose. Fully ^imnum^d, / Catlc-gfree Agents wantetl. Till: Itivv i,k;iit CO. 9r E. Sill Street C'antuu, n. The Bottle That Keeps Hot Liquids Hot 24 Hours Cold Liquids Cold 3 Days You can have hot or cold drinks while traveling, fish.ng, hunting, motoring, etc.” keep warm miik for baby. cold water for child or invalid at bedside w ithout bother. le -H ot Jars- one an d two q uarts-Keep stews, vegetables. et c ., hot without fre-desserts or ice cream cold without i< Many New Exclusive Features Pints. $LOO up; quarts, $2.50 up_ See them a t dealersw--Iook fo r nam e Icy-Hot on bottom—write for b ook. ICY·HOT BOTTLE CO. Dept. F. Ci"cinnati, O. Fire Fighting and Telephoning Both Need Team Work, Modern Tools ad an Ever Ready Plant, Everywhere Twenty men with twenty buckets can put out a small fire if each man works by himself. If twenty men form a line and pass the buckets from hand to hand, they can put out a larger fire. But the same twenty men on the brakes of a “hand tub” can force a continuous stream of water through a pipe so fast that the bucket brigade seems futile by comparison. The modern firefighter has gone away beyond the “hand tub.” Mechanics build a steam fire engine, miners dig coal to feed it, workmen build reservoirs and lay pipes so that each nozzle-man and engineer is worth a score of the old-fashioned firefighters. The big tasks of today require not only team work but also modern tools and a vast system of supply and distribution. The Bell telephone system is an example of co-operation between 75,-000 stockholders, 120,000 employees and six million subscribers. But to team work is added an up-to-date plant. Years of time and hundreds of millions of money have been put into the tools of the trade; into the building of a nation-wide network of lines; into the training of men and the working out of methods. The result is the Bell System of today-a union of men, money and machinery, to provide universal telephone service for ninety million people. American Telephone and Telegraph Company And Associated Companies One Policy One System Universal Service Learn Wate ra lng We Teach it tboruughly in as many months as It formerly took lv eaI:; Does i:ay witu tecious rgprenticeship. foney earnd n while s[Udying. Positions se: cured. Easy terms. Seed for catalog. ST. Lons WATCIIMAKING 8CIIOOL.8t. Loui., .0. Your uATENTssS an d BUSINESS In ARIZONA Laws the most liberal. Expense the least. Ho.ld meetillis, transact hnsiness any where. Blanks. By-Laws and forms for makine stock fnll·paid for c,"iI. propmy or services. free. President Stoddard. FORM ER SECRETARY OF ARIZON A. residellt afent fur many thou sand cumpauies. R eielellce: A ny bank in Ariz ona STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, Box8000 PHOENIX. ARIZONA Incorporate; N ewYork EIe· ct ric a 1 S c h 00I Ofers a theoretical and practical course in apPlied electricitf;rld O u ut limit as tO time. 1nstruci f(n, individua1 . day a:nd night school. Equiiment complete aid uP-to-date. S(uden slearn h;i doing, an, g hy practical ap'11cation are ft i o emer fll rields of electrical industry fully qualified. school open all yeedr. Write for free prospectus. 27 West Seventeenth Street NEW YORK FLY PAP E R S. - FORlf ULAS FOR Sticky lly Papers are contained in Scientific AmerT-can Sirpri.EMENT Nos. 1 ()), and 1 3'il. Ea c h issne contains several recipes. Price 10 cents each, from this office. and from “ll newsdealers. IN THE HEART YORK CITY Where Centers Commercial Activity and the Attractions that Draw Visitors From Every Quarter of the Globe WHERE CENTERS HOTEL LIFE FOR THE BUSINESS MAN, club-like in its hospitality. FOR THE TOURIST or sight-seeker, luxury, comlort and entertainment, after the day's outing. FOR THE F AMIL Y, home-like environments with seclusion of the opportunity of experiencing the fascination of public gatherings. THE HOLLAND HOUSE, 30th Street and 5th Avenue "Near underground and elevated railroad stations.' 180 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN August 19, 1911 JUST PUBLISHED The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Formulas The Most Complete and Authoritative Book of Receipts Published Partly Based <n the Twenty-Eighth Edition of • The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Receipts, 6dited by ALBERT A. HOPKINS, Query Editor 01 the Scientific American T HIS is practically a new book and has called for the w ork of a corps o f specialists for m ore than two years. Over 15,000 of the most useful form ulas and processes, carefully selected from a collection of nearly 150,000, are contained in this most valuable volume, nearly every branch of the useful arts being represented. Never before has such a large collection of really valuable formulas, useful to everyone, been offered to the public. The formulas are classified and arranged into chapters containing related subjects, while a complete index, made by professional librarians, renders it easy to fnd any formula desired. 'As Indispensable as a Dictionary and More Useful" FolloTing is a List of the Chaple,s: I. Accidents and Emergencies. II. Agriculture. III. Alloys and Amalgams. IV. Art and Artists' Materials. V. Beverages ; Non-Alcoholic and Alcoholic. VI. Cleansing, Bleaching, Renovating and Protecting_ VII. Cements, Clues, Pastes and Mucilages. VIII. Coloring of Metals, Bronzing, etc. IX. Dyeing. X. Electrometallurgy and Coating of Metals_ XI. Class. XII. Heat Treatment of Metals. XIIL Household Formulas. XIV. Ice Cream and Confectionery. XV. Insecticides, Extermination of Vermin. XVL Lapidary Art, Bone, Ivory, etc. XVII. Leather. XVIII. Lubricants. XIX. Paints, Varnishes, etc. XX. Photography. XXI. Preserving, Canning, Pickling, etc. XXII. Rubber, Cutta-Percha and Celluloid. XXIII. Soaps and Candles. XXIV Soldering. XXV. Toilet Preparations, including Perfumery. XXVI. Waterproofing and Fireproofing. XXVII. Writing Material. Send for detailed illustrated prospectus. Octavo (6 U x 8 % inches), 1077 Pages, 200 Illustrations 'Price, in Cloth, $5.00, Net. Half Morocco, $6_50, Net, Postpaid MUNN&CO., Inc., “Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York City JUST PUBLISHED I A New and Authoritative Book MONOPLANES and BIPLANES THEIR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION&OPERATION The Application of Aerodynamic Theory, with a Complete Description and Comparison of the Notable Types By GROVER CLEVELAND LOENING. B.Sc .. A.M .. C.E. CRITICISM .. The first treatise upon aviation which we have seen whicp may be styled really complete •••••••••Actual aeroplane designing is the central theme of the volume ••••••••The prominent types are exhaustively compared ..... The illustrations are a notable feature." -Rochesler, N. ,Y., Chronicle. 'A very complete account of the theory of heavier than air flying machines with a technica I description of nearly all the present types of aeroplanes ••••••••• Presents in compact shape t he substance of aerodynamic theory ..... Easily comprehensible to the reader who can concentrate his attention .....It is the most scientific popular book on the aeroplane that we have come across so far." -New York Sun. .. Many writers have failed to realize the demand which exists for aero literature in which mathematical deductions are a necessary but not predominant part of a cor prehensive exposition of the entire subject_ For a writer to steer a straight course between the mazes of trigonometry on the one hand, and the superficialities of mere discussion in a popular vein on the other is to accomplish what can be done only by one who is himself a thorough Gtudent in the finer details, but who can sufficiently divorce himself from the mathematical atmosphere as to present the whole subject from a broad standpoint, making it readily intelligible and informative to the less erudite seeker after knowledge." -Phila. Inquirer. .. Students learned in aerodynamics and laymen ordinarily interested in aviation will fnd equal delight in reading ' Monoplanes and Biplanes: The book is a welcome addition t o the libraries of those who have realized the future of aerial navigation, and desire a work treating solely of the heavier than air machines written by an acknowledged expert and with no hobbies hidden in the discussion." -Basion Journal. .. While enthusiastic in his interest as becomes one who has written so superb a volume, Mr. Loening is also rigidly accurate as the most exacting scientist could demand. Here is a work which is at once a history and textbook which may be depended upon for everything that is within the range of actual knowledge. To say that • Monoplanes and Biplanes· is at ODce new and authoritative with reference to the entire subject and that it is practical in the highest degree is tIe just praise due to this volume_"-Buffalo News. .. Mr. Loening has written, in fact, for the man who wishes to apply practically the experience that has already been gained." -·New York Time •. 12mo. (6x8> inches) 340 Pages, 278 Illustrations. Attractively bound in cloth. Price $2.50 net, postpaid A n illustrated descriptive circular will be sent free on application. MUNN&CO., Inc., Publishers 361 Broadwa7 New York IRA REMSEN President of Johns Hopkins University, will tell in the Scientific American for next week how the UNITED STATES REFEREE BOARD came to be appointed, explaining certain facts not generally known to the public. This article was prepared for the September Magazine issue and in its place, President Remsen will write for that issue on Artificial Rubber. Next week's Issue will also contain an appeal to farmers to CONVERT ABANDONED MILLS INTO ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS by T. Commerford Martin, and Putnam A. Bates, who will explain just how this can be done. TWO THOUSAND FOOT AIRSHIP OF THE FUTURE IS the title of an interesting article by Carl Dienstbach. MARK TWAIN'S WORKS at 4- 2 Pnee 25 VOLUMES The humor, the philosophy, the humanity, the gentle kindness of Mark Twain counteract the strain of our intense American life. Every American Needs His Mark Twain Because- His great books afford the relaxation which is absolutely necessary for every busy man and woman. Because— They make one realize the joy of living. Because- They keep a keen edge on one's faculties. Because- These 25 volumes include the best travel books published, with most entertaining descriptions of places of interest all over the world, Because- They are wonderful character builders; they stand for straightforwardness, honesty and sincerity. Because- They enable one to make Mark Twain's intimate knowledge of human nature and knowledge of life part of one's mental equipment—for all time. Because- They afford the best way-short of years of experience-to learn these things which are real. One may benefit by the author's rich experience-use his powers of observation-learn human nature through his pages. Because- The reading of his books will give one more genuine pleasure, and more real, intellectual enjoyment than anything else money can buy. Because- The new Author's National Edition of his works makes it possible for you now to secure All Mark Twain's Works 1 the Former S at TZ D * X - rrice X the Former Send for this book and full particulars about Mark Twain's Works. It will cost you nothing You are invited to use this coupon fl«S^>--^ Lttt!i> StoriiS* About MARK TWAIN What the Lo uisville “T imes” s ays of this \ook : ” Messrs. Harper&Brothers of New York have_ issued a delightful linle booklet in exploitation 01 the Author's National Edition 01 Mark Twain, entitled 'Little Stories About Mark Twain,' ornamented with an unusually fine photographic illustration of the beloved American j humorist. Thirty-odd pages are devoted to remarks of the fam-ous man which commemorate his eternal youth. Thej publishers are offering m at hall price these writings and on th installment plan. A, Harper & Brother* Franklin Sq, lew York City Please send without cost to lne “ Little Stories about Mark Twain” and. particulars about the Author's NatioXal Edition of l1ark Twaix)s 'Vorks. S. A. 8-19. Address