The Doutre Automatic Stabilizer T HE all too numerous accidents to aviators place the question of automatic stabilizers in the very forefront of interesting inventions. The ideal equi· librator would be one which would act in two directions, both laterally and longitudinally. Many attempts along this line have been made but hitherto have proved unsatisfactory. A very interesting new departure is a stabilizer invented by M. Doutre. . This stabilizer has been installed upon a Farman biplane actuated by a 60·H.P. Renault motor. The well·known aviator, Didier, flew with the machine first alone and then with “ passenger, and performed several flights which demonstrated the efficacy of the apparatus. In one trial the machine flew very successfully in a 36·mile wind. The Doutre stabilizer acts upon the longitudinal equilibrium only. Under three conditions this equilibrium is affected, viz., by the slowing down of the motor, gusts of wind from the front, and gusts of wind from behind, which Ciuse the machine either to rear or plunge to the ground. To overcome the pitching, the aviator must turn the elevator in the direction of the pitching. But the pilot has not always the presence of mind nor even the time to carry out dl these movements. The automatic stabilizer; it is claimed, claims to fulfill these functions spontaneously. Th? stabilizer comprise' two essential parts: First, a plane surface, moving a vertical plate in a sliding frame, and presenting its face to the wind, which causes i to recede more or less according to the intensity of the wind. This plate practically constitutes :m anemometer which responds to the pressure of the relative wind. Secondly, there is a member which follows the displacements of the plates and transmits them through a system of joints to the horizon tal rudder or elevator. The movable resisting surface is a rectangular aluminium plate supported upon rods which slide in the frame of'the machine, being maintained in a fX0d ]losition through the tension of a spring | when the wind is normal. If the relative wind increases, the aluminium plate moves back in proportion to the resistance and returns to its former position as soon as the excess pressure disappears. Similarly, in case there is too little pressure, the aluminium plate moves forward under the action of the spring. The sliding rods of the aluminium plate are connected with a central rod T which enters the cylinder of the compressed air auxiliary motor, controlling the piston of the same; it passes out of the other end of the cylinder, and actuates a lever L which •controls the horizontal rudd0r of the aeroplane. It will, therefore, he understood that when the springs and lever joints are suitably adjusted, the movements of the aluminium plate und"r the action of the relative wind cause the adm'ssion of compressed air into the auxiliary motor, in proportion to the displacements of the piston rod, in one direction or the other. In this way, through the intermediary of the rear rod, the horizontal rudder or e'evator is au tomatically eontrolled. This apparatus, while effective by itself, is supplemented by another member which takes account of another factor bearing upon the equilibrium, namely, the weight and inertia of the masses. Thus, for instance, if the aeroplane should start to plunge forward arid downward, the increasing relative wind would lorce the aluminium plate to its rearmost limiting position, and the elevator would be set in its :ormal position; | the aeroplane would then continue in its course, heading for the ground; it would require a special act on the part of the pilot to restore the machine to its normal position. This, then, would not be completely automatic worKing. To overcome this defect the inventor provides a pair of small weights M mounted upon the sliding rods of the aluminium plate P, and each maintained by two springs in I such position that in normal flying the I small weights follow the rods in all their movements. But as soon as the speed of the aeroplane changes, which will happen every time its course is deflected frOIn the horizontal, these weights are either thrown forward or backward on account of the change of speed and their inertia. They thus overcome the tension of one or the other of the springs between which they are placed, and are displaced with reference to the rod upon which they rest. These weights are connected with the piston rod of the auxiliary motor, which thus receives from them the atmospheric impulses impinging upon the aluminium plate. In consequence of this not only is the auxiliary motor (through the intervention of the aluminium plate and the motion of the small masses together) placed under the influence of the relative wind but also under the influence of the longitudinal pitching Of the aeroplane, through the motion of the small masses alone. Accordingly, the elevator obeys automatically one or the other of these external influences, and the longitudinal equilibrium is restored. An Early Transatlantic Boat Cruise T HE accompanying illustration, reproduced from an old volume of the lllustrated London News (June, 1870), presents a picture of quaint historic interest. The little boat, the “City of Ra· gusa,” measured 20 feet in length and f feet in breadth of beam. Her registered burden was 1% tons. There was a small cabin, 3 feet wide and 4 feet 6 inches high. The boat, in its original form, belonged to the ship, “Breeze,” which foundered in a storm in the Irish Channel, and fourteen of the crew were saved by the boat. As shown in our illustration .. she is rigged as a yawl, arranged to set square sails on both masts, spreading altogether 70 yards of canvas in 8 or q sails. But she is also furnished with a two·bladed screw propeller which-so we read-can be worked either by hand or by a windmill, as shown in the illustration. We leave it to the reader to malic' his own comments on this “mechanism.” Two valiant men, Capt. Buckley and an Austrian·Italian, named Pietro Di Costa, planned to cross the Atlantic in this tiny craft. They left Cork Harbor on the evening of Thursday, and were last sighted by a pilot cutter forty miles west of Cape Clear. Of their subsequent fate our source tells us nothing. Electric Lamps for Miners T HE following copy of the conditions of entry for a competition to be conduoted by the British !'overnment for advertising a safe and efficient type of electric lamp for miners has been furnished by the United. States Bureau of Mines, also by the British Ambassador in Washington. His Britannic Majesty's government announces that, in order to encourage the production of safe and efficient types of electric lamps for miners, a colliery proprietor has placed at beir disposal the sum of £1,000 ($4,866.65) to be offered as a prize for the best lamp or lamps fulflling the requirements specified below. Mr. Charles Rhodes (a fofmer president of the Institute of Mining Engineers) and Mr. Charles H. Merz (a member of the departmental committee on the use ()f electrici ty in mines ) have cons en ted to act as judges. The conditions of the competition are as follows: 1. The competition will be open to persons of any nationality. 2. It will be in the discretion of the judges to award the who'e of the prize for | I the lamp which they consider to be the 214 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN September 2, 1911 best, or to divide the prize, or to make no award if no lamp appears to them to be of sufficient merit. 3. Lamps must be addressed care of '. Rhodes, Esq., at the Home Office testing station, Rotherham, England, and must reach the testing station not later than December 31st, 1911. A spare globe should accompany each lamp. The req uiremems which should be fulflled by any lamps submitted for competition are as follows: 1. The lamp should be of sound mechanical construction, so as to withstand rough usage. 2. The lamp should be of simple construetion and easy to maintain in good order and repair. 3. The lamp should be so constructed as to render impossible the ignition of inflammable gas either within or without the lamp. 4. The lamp battery should be so constructed that any liquid which it may contain canno” be spilled when the lamp is in use, and means should be provided for dealing with any gas which may be generated by the battery. 5. The materials used and the construction should be such that metals and other parts will not be liable to deterioration by corrosion as a result of the action of the “electrolyte,” etc., used in the battery. 6. The lamp should be effectively locked so that it cannot be opened without detection. 7. The lamp should be capable of giving an amount of light not less than 2 candle-power continuously for a period of not less than 10 hours. 8. The light should be well distributed outside the lamp. A movable reflector to concentrate or to shield the light may be provided. In addition to the above requirements, regard will be paid to (a) the first cost of the lamp; (b) the cost of maintenance; (e) convenience in handling, and (d the) weight of the lamp when charged and ready for use. Trade-mark Rules Amended ACTING Secretary of the Interior ^"Samuel Adams recently approved the recommendation of the Commissioner of Patents that certain amendments to the Trade-mark Rules be adopted to take effect November 1st, 1911. The amendments are as follows: To be inserted immediately following Rule 45: 45a. If an applieant fail to prosecute his application within one year prior to November 1st, 1911, Ot· for one year after the date when the last official notice of any action by the office was mailed to him, the application will he held to be abandoned as set forth in Rule 57a. 45b. Whenever action upon an application is suspended npon reqnest of an applicant and whenever an applicant has been called upon to put hb apllUeation in coudition for interference, the period of one year running against such applica tian shall he considered as beginning at th(' da te of the last official action preceding such actions. 45c. Acknowledgment of the filing of au application is an official action. Suspensions will only be granted for good and sufficient cause and for a rea"mable time specified. 4:d. Only one susjwnsion must be approved hv the Examiner of Trade-marks. Any furtllt'r suspension must he approved by the Commissioner. The frst paragraph of Rule 56 is cancelled. This paragraph is as follows: ,6. From an adverse decision of the examiner in charge of tmde-marks upon an applicant's right to register a trade-mark, or to renew the registratiou of a trade-mark, or from a decision of the examiner in charge of interferences, an appeal may be taken to the Cotlmissioner in person, upon payment of the fee reqnired by law, For the above there is substituted the following: 5(. Every applicant whose mark has been twice refnsed registration by the Examiner of Trade-marks for the sallt) reasons upon gronnds involving the merits of the applicaHon, may appeal to the Commissiouer in person upon payment of the fee required by law. HICI refusal may be considered hy the Examiner of Trade-marks as final. 'here must hav(' been two refusals to l"Igis tel the mark as originally filed, or, if amenied in matter of substance, the amended mark, and, except in cases of division, all preliminary and intermediate questions relating to matters not affecting the merits of the application must have been settled before the case can bp appealed to the Commissioner. The remaining paragraph of Rule 56 stands unchanged. Following Rule 57, which relates to the taking of appeals in trade-mark cases to the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, there is inserted the following: 57a. An abandoned trade-mark application is one w11ich has not been prosecuted within one year prior to November 1st, 1011, or completed and prepared for examination within: one year aIter the filing of the petition, or which the applicant has failed to prOSlcutl within on , year after any action therein of whIch notlce has been duly gIven, or wh.Ich the applicant has expressly abandoned by liI-ing in the ofllce a written declaration of abandonment, signed by himself and assignee, if any, identifying his application by serial number and date of filing. 57b. Prosecution of an application to save it from ahandonment must include such proper action as the condition of the case may require. The admission of an amendment not responsive to the last official action, or refusal to admit the same, and any proceedings relative tllet'eto, sllall not operate to save the application from abandonment. 57c. Before an application abandoned by failure to complete or prosecute can be revived as a pending application it must be shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the delay in the prosecution of the same was unavoidable. 57d. When a new application is filed in place of au abandoned or rejected application, a new petition, statement, declaration, drawing and fee will be required. The foregoing amendments to the rules of the Patent Office relating to the registration of trade-marks, for the most part, are a paraphrase of similar rules that have long been adopted and used in connection with the prosecution of applications for patents. Thm, 47a corresponds with Rule 77 of the Rules of Practice; 56 corresponds with Rules 133-134; 57a corresponds with Rule 171; 57b with Rule 171; 57c with Rule 172, and 57d with Rule 173, etc. At the present time the practice in the Division of Trade-marks is and has been not to consider an application abandoned by reason of the failure of an applicant to prosecute it within a specified time. There is every reason why this practice should not continue. Under the present practice, the first application filed under the Act of February 20th, 1905, which was acted upon soon after, must be taken up for action whenever the applicant de8ires, even if no action has been taken by applicant in the intervening time. As the result of this procedure and the accumulation of a large number of cases, the Trade-mark Division is seriously handicapped in the prosecution of its necessary business. It is estimated that there are now on file about sixteen thousand cases not “awaiting action” by the Office, and that three-;ourths of these cases filed prior to January 1st, 1909, have not been acted upon within one year. Under the rules as amended to tnke effect November 1st, 1911, it is believed that the present difficulties involved in making an issue 8earch would be materially lessened. This search is made once a week by each of the seven assistant examiners and necessitates examining every one of the sixteen thousand drawings. This has become a severe burc_en and was rapidly becoming more sa. It is estimated that at the end of ten years there will probably be twenty thousand more drawmgs whICh, added to those that are already filed, would make thirty-six thousand drawings. To search these once a week is an appalling task. When it is also considered that the search of the examiners is increasing in length each year, due to the increase in the number of registrations granted, it is easy to see that the system in vogue could not indefinitely continue. It was desired, therefore, to confine, so far as possible, the energies of the examiners to the search proper rather than expending them uselessly in searching each week a large number of practically dead applications. This saving in time and labor on the part of the examiners will greatly facilitate better and more expeditious examinations. The rules as amended seek to accomplish only, in connection with trade-mark applications what is now accomplished in connection with applications for patents by similar rules. The language of the rules follow somewhat closely the corresponding rules, so far as the language employed in connection with applications for patents is deemed applicable to applications for the registration of trade-marks. Moreover these rules are regarded as being in every way consistent with the statutes. Notes for Inventors Losing One's Way in the Air.-An army aviator, Capt. Paul Beck, flying from ,0 11 ege Park ' Md “, recently lost his way for an hour or so m the clouds and .anded fnally over in Montgomery County, miles out of his course. It appears that the ordinary mariner's compass is not satisfactory for use in the air, since the aviator cannot determine, after he loses sight of the earth, the extent to which he may have drifted laterally from his course. The incident has stimulated renewed interest in the subject and Capt. Chambers, who has charge of naval aeronautics, is continuing his efforts to devise some means whereby aeronauts may be able to determine the course with reasonable accuracy. A Medal for a Printing Office Employee. -On behalf of the Public Printer, Vice-President Sherman has presented the assistant foreman of the foundry section of the Government printing office at Washington, D. C, with a gold medal for an invention, hygienic in its nature, and operating to reduce the danger to health, resulting from graphite dust in electro-typing and printing. A Domestic Cream Separator.-A domestic cream separator embodied il a milk b ott I e 0 f th e f orm commonI y used b y da1'rymen l'n del1'vering milk to customers is shown in a patent, No. 999,747, to Ada B. Brown of Seattle, Wash. It has an L-shaped tube Journaled In an opemng In its side at abou t the base of the neck and having an upturned wing in the bottle which, by turning the horizontal journaled wing, can be set to different heights to take cream from different levels and discharge it through the horizon tal wing to the outside of the bottle. A Fireproof Coil for Electrical Apparatus. —Seeking to provide a fireproof coil for electrical apparatus, Charles E. Skinner of Wilkinsburg, Pa., assignor to the Westinghouse Electric&Manufacturing Company, has patented No. 999,893, a coil which has a plurality of turns of conducting material with a strip or layer of metal foil interposed between the adjacent turns, the foil being first treated to provide an insulating film on its surface. A Moving Spiral Staircase.-The Otis Elevator Company has obtained a patent, No. 999,885, for an elevator which has a conveyer transporting between different levels in which the direction of movement is clockwise and contra-clockwise. The elevator is in the form of a moving stairway, having ascending and descending series of steps which travel in spiral paths in opposite directions about a common center of curvature. The inventor is Charles Leeberge:: of New York CIty. Printing by Sound.-A method of printing by sound is the subject of a patent, No. 999,97i, to Arthur C. Ferguson of Brooklyn, assignor of eleven-sixteenths to Lyman C. Smith of Syracuse, N. Y. By the method, the sound waves are recorded by utilizing a succession of said waves to initiate the operation of mechanism actuated by a separate source of energy for printing a legible character corresponding to certain tone eharacteristics of said waves. In othr words, the character printing mechanism is actuated by a separate source of energy and the waves are utilized to control such source of energy. LEG^AL NOTICES 1 ATENTS If you have an invention which you wish to patent you can write fully and freely to Munn&Co. for advice in regard to the best way of obtaining protection. Please send sketches or a model of your invention and a description of the device, explaining its operation. All communications are strictly confidential. Our vast practice, extending over a period of more than sixty years, enables us in many cases to advise in regard to patentability without any expense to the client. Our Hand Book on Patents is sent free on request. This explains our methods, terms, etc., in regard to PATENTS, TRADE MARKS, FOREIGN PATENTS, etc. All patents secured through us are described without cost to the patentee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. MUNN&COMPANY 361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK Branch Office, 625 F Street, Washington, D. C. PA T E M T ^ SECURED OR FE E /* 1 E- FN 1 S RETURNED Free re port as to Pa t entability. Ill ustra ted G uide Book, a nd W h at To Invent witb Lbt.t of l n ventions Wanted and Prizes offered for inventlOns sent free. VICTOR J. FV ANS&CO .. Washington, D.C. Classified Advertisements Advertislllg 1U this column j. 7:") cents a line. No iess than four nor more tha n i2 Ji nes a ccepted. Count seven words to the line. All orders lllust be accompanied by a reritlance. Further information sent 00 req uest. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES WHATEVER YOU MAY BE MANUFACTUH1NG or tbmking of manufacturing may be advanLageously manufact ured in Wi lm in gtun, Delaware. I is on the Delaware Rive r and on t le ma tn lines of the P enn sylvania and B.&O. Rai1road. It is -urrounded bJ beautiful country aDd is supplied by excellent markets. :Ianufacturer and operatives can \e pleasantly and economically honsecl. It has already large m:nufacturiug mterests, snob as sbip building, (,Ir huilding. morocco works. textIle works, tooacco works and powner worls. If you are in any way mterestec write for furthpf particulars to the Development Department, Wilmington&Phihulplpl,ia 'l'raction Company. 003 Market Street, Wilmington, Del. WHATEVFR VOU MA Y BE MANUFACTURING or thinking of manufacturing may he advantageously manufHctured in Chester. Pa. It. is on the Delaware Hiver and on the main lines of the Pennsylvania and B.&o. Ra.lroac . I t is surrounded by beautiful country and is supflied by excellent sts, Manufacturers and op eratives ran ; : p;asantly and l:conomically housed. It bas alrea'iy large silk works, steel works. textile works. enline works. The Baldwm ElectrIC Works are now enlal"ng their plant, recently e'tabIlshed here. If you are ln any way Interested wnte t( r further particulars to tbe DejelOpment D;;a1nt, ; er P !gusy I va.ia Traeti on Pct any, 13th&Kdgemont Avenue C V ter. Pa. MAIL DEAUERS-” rite for our 25 bil propo8itions. AU new -no competition. Make 95 per cent. profit on eierr 8 lla K oraer. ffewleaders sent free CoHlete outfit. 10c. MaiI' 'e alers Wl'esar e House, 412 Franklin BUilding-, Chicago. PATENTS FOR SALE. A RTrF'lc [AL RAIN.-New system of irri!ation COIhined with electrified water. Best and <heapest fertil-izer. Patented. Capital wanted to exploit same or 'Ill work on royalty basis. Patent for sale fo r reIlloving Reale from fruit trees :. Olsson, 32 \ V. 91 h St . . N.Y. CIty. FOR :ALE. Outright, Patent No. 892.081, Animal DumT'. A time and labor saver in dlppjl afimals. DeRtined to fill a long felt want. Very simple. For particulars. address Roy L. Plummer. Edinburg, Ill. REAL ESTATE. CALIFORNIA LAND, plamed and operated by ex-perts, is a splendid investment. Black tAB be-t of all crops: Write. GeraJd1on ('ruit Co., Newcastle. CalIfornia. (PackfTs Geraldson's 1figs.) ON THK H1GHEH'l ' HILLS and LA RGES' LAKES, buy your Orange Grove, Truck Land: or 'iufer HOI.e, on a new railroad, at 9, new town sIte. F or full partlC-ulars. address C. W. Brown, Frostproof. Fla. WANTED. LOCAL REPRESENT A IT VE I ANTED.-Sp1endid ineome assured right man to act as our remresentative ufrer learnmg our bllsiIles8 thoroughly b I mail. tormer experience unnecessary. All we require is honesty, abIlity, ambition and :illing:ss to l7n i lucrative business. No soliciting orrraveli;g. 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A mathematical apparatlS. adaplable for sChofls. homes and libraries; practical and convlnCIngj showiV Longitude, rlme and Distance together. For descrl.ptive CIrcular and booklet, write C. A, lfert, Monroe, W is. MOTORCYCT, ES CHEA P.-Send to·day for free catalog 01 new and used motorcycles. Al-o rotorcycle acces80ries and attachable motor outf I ts tor converttng bicycles into motorc:cles. Shaw Manufacturing CQmpany, Dept. 24. Gale8bur!, Kans. TELFSCOPES AND SPECULi- Reflepting Telescopes for amateur's use. First. cJass defnItIOn. Reason able prices. Send for fuJI partICQlars. Ransom&Prahl, 3315 Norttl Avenue, Milwaukee, WisconsIn. September Q, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 2 I 5 The Heavens in September (( “",.IUl/cd J Im p^ije SOS.) when she rises a little earlier than Mereury. On the 24th the two planets are in conjunction; that is they are as close to one another as their apparent paths allow; but in this case their distance is unusually large-over nine degrees·-Mercury being the farthest north. Mars is in Taur ? s, between the Pleiades and Aldebaran I the mIddle of the month, and rises about 9: 30 P. M. Though only about half as bright as he will be at opposition in November he is already a very conspicuous object. Jupiter is evening star in Virgo, and sets a lIttle after 8 P. M. on the 15th. Saturn is in Aries, approaching opposition and rises at about 8: 45 P. M. on the same date. Uranus is in Sagittarius and comes to the meridian at 9: 10 P. M. on the 1st and 7:16 on the 30th. Neptune is morning Sial' in Gemini, rising about 1 A. M. in the middle of the month. The Moon is full at 11 A. M. on the 8th, in the last quarter at 1 P. M. on the 15th, new at 9 A. M. on the 22d, and in her first quarter at 6 A. M. on the 30th. She is nearest us on the 17th, and farthest away on the 1st, and again on the 29th. She is in conjunction with Uranus on the 4th, Saturn on the 13th, Mars on the 14th, Neptune on the 17th, Mercury and Venus on the morning of the 21st, and Jupiter on the night of the 25th. At 11 A. M. on September 23rd the sun crosses the celestial equator, entering the sign of Libra, and, in the old phrase, still used in almanacs, “autumn commences." How Animals are Taught Their Tricks THE training of animals, to teach them to perform all sorts of entertaining tricks, is a task that requires perhaps a special talent on the part of the trainer, but above all demands patience and a thoroughly methodical procedure. Let us begin with the dog, and see how he is taught his tricks. We COImence with the simplest, and gradually work up to the most complex and apparently impossible teats. The first thing every dog must learn is his name. Select a short, sharp-sounding name, and stick to it. Never call him anything else. If you have several dogs, the name is taught on the same principle. Divide their food, and then, placing a piece on the ground, call each in turn by his name, and give him the food when he comes for it. Send the others back if they come forward out of their turn. By and by they will learn that a certain name is always associated with a certain dog. Ramble among the dogs, and call out one of their nalJles every now and then. If the right dog comes to you, reward him with a piece of cracker. Pay no attention to fhe other dogs. They will learn very soon; and the first great lesson-dependence and obedience—will have been learned. Having taught a dog to fetch and carry -which he will easily learn-the next thing is to teach him to go and get any object called for. Place a glove on the foor; then say to the dog, “Fetch the glove,” putting the accent on the last word. Then, when he has done this several times, place a shoe on the floor; and teach him to fetch this in a similar mannero Now place both objects on the ground, and teach him to fetch either one, as asked for-rewarding him when he brings you the right one, and rebuking him when he fetches the wrong, which you take from him and replace. He will soon learn to distinguish the articJ.es, when a third may be substituted, and so on until a number are on the floor. You should then go into the next room, taking the dog with you; and send' him in to fetch any article you mention. Af;er a little time, he will bring you the right one every time. Next, teach him differences in color. Place a red object on the floor, and a blue one beside it. Teach him to fetch you the article called for as you did before, being careful to reward him every time he brings you the right handkerchief. Then put down a green object, a purple, a yellow one, and so on; until fnally the needed array of colors can be placed for selection. Next, he should be taught the articles of furniture-table, chair, etc. He must go to each one as you call out its name' Finally, (ombine some of the previous commands: “Place the glove on the chair"; “Get the handkerchief, and place it on the table,” etc. At first this should be said very slowly, and only half the command repeated at once; but the halves of the sentence may be gradually blended together, until you can say it as you would to any individual; and the dog will obey your command. To a certain extent, also, dogs may be taught the letters of the alphabet, the numbers of spots on cards, large dominoes ' etc. The method of training them is simply one of constant repetition. Cards bearing the letter or number are placed in front of the dog, and the letter or number is called out aloud, and at the same time the dog is shown which one it is. After several trials, he will select this one and disregard the others, when it is called' for. This once learned, the next letter is taught in like manner, until a large number are recognized by the dog, and he is able to pick out any of them at will. Plants are also to be selected in a similar manner, from a row placed on the table, and so forth, H mnst be admitted, however, that most feats of this character, as performed in public, are the result of some trick, rather than any marvelously elaborate training on the part of the dog, which would be necessary if these feats were genuine—granting them to be possible at alL As a matter of fact, most of these apparently marvelous feats are based on a very few cues, given to the dog at the appropriate time, to which he has been taught to respond in a simple manner. A few examples will make this clear. Many of these feats are performed by means of a cue word, in just the same kind of way as “mind-readers” entertain and puzzle their audience. As soon as this word is given, it may be in the course of a sentence, the dog knows that he is to perform a certain action. It is not necessary for him to understand the whole of the sentence; only.one word in it. As soon as that word is caught, the action is performed. Each action corresponds to a certain cue word. Again, there is the method of training by the use of the eyes. The dog watches his master's eyes, and when his master glances in any direction-at a card, for example-the dog can follow his glance, and Dick out the card in turn. Or the dog may be told to bark a certain numbel', in which case the dog watches his master's face closely, and simply barks until the eyes, or some maement, tell him to stop. He does not have to know that he barks nine times. All he has to know is that he must go on barking until he is told to stop by his master's signal; and the trainer is the one who does all the counting. There are certain stage tricks which depend very largely upon the dog's memory, however-such as picking up a numbered card, and the like. The cards are arranged il a row, and the trainer stands in front of the row in which the card rests. A string is attached to the dog's neck. First, the dog is trained to go to the row of cards nearest the trainer; then, if he is inclined to pick up one too near, a slight pull on the string is given, pulling the dog up to the required number. The trainer stands at a certain distance from the table in these tricks; if close to the table, the dog knows it means card one; if farther away, card two, and if still further, card three. By care in training, the dog can be taught to pick out any required card, without in any way knowing the number written upon it. When the dog has been taught to pick up any card by means of this code, the trainer may appear to make it far more complicated by cansing the dog to add, subtract, multip1y, divide, etc. All that is necessary, of course, is that the performer himself should do the sum, mentally note the position of the card giving the answer, and indicate this card to the dog by means of some hidden code. In the same way, horses can be made to stamp out any desired number, tell the date of a coin, etc., by simply going on pawing the ground until the trainer gives them the signal to ston by means of some secret sign, unnoticed by the audience. Every man who puts on a ven^u£mJl!a has something more than a fine hat. He wears a permanent g u a r antee of satisfaction, This is the one hat that must be to your liking. The fit-the material-the style-the wear-all must be what you pay fOf- Your dealer guarantees it to you-we guarantee it to him. Do you wonder at the strong trend of public favor that has given to 'CORRECT STYLES FOR MEN' their w onderful v ogue? W h ether soft or stiff, the style s of these hats are recog nized eve rywhere as leaders. There is a von Gal m ade s tyle that s uits your hei ght, your weight, tb” shape of your face. Do you wear it? Prices $., $4 ,and $.5. At your dealer's-or, if he cannot supply you, write for Fall and Winter Style Book A lanr uc will jU your order direct from factory U you indicate style wa'ted and give hat size. your height, weight and waist measure. Add 2;W to cover expressage. We are Makers of the Celebrated $3 Offices and Salesrooms: 1173 Broadway, New York 207 Washington St-, Boston Hawes.vl fa Hat INCORPORATED Factories: Danbury, Connecticut Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canads Straw Hat Factory: B )ltimor". Mallanrl HOW TO BUILD A 5 HP. GAS ENGINE AT HOME In Scientific American Supplements, 1641 and 1642, E_ F. Lake describes simply and thoroughly how a five horse power gas engine can be built at home. Complete working drawings are published, with exact dimensions of each part ( Price by mail for the two Supplements, Twenty Cents. .. .. __ .. ( Order from your newsdealer or from MUNN & CO., Inc., PUBLISHERS, 361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK The reason why- the Scientific American holds its old readers and is gammg in circulation so rapidly is that it is interesting. We recently asked our subscribers to send us the names of people whom they believed the Scientific American would interest and the “inter-estingness n of the magazine is demonstrated by the large number of the names so received which have been added to our regular subscription list. Have you sent us a list ? If not Here is the way: Simply send us the names and addresses of the people whom you think will be interested and we will do the rest. An accurate record of all names received in this manner will be kept, and for each new subscription we get from any list we will extend the subscription of the person who sent us the list for four months. Thus if we receive three new subscriptions from any one list the subscription of the person who sent us the list will be extended for a full year. Of course you may send as many names as you wish, the greater the number of names you send the larger the number of subscriptions we will probably receive and the longer the period for which your own subscription will be renewed. Be careful to write the names and addresses plainly and don't fail to put your own name and the address at which you are receiving the Scientific American on each list you send. Address all lists to the Circulation Department, Scientific American, 361 Broadway, New York. 218 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN September 2, J 9 II EfefcK«KEROSEHE gas oline, distillate-an y fuel oil. Chea p e st, Safest. Simplest PO “El for E l ec t ric Lighting, Water 8ystems, Vacuum Cleaner everything. Complete plans fur rushed, expert adviee. Adapted for baSemllltR anvwbere \Vomen can operate. Comes Cft-plete. 'en exclusive revulutionizing features. FREE TRIAl NoobH^Liion till satisfied. lO-yiiiu- ss'iI tHI'3ntee. H J~ gme Facta” free ; V'ite ff» ¥1t7 ELLIS ENGINE CO. 52 Mullett St. Detroit, Mich. We Pavtfie Freight DJD Beachy have confidence in his Curtiss Motor when he .ew over Niagara Falls and under the Bridge? Everybody knows he must have had absolute confidence. Are YOU going to have as much confidellce in the motor YOU are going to install in YOUR, aeroplane ? You can't if it isn't a Curtiss. There's a reason for it. Acquaintance develops confidence. Why not start righU 30 H. P. 4 cyl. Power Plant 40 H. P. 4 cyl. Power Plant 60 H. P. 8 cyl. Power Plant 75 H. P. 8 cyl. Power Plant 3l One of these you will eventually buy. Get our proposition now. Prompt deliveries. (:lm'I'ISS IUOTOR COMPANY HilHIIIKlIU' port, X. r. JAGER Marine •4-Cycle Engines Skillfully deRhrned and we)) b llit. Single lever control, com-binmi.' au tomatic carburetor with spe rk a(lvauee. Develops w! de speed ranue and reli:liility undpr mo! t rrymg conditions Sizes f to 60 h. p. Send for catalog, CHAS. J. JAGER CO. 281 Franklin. cor. Batterymarch St. Boston. Mass. BARKER MOTORS "Imitated. but Not Equalled" Fine mechanical features. Honest po wer ratings. Reasonable prices. Manufactured by BARKER, Norwalk, - - - Conn. C. L. arwalk, Do you want good inf / ormation cheap ? MIT Write to us and we will refer you to a WJ Scientific American Supplement that TlJ will give you the very data you need ; when writing please state that you wish Supplement articles. ( Scientific American Supplement articles are written by men who stand foremost in modern science and industry. ( Each Scientific American Supplement costs only ten cents. But the information it contains may save you hundreds of dollars. ( Send for a 1910 catalogue of Supplement articles. It costs nothing. Act on this suggestion. MUNN&CO., Inc., Publishers 361 Broadway New York City Wizard Repeating LIQUID PISTOL t{" Hill; stop Hie most viciollS dog (or man) wiUw ut pel'JIla nfnt in,uI'Y. Per- tectly safe to carry without darwer of leak:ige. Fires anii reeh:lrges by pulling the from any L . qUld. No eanridges required. Over'SIX shots I one loading-. All dealers, or by mail. SOc. Rubber-covered Holster \Vith Pistol, 55e. Money-order or U. S. stamps. No coins. 1_UtKEIl, S'l'RAUNS k CO., 298 SheiHeld Al'enue, 8100]ly", N. y ELECTRIC Z!!S .SPECIAL Grinders MACHINES Polishers "Rrffli ELECTRIC MOTORS l $$lj;omis Street, Chicago, llIs. Pump Water Without Cost You can have running water pumped to auy part of vour gubufbaii,Jwm8e or ±arm wit:out the eipense of ruhfnng'an engine. The rri\hara Hydrauru Ram rUllS hy water prelsure-its first cost is the only cost. Better than engines or wmdmills. Write tor catalogue AA, and guar:lnteed estimate. NIAGARA I[YHRAlMC ENGINE CO. 750 ][tNl Hnilding, Philad(lphln. Factor•: ('Ju·sttr. ])n. the most efficient device R I FE made for pumping water by water, R AM / Raises water 30 feet for each foot of fall.no trouble Satis* or pumpinl flPnSe, factiou guaranteed. Booktet, plans, e,ttmate, FREE. RIFE ENGINE CO. 2533Trlnity Bldg., N. Y. As . to the animals which perform in the drcus, the elephant is among the most popular, and it seems wonderful that so unwieldy an animal can be made to perform any tricks at all. How set about training an animal of this kind? What is the first thing to be done? And how? In compelling the elephant to perform', advantage is taken of the fact that the feet of the animal are peculiarly sensitive and he dreads any injury to them. Many of his tricks are based upon this principle. Thus, he is made to place one foot upon a low pedestal; then the other foot is tapped gently. and he raises this and places it beside the other-to get it out of harm's way. The hind feet are treated similarly, in turn-the front feet being hit every time they are placed on the ground. In this way all four feet are finally placed upon the tub. The trick of inducing an elephant to partake of a meal is very simple. Animals will naturally eat anything placed before them. and it is only necessary to open a bottle of “pop” once or twice, and present it by hand, when the animal may be trusted to find out for himself how to get at its contents. In all such cases. the essence of the training consists in infinite patience, kindness, and constant repetition-showing the animal over and over again how a thing is done-in precisely the same way-and then forCing him to do it himself. Lions and tigers are always dangerous creatures to work with, and one can never be sure of them, even whSen trained. “No wild animal,” says Mr. Bostock, “is ever tamed. only trained, and the best training in the world is nothing when once the animal feels ineli ned to give way to his natural savage instincts." "In time,” continues Mr. Bostock, “ the trained animal becomes so accustomed to performing that when he sees the paraphernalia of his performance he knows exactly what is expected of him, and does it naturally and readily. The successful performance of all trained animals depends on this almost instinctive following of long-accustomed habit, together with the pleasure the exercise gives to animals habitually confined in small cages. . . . "Leopards, panthers, and jaguars are all trained in much the same manner. Mme. More'li puts them through a course of training very similar to that given the lion. They are taught to respect and look for the trainer, and have instilled into them as much awe as is ever bred in any animal-which is not saying a great deal.....Some animals train easily; others learn their lessons with great diffidence and some reluctance. What one lion may learn in a week another may learn in a month; what one tiger may do in two lessons may take another one several months to imitate feebly." Goats are very sure-footed animals, and learn to perform many tricks requiring that quality-such as standing on the end of a bamboo pole. The Hindus teach goats to do this. Hogs may be taught a number of clever tricks, and are far more intelligent than is generallY imagined. Monkeys are known to be capable of being trained to a remarkable degree. the feats of “Peter” and “Consul” being well known to the American public. They are good imitators, and excessively curious, and it is this faculty, and their ingenuity in satisfying this curiosity, which has amused many an audience; and has given rise to the popular notion that monkeys are far more intelligent than they really are. As a matter of fact, although a few of them are highly trained and intelligent, this is not the general rule. A few birds may be trained to perform simple tricks, but not many. “Fortune tellers” employ tame birds to heip them in their trade. A number of small paper envelopes are seen. in a row, one of which contains your “fortune” in the shape of a slip of paper, telling you certain platitudes about yourself. The bird picks this envelope out with his bill, from among others. How is it he. selects this particular one? Some of the envelopes have seeds glued to their back-covers, and the bird naturally picks out one which has the seed thus attached-passing over the others to get to It. In most birds, when first caught, a portion of the inner plume of the pen·feathers is cut, so that the bird cannot escape; and then the nostrils of the bird are touched with bergamot or other odorous oil, by which it is for the time so stupefied that it perches quietly on the finger. It is then taught to hop from one finger to another. In this way its training is begun. Snakes are trained by the natives of India, and no other nation has succeeded in reaching so high a degree of efficiency as these East Indians. The fangs of the snake are first extracted, so as to render it harmless; it is fed on milk, and more or less drugged a good part of the time-as are many other animals which perform in public. The peculiar character of the native music seems to hypnotize the creatures, which, under its influence, emerge from their baskets and are handled with seeming impunity by the natives. Seals are very intellfgent animals-despite their looks-and may be taught a number of tricks of an intricate character-tricks requiring a delicate' sense of balance and manipulation. Kangaroos also may be taught to box and wrestle with thir trainers, and in many ways make excellent performers. The Current Supplement ASERIAL article from the authoritative pen of Prof. H. H. Turner, of Oxford, England, begins in the current issue, No. 1861. of our Supplement. The eminent astronomer gives a most interesting account of the history and function of the Great Star Map, in the preparation of which workers all over our globe are taking part.-This issue also brings the siXth instalment of Donald Murray's article on Printing Telegraphy.-Major Bart· leU continues his most interesting discussion of “Logistics,” and the problems that arise in taking care of the bodily needs of an army in the field.-In an article on “The Dawn of Architecture” Mr. John L. Cowan brings before us a vivid Ipicture of the first steps in th, evolution of human dwellings.-A very remarkab]'e and extremely dplicate De"test for adulteration of oils with mineral or resin oils is described by A. E. Outer· bridge, Jr.-Much has been said and writwn in late years of the gyroscope and its intentional application to various purposes. That gyroscopk effects appear as uninvited guests in machinery is a fact which has to be reckoned with on aeroplanes for example. This subject is lucidly presented by Mr. A. Kapteyn.-A number of clever “Household Inventions” are reproduced from La Nature.— Mr. E. L. Thorndyke suggests an ingenious method of quantitaNve measurement for the quality of literary style, which he applies primarily to the performances of school children.-The mlna stands aghast before the figures which must be used to represnt the dimensions of some of .the objects which the modern physicist measures with comparative ease and certainty. Not so very long ago it was thought a remarkable achievement of the human mind when a numerical estimate of molecular tlimensious was gained. Now we have the electron, whose mass is about one eighteen.hundredth of that of a hydroglln atom. Prof. Pyle of Washington University gives a vivid account of these mod: ern developments. The German Artificial Sponge AN artificial sponge. the outcome of German ingenuity, is now to be had. The process of making it consists principally in the action of zinc chloride on pure cellulose. This results in a pasty, viscous mass, which is mixed with coarsely grained rock·salt. Placed in a press· mold armed with pins, the mass is pierced through and through until it appears traversed by a multitude of tiny canals, like the pores of a natural sponge. The excess of salts is subsequently removed by prolonged washing in a weak alcoholic solution. The artificial sponge swells up with water, but hardens on drying, just like its prototype; it is said to be eminently adapted for filtering water for sanitary or industrial uses, and it can bE employed for all the purposes that are usually assigned to the genuine artic'e. Valuable Books The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Formulas Edited by ALBERT A. HOPKINS. Octavo, 1077 pages. 15,000 Receipts. Cloth. $5.00; half morocco, $6.50. « This valu.ble work is a careful compilation ot about 15,000 selected f ormulas, covering nearly every branch of the usefuJ arts and i hdustries. Nevt' before has such a large collection of valuablef ormulas, useful to everyone. been offered to the public. Those engaged in any branch of industry will probably hnd in this volume much that is o practica I use in their respective ' callings. Those in search of salable articles which can be manu- , factured on a small scale, will find hundreds of most excellent suggestions. It should have a place in every laboratory, factory and home. Handy Man's Workshop and Laboratory Compiled and edited by A. RUSSELL BOND. 12mo., 467 pages, 370 illustrations. Price, $2.00. t This is a compilation of hundreds of valuable suggestions and ingenious ideas for the mechanic and those mechanically inclined. and tell, how all kinds of jobs can be done with home-made tools and appliancts. The suggestions are practical, and the solutions to which they refer are of frequent occurrence. It may be regarded as the best collection of ideas of resourceful men published, and appeals to all those who find use for tools either in the home or workshop. The book is fully illustrated, in many cases with working drawings, which show dearly how the work is done. Concrete Pottery and Garden Furniture By RALPH C. DAVISON. illustrations. Price, $1.50. 16mo., 196 “"ges, 140 4 This book describes in detail in a most practical manner the various methodJ of casting concrete for ornamental and useful purposes. It tells how to make all kinds of concrde vas., ornamental flower pots, concrete pedestals, concrete benches. concrete fences. etc. Full practical instructions are given fOI constructing and finishing the different kinds of molds, making the wire forms or frames, selecting and mixing the ingredients, covering the wire frames, modeling the cement mortar into form. and casting and finishing the various objects. With the informa-tivn given in this book. any handy man or novice can make many useful and ornamental objectsa in cement for the ador-ment of the home or garden. The information on color work alone is worth many times the cost of the book. The Design and Construction of Induction Coils By A FREDERICK COLLINS. Octavo. 295 pages, 159 illustrations. Price, $3.00. « T work gives in minute details full practical directions for making eight different sizes of coils. varying from a small one giving a one-half-inch spark to a large one giving twelve-inch sparks. The dimensions of each and every part down < to the smallest screw are given. and the d:rections are written in language easily comprehended. Much of the matter in this book has never before been published as, for instance, the vacuum drying and impregnating processes, the making of adjustable mica condensers, the construction of interlocking reversing switches, the set of complete wiring diagrams, etc. The iIIus trations have all been made from original drawings, which were made especially for this work. Industrial Alcohol Its Manufacture and Uses By JOHN K. BRACHVOGEL, M.E. Octavo, 528 pages, 107 illustrations. Price, $4.00. ” This is a practical treatise, based on Dr. Max Maercker' s Introduction to Distillation “ as revised by Drs. Delbruck and Lange. It comprises raw materials, maIting, mashing nnd yeast preparation, fermentation, distillation, rectification and purification of alcohol, alcoholometry. the value and significance of a tax-free alcohol. methods of denaturing, its utilization for light. heat and power production. a statistical review and the United States law. This is one of the most authoritative books issued on the subject and is based upon the researches and writings of the most eminent of Germany's specialists in the sciences of fermentation and dist:llation. It covers the manufac ture of alcohol from the raw material to the final rectified and purified product, including chapters on denaturing, domestic aud commercial utilization. Home Mechanics for Amateurs By GEORGE M. HOPKINS. 12mo., 370 pages, 320 illustrations. Price, $1.50. « This is a thoroughly practical book by the most noted amateur experimenter in America. It deals with wood working, household ornaments, metal working. lathe work, metal spinning. silver working. making model engines, boaers and water motors; making telescopes. microscopes and meteorological instruments, electrical chimes. cabinets, bells, night lights. dynamos and motors. electric light and an electric furnace. and many other useful articles for the home and workshop. It appeals to the boy as well as the more mature amateur and tells how to make things, the right way. at small expense. .ny 0/ these books will be sent, postpaid, on receipt 0/ advertised price MUNN&CO., Inc., “Publishers 361 Broadway New York City September 2, 191 1 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 219 *'STAR” Latrtre Line obE ulflll Attaohments !:p Foot I ATHES or Po:: L /l 1 IMjiJ Snitable fo r lin,' “eonr llte “ork in t. he I . pah· s ... p, garagl', p tool room lind ma",ine ,hoI” Send :for Catn logne II SENECA FALLS :FG. Co. 695 Wat!r Street Seneca Falls, N. Y., U.S.A. mE SEBASTIAN 15-INCH ENGINE LATHE HIGH GRADE LOW PRICE Automobile Builders. Garages, Repair and Genera I Jobbing Shop, fnd Ihis the ideal lalhe lor their work. Cala/og Iree. 1te Sebastian Lathe Co. 120 Cnlvert St .. Cincinnati, Ohio The “ BARNES” Positive Feed Upn• ght On• lls 10 to 50-inch Swine- Send for Drill Catalogue 'W. F.&Jno. Barnes Co' (Established 18.2) t 999 Ruby Street Rockford, Illinois ?8u USE GRINDSTONES P n supply you. All sizes nd unmounted, always 11 so we can noilnted and _________, ___ __ . ippr. in slock. Jieniember, we make a pecialtyof selectinK st ones for all special purposes. Seutl for catalogue “I." TheCLEVELAM) STONE CO. 6th Floor, Hickox Rid-., Cleveland, 0. Me. repairs neat and quick. Mends harness, shoes, ^_ canvas. M yers' Sewing Awl makes Lock Stitch. $1 prepaid. Big- money for £ C. A. myers Co •• 637Uexlngton Ave., Chicago, 111. A Home-Made 100-Mile Wireless Telegraph Outfit .f R ead Scientific Amer-° r Ican Supplement 1605 lor a thorough clear description. by A. F red'k Collins. Numerous adequate diagrams accompany the text. Price 10 cents by mail. Order from your newsdealer or from MUNN&CO., Inc. 361 Broadway, New : omiZZ£^™ ROTARY PUMPS AND ENGINES Their Origin and Development An imp'rtant series of papers giving a historical resume of .he rotary pump and engine Irom 1588 and illustrated with dear drawings showing the construction of various fonns of pumps and engines. 38 illustrations. Contained in Supplement. 1 109, 1 1 10, 1111. Price 10 cents each. For sale by Munn&Co., Inc .• and all newsdealers. Co., Inc .• THESCHWERDTLE STAMP co. jSTEEL STAMPS LETTERS 8 fiGURES, BRIDGEPORT CONN. RUBBER Expert Manufacturers Fine Jobbing Work PARKER, STEARNS & CO., 28G-290 Sheffield Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. expenence an maktnJ Dies. Tools aod Special MachinW e xp e rt work. Complete eqllpment. NATIONAL STA\ping&ELECTRIC woRks 4 12 So. Cii«tDr Street, - - Chicago, iii. MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOIST for Outrhger hOists. J'a.ter than Klevators, ann hoist direct from teams. Saves bandli ng at less expellsp Manfd. by VOLNEY W. ilASON&('0 •• Inc. I'rovidence. n. I .• U. S. A. Models&Experimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY . . . E.V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankfort St.,N.Y. MODELS, Experimental&Model Work Circular and Advice Free 80-86 Park Place, N. Y. Wm. Gardam&Son, I ' ^ ifc! ^FTC. OF PA^TlMflc, fll MECHANICAL SUPPLIES and MATERIAL of all kind.. 'XPERIMENTAL AND LIGHT MACHINE WORK 132 MILK STREET BOSTO>» r MlMiTIlL I (NO FOR |||BRlC4TfSV< Anyihin6 5 wt* ___________ 118.124 Nort 'I Clinton Sf1, C.HBU LV 8 CQ f.SJSttfUSA and Bottlers' Machiw ery ohi” VILTER MFG. CO. 899 Clinton Street, Milwaukee, Wis. m Learn Watchmaking 'Ve teach it thoroughly in lS wany months as It formeriy took yeals. Does away witb tedious apprenticeship. Money earned while studying. Positions se cured. Easy terms. Send for catalog. LOUIS WATCIIMAKING SCnOtlL,St: Loul., 10. cure CRUDE ASBESTOS DIRECT FROM MI NES R. H. MARTIN, OFFICE. ST.PAUL BUILDING 220 B way, New York. PREPARED ASBESTOS FIBRE for Manufacturers use Electricity Some Recent Developments in Railway-Telephony. - The telephone has been found to possess advantages over the telegraph on railroads, and it is stated that on about 37,000 miles of road the former has now been adopted without any accident having been attributed to its use. This change has been made within the last four years. The three main clasSs of service performed by the telephone are (1) train despatching, (2) message service, and (3) block-wire service. Mercury Contact for Railroad Signals. -A novel contact for railway signals has recently been designed, which obviates the necessity of energiiing the rails themselves in order that the circuit may be closed by the trucks of the passing trains. The device consists of a treadle secured to the under side of a rail between the points of support. As the rail is flexed under the weight oE a passing load, it presses a plunger downward against a diaphragm covering a chamber filled with mercury. Owing to the area of the diaphragm, a very slight depression causes considerable rise in the column of mercury at one side of the chamber. The mercury thus ('.loses the circuit of the electric signal. Novel Fan for , Dining fables.-It is always difficult to break away from old ideas. The disk type of electric fan has shown no marked change in design since the day it was first introduced. It still throws a stream of air in a single direction and in order to distribute the cooling effect of the fan to better advantage, various schemes have been devised such as turning the fan bodily or shifting direction vanes before it. An entirely new scheme has now been evolved in which the fan is radically altered. This fan throws a centrifugal zone of air. It is mounted on a vertical shaft and its blades are also vertical, giving it a cylindrical form. As this revolves, it sucks in air from the top and bottom and throws it out centrifugally. A fan such as this placed at the center of a dining ta ble serves to cool all the diners uniformly. Double Antennae for Determining the Direction of a Transmitting Wireless Station.-If two identical antennae are placed a small distance apart as compared with their common distance from a transmitting station, they perform identical oscillations, so far as amplitude of current and Yoltage is concerned, but the current and voltage are displaced with regard to each other by a phase difference depending on the distance between the two antennae and the angle which the line joining the same makes with the direction of propagation of the waves. An arrangement consisting of two antennae and two phase meters can therefore be used to ascertain the direction from which the oncoming wave is being received. An installation of this kind has been described by Mr. Petit in La Lumiere Electrique, as is noted in a recent number of the Genie Oivil. Aluminium Coils in Traction Motors. . Considerable interest was shown at the International Congress at Brussels, in a paper on the subject of using aluminium in place of copper for the field coils of street railway motors. A number of cases were referred to in which such coils had been in use for several months. In some instances the wire was insulated with rubber, in othfrs with lacquer, while in still others bare aluminium wire was used, the aluminium oxide serving as sufficient insulation between turns, while paper, cloth and the like, were used between layers. The advantages claimed for aluminium, are that it saves 50 per cent in weight for the same resistance, and, in view of the fact that there is a larger volume of aluminium in a pound than of copper, there is a saving of about 60 per cent in the cost of the material. Another thing to be considered is the fact that aluminium coils are much lighter, and hence make a smaller load for the motors to carry, and are less affected by vibration and shock. Furthermore increase in temperature is less destructive because less or no insulation is used. To offset these advantages aluminium coils must have a larger cross-sectional area, and the metal is exceedingly difficult to solder. Science Prof. Kossel in the United States.- Prof. Albrecht Kossel, of the University of Heidelberg, arrived recently in this country for the purpose of delivering i series of lectures at Johns Hopkins, and other American universities. Prof. Kossel was awarded the Nobel prize in 1910 for his researches in medical chemistry. Wireless Weather Reports from Gibraltar. -We learn from La Nature that wireless weather reports are now sent every morning from Gibraltar to the Meteorological office in London. The dispatch is copied, en route, at the Tour Eiffel in Paris and promptly sent to the headquarters of the French meteorological service, which includes it in the daily weather bulletin. The use of wireless telegraphy in meteorology is rapidly growing, despite the discouragements that attended the earlier attempts in this direction, and is clearly destined to greatly 'faCl.lI.tate the methods of weather forecastmg. Cleaning Cleopatra's Needle.-The Egyptian obelisk which is known as Cleopatra's Needle, which stands on the Thames Embankment, is being cleaned for the first time in its history. For centuries it stood in its native land and never needed the brush. London soot and fumes have begun to mar the face of the obelisk. The obelisk in New York has been protected for years by means of paraffin, in accordance with a method devised by the late Prof. R. Ogden Do-remus. London seems to be baffled by the same problem. There seems to be no reason why the Doremus method would not apply. Loess.-The formation of “loess,” a fine yellowish sandy clay found in various parts of the world, and reaching a thickness of over a thousand feet in China, has given rise to much discussion and controversy among geologists. The presence of the shells of snails that feed on (plants indicates the former presence of plants. Accordingly it has been suggested that the genesis of these remarkable deposits may ,be fully accounted for by wind action, coupled with the growth of plants which have caught and compacted the blown dust and sand in the way that sand dune plants do at the present day on our seashores. The Winds in the Free Air. -In the Annals of Harvard Oollege Observatory, vol. 68, pt. 2, Mr. Andrew H. Palmer, research assistant. at Blue Hill Observatory, publishes a discussion of “Wind Velocity and Direction in .he Free Air,” based on a great number of kite, ballon-sonde, and cloud observations, chiefly at Blue Hill. Comparisons of the wind conditions at various aItitudes above the earth's surface are timely, in view of their great interest to the aeronaut. The general principles brought out are: (1) The general increase in velocity with height; (2) the rare occurrence of gusts of wind above 'low heights; (3) the frequent clockwise and the occasional counter-clockwise change of direction with height ; (4) the shallow character of easterly winds (at Blue Hill); (5) the relative frequency of ascending currents as compared with those descending. The Sizes of Rain Drops. -At a recent meeting of the Royal Meteorological Society Mr. Spencer Russell gave an account of the experiments that he has carried out at Epsom during the past two years to obtain a permanent record of the variations in the size of rain drops as they occurred. The first method employed was the exposure of a number of ruled slates, divided into quarter·inch sections, and gently brushed o'er with an even coating of oil. It was found, however, that in a heavy rain the drops striking the slate were broken up into a series composed of one large and several smaller ones. A more satisfactory method was that of letting the drops fall into dry plaster of Paris. Mr. Russell exhibited to the society a number of models of rain drops obtained in this manner. He stated that of the drops so far collected the diameters were as follows: 7 of 6 mm., 44 of 5 mm., 73 of 4 mm., 222 of 3 mm., 257 of 2 mm., 175 ,, of 1 mm., and 107 of less than 1 mm. Make the most of your Vacation Negatives. Print them, or have them printed on VELOX The only paper that is made solely to meet the requirements of the average amateur negative. The Velox Book, free at your dealers or by mail, tells all about the various grades of Velox and how to handle it. NEPERA DIVISION, EASTMAN KODAK CO., Rochester, N. Y. BEST UGHl] More brilUant than electricity or acetylene and cheaper than kerosene. Costs two cents ppr week. Casts no shadow. M08t perfect light for stores, factories, churches, fUblic halls or the hgme. Makes an! : :rns y r own gas. Simple, durable and handsome. In use in every civilized country in the world. No dirt. No grease. No odor. Over two hundred different styles. Agents wanted everywhere. Write tor catalog and prices. THE BEST LIGHT CO. 87 E. 6th St., Canton. O. Instructive Scientific Papers on Timely Topics Price TEN CENTS EACH by Mail artificial stone. By L. P. Ford. A paper o imm ense practical value t the architect and builder. Scientifc A merican Supplement 1500. the shrinkage and warping of timber. By Harold Busbridge. An excellent presentation 01 modern views ; fully illustrated. Scientfc American Supplement 1500. CONSTRUCTION of an indicating or recording tin plate aneroid barometer. By N. Monroe Hopkin•. Fu Uy illustrated. Scientific American Supplement 15 00. Order through :our newsdealer or from us M U NN&CO., Inc. Publishers 361 br oadway NEW YORK CITY SO SIMPLE A CHILD CAN OPERATE IT Do away with unsightly ash barrels-the inconvenience and drudgery of ash disposal. No piling of ashes on the cellar floor-no furnace dust in your living rooms. All waste matter is contained in removable, strong, iron cans with the ashes in a cement-lined vault. All odors and dust go up the chimney. Mechanically perfect-a practical solution of the ash and garbage nuisance, satisfaction guaranteed. Easy to Move A.hes in Portable Cans The Sharp R;tary :s:u ceiving S):tem can be installed in any build ing—old or new under a:; style of House-Heating Furnace or Boiler before Holds 6 to 10 weeks ashes, afte! it is in operation. Ashes fall rectly into strong iron cans th:! rnofe easiny as filJed. lnZed b; Healhv Officers, Architects and Heating Contractors. :orth while to ilnr: tigate befOl )ot complete Iour building p1 :ns. Write lo-dny for v l lustrated eatalog of praetitRl demonstratlcBs and testimonials. Dpnlers and Arehiteds names appreeiated. W. M. SHARP CO. !47 ]lark Avenue Binghamton, N. Y. hich is no effort 220 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN September 2, lUll Cadillac progress in scientific research marks a well defined line between the motor car of the past and the motor car of now. Automatic electric starting device. Electric lights. Two complete ignition systems. Scientifically developed carburetor. More power. Larger wheels and tires. Larger brake drums. Steel bodies of latest accepted designs. Numerous refinements of essential details. The improvements incorporated in this year's specifications will give a pronounced impetus to the conditions which have constituted the Cadillac a law unto itse!. These jmprovements are obviously the result of an economic and evolutionary development; hence, it is useless to seek them elsewhere. They are the fruits of Cadillac research; of close and accurate measurement; and of scientific standardization. Consider what an augmentation of comfort is implied in these two announcements emanating from the Cadillac Company, which has never promised what it did not fulfill- First. A surpassingly fe car made infinitely fner; and scond, a hitherto unattainable ideal resolved into a practical realiZl\ This more refined and efficient car, is a product of that process of ceaseless progress toward perfection, which has prevailed in the Cadillac plant for ten years. The simple, centralized, Delco system of starting, igniting and lighting is merely a phase, or an integral part of that process. To combine these elements of efficiency, for the first time, in a unit, exercising the three separate functions, is of itself an interesting achievement; although such a system as an adjunct to an indifferent car, would be of doubtful value. But to combine them in the Cadillac adds lustre to that achievement, because it endows an extraordinary motor car with new and hencirth indispensable functions. Without them, the Cadillac would still be the incarnation of ease, grace, elegance and economy. With them, a new meaning attaches to the word luxury as applied to motoring. The 1912 Cadillac automatically removes itself from the realms of competition. CADILLAC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Starting Lighting Ignition The electrical plant in the new Cadillac not 'nly accompl. shes what heretofore has been accomplished in a tess efficient manner by separate systems-!grJtion and ligbting-but goes f “rther and mcludes in l; ts fUilctlO!15 a feature to which motorists Imve long looked forward, an automatic starter which obviates the necessity of cranking by hand. The plant consists of a compact and powerful dynamo operated by the engine of the car. The dynamo charges the sLorage battery. For starting the engine. the dynamo is temporarily and automatically transformed into a motor, the current to operate It as a motor being furnished by the storage battery. To start the engine. the operator, after taking his seat in the car. simply retards the spark lever and pushes forward on tile c ' utch pedaL This automatically engages a gear of the eleCtric motor with gear teeth in the fly wheel of the engine, causmg the latter to “turn over,” thereby prodUCing the same 'Jtfect m s by the old method of cranking. As soon as the engine takes in charges of gas from the carburetor and commences to run on its own power, the operator releases the pressure on t)e clutch pedal, the electric motor gear disengages its connectIOn WIth the fly-wheel and the car is ready to be driven. The electric motor then again becomes a dynamo or generator and Us energy is devoted to ignition and to charging the storage battery. The storage battery has a capacity of 80 ampere hours and as soon as that capacity is reached, the charging autolllatICally ceases. rractical tests have shown that the storage battery is of suffCIent capacity to operate the starting device and “turn over” the engine about twenty minutes, although it seldom requ: res more than a second or two, In fact, the Cadillac engme so frequently starts on the spark that the use of the dectrical starter is not always required. The storage battery also supplies the current for lighting. The car is equipped with two especially designed Gray&Davis elcctric head-lights with adjustable focus, two front side lights, taIl light and speedometer light, The dynamo also supplies cnrrent for ignition, Up to 280 to 300 R P. M. the ignition current comes from the storage battery; above that speed the current is direct from the dynamo through the high tension distributor to the spark plugs. For ignition purposes the dynamo performs not only all the functions of the most highly developed magneto, but possesses even greater efficiency, having more flexibility and a greater range of action, When compelled to drive slowly in crowded thoroughfares, over very bad roads or on hills, with the usual ma ° neto, th! driver may stall his motor because the magneto is not bcing drIven fast enough to generate current, and it becomes necessary to switch to the battery-if he has one. 'ith the Cadillac system, if it becomes necessary to drive so slowly that sufficient current IS not generated the battery automatically cuts in. vhen the speed is increased the dynamo again automatically takes hold, It wholly obviates the necessity of the driver's keepmg constantly on the alert to prevent stalling the motor. In addition to the ignition before described, the Cadillac is provided with the auxiliary Delco system with dry cell current which has proven so satisfactory in the past. The extra syst m l< separate and distinct, with its own set of spark plugs and in IS self I.S thoroughly effCIent for running the car ' entirely independent of the main system. The entire electrical plant has been designed with a view to compactness and efficiency, It is designed with the idea of simplicity and positiveness. It is designed to obviate to the greatest possible degree the necessity of attention. Above all , it does what it is designed to do. A few of the improveIents in the 1912 Cadillac Antomatic electric starting device, electric lights, (See detailed description in another column.) Increased power resnlting from motor refinements and our own new carburetor, This new carburetor has not only simpl .ied the matter o,djustments, but possesses maximum flexibility and maximum efficiency from low to high speeds without change of adjustment, excepting air adjustment controlled by small lever at the steering wheeL Wheels and Tires. Increased from 34 in, x 4 in. to 36 in, x 4 in. Brake drums. Increased from 14 in. to 17 in. diameter. Bodies. Steel, of latest accepted designs; all fore doors, constructed upon new improved methods. Gasoline eapacity increased to 21 gallons on all models excepting Phaeton and Roadster, in which the increase is to 18 gallons. Gasoline gauge on dash. MOTOR-Four-cylinder, four-cycle; cylinders east singly, 4 Y-inch bore by 4 Y2-inch piston stroke. Five-bearing crankshaft. Five-bearing cam shaft. HORSE-PO,ER, Nominal, A. L. A. M. rating, 32,4, Actual horse-power greatly in excess of that rating, due to Cadillac design. Cadillac principles and Cadillac construction. COOLING-Water, copper jacketed cylinders. Gear driven centrifugal pump; radiator tubular and plate type. IGNITION-See description under Electrical System, LUBRICA'JION-Automatic splash system, oil nni-formly distributed. CARBURE'OB-Special Cadillac design of maximum efficiency, water jacketed. Air adjustable from driver's seat. CLUTCH-Cone type, large, leather faced with special spring ring in fly wheel. 'JRANSIISSION-Sliding gear, selective type, three speeds forward and reverse. Chrome nickel steel gears, rnnning on five annular ball bearings; bearings oil tight. CONTROL-Hand gear-change lever at driver's right, inside the car” Service brake, foot lever. Emergency brake, hand lever at driver's right. outside. Clntch, foot lever. Throttle accelerator, foot lever. Spark and throttle levers at steering wheel. Carbureter air adjustment, hand lever under steering wheel. DRIVE - Direct shaft to bevel gears of special cut teeth to afford maximum strength. Drive shaft runs on Timken bearing, AXLES-Rear, Timiken fnll foating type; special alloy steel live axle shaft; Timken roller bearing. Front axle, drop forged I beam section with drop forged yokes, spring perches, tie rod ends and steering spindles. Front wheels fitted with Timken bearings. BRAKES-One internal and one external brake direct on wheels, 17-inch by 2+2-inch drums, Exceptionally easy in operation. Both equipped with equalilers. STEERING GEcR-CadiUac patented worm and worm gear, sector type, adjnstable, with ball thrust, 1 %·inch steering post. IS-inch steering wheel with walnut rim; aluminum s pider. WHEE L R,\SE- 116 inches. 'IR ES- 36-inch by 4-inch Hartford or Morgan&Wright, SPRINGS-Front. semi-elliptical. Rear, three-quarter platform, FINISH-CadillaC, blue throughout, including wheels; light striping, nickel trimmings. S'ANDARD IlUIPlEN'J- Dynamo with 80 A. H. battery for automatic starter, electric lights, and ignit.on, Also Delco distributor system. Lamps especially designed for Cadillac cars, black enamel with nickel trimmings; two headlights; two side lights, tail light. Hans gasoline gauge on dash; horn; full foot rail in tonneau; half foot rail in front; robe rail; tire Irons; set of tools, inc\ uding pnmp and tire repair k it; cocoa mat in all t nneau x ex cept closed cars, Speedomet er, St andard, improv ed with 4-inch face and electric light. S'YLES AND PRICES: - Touring car ......................................$1800.00 Phaeton......................................... 18 00.0000 Roadster. , , .... ,.. ..... , ..... , . . , , , ,.. . . . . . . . . . . 11880 ,00 Torpedo......................................... 1900 00 Coupe, Sedan type, aluminum body . ...,..., .., . . .. 2250.00 Limousine, Berline type, aluminum body............ 3250.00 Prices F, O. B. Detroit, including standard equipment.