The erection of tall buildings has come to be of such frequent occurrence, that scarcely has one time to be come thoroughly familiar with the skyline of lower New York, before it is changed by the building of a new skyscraper. Public interest is always centered in the tallest building on record; but the City Invest ment Company's huge building, which is now in course of construction, lays claim to distinction, not because it is of record height, but because it eclipses all others in the matter of cubic capacity and floor space. These figure up to 10,300,000 cubic feet and 500,000 square feet respectively. To be sure, the Hudson Terminal buildings will have a greater combined capacity; but as these twin structures are entirely separate from roof to street level, it is hardly fair to compare them with the City Investment Company's building. In the matter of height the latter surpasses every other struc ture in this city, with the exception of the tower of the Metropolitan Life Insurance building and the Singer tower. Measuring from the sidewalk level at the center of Cortlandt Street to the extreme top of the building, we have a height of 480 feet. The height above Broadway is slightly less, while that above Trin ity Place is somewhat greater, owing to the difference in level of these two streets. The building occupies a frontage of 105% feet on Trinity Place, and runs through to Broadway, where its frontage is but 37% feet. A six story building at the corner of Broadway and Cortlandt Street cuts out 56% feet of the Broad way frontage, and 106 feet on the Cortlandt Street side, leaving a Cortlandt Street frontage of 209 feet. The Broadway frontage adjoins the addition to the Singer building. A feature of the City Investment Company's build ing, which above all others impresses itself upon the observer, is the fact that a deep recess or court is formed in the structure on the Cortlandt Street side. The building is thus divided into four distinct portions, which are respectively known as the Central Building, the West Pavilion, on Trinity Place and Cortlandt Street, the East Pavilion, and the Broadway Wing. The frontage on Cortlandt Street is unbroken up to the third story, but at this point the court begins, and extends to the top of the building. The central build ing rises above the rest of the structure, consisting of 33 stories, all told, while the two pavilions and the Broadway wing are but twenty-six stories high, or about 370 feet above street level. The object of having a light court on the street side of the building rather than on the inner side of the block is that it pro vides more light for the same area, and hence provides a larger number of light "outside" offices in the central part of the building. The walls of the building are of Indiana limestone up to the sixth floor, and above this of special brick with terra-cotta trimming and copper cornices. A fea ture of the building is the arcade, which runs from Broadway clear through the building to Trinity Place. The arcade is formed with arched portals at each end, and occupies the entire width of the Broadway front age. The height of the arcade is about 40 feet. It is finished in veined statuary marble with br che violette columns. The ceiling is barrel vaulted and domed and elaborately frescoed. Twenty-three elevators will handle the transporta tion of passengers. Twenty-one of them are arranged in three banks which open on the arcade, and run up to the seventeenth, tenth, and twenty-sixth stories re spectively. They are of the plunger type, and the ex cavations for the plungers of the elevators which will travel to the twenty-six-th story are probably the deepest bores ever made for this purpose. Above the twenty-sixth- floor there are two electric elevators, which will carry passengers to the top or thirty-third floor level. The foundation of the building is laid on concrete piers sunk to rock 80 feet below the street level. Un usually large foundation girders were required, one of which is a triple-web 90-ton girder 9 feet high, 37 feet long, and 5 feet wide. The basement and the sub-basement, which extends 30 feet below the curb level, will have an area of 32,000 feet. It is estimated that the building will weigh about 86,000 tons, and the steel structure about 12,000 tons. A 2,000 boiler horse-power steam plant will be installed in the building for light ing, heating, and power purposes. Besides the direct-heating system for the office rooms, an indirect heating system and fan ventilation will be installed for the basement and sub-basement. Water storage will be provided by two main tanks of 12,500 and 9,000 gal lons capacity each. One of them will be located on the roof of the building, and the other half way down to the street level, so as to divide the head of water and reduce its pressure to a maximum of about 100 pounds per square inch. The usual stand pipes, hose, etc., are provided for use in case of fire, and these will be supplied from the upper tank. The construction of the building is being rapidly carried on. At present writing the steel work has been completed up to the full height of the two pavilions and the Broadway extension, while the frame of the central building has been erected to the thirtieth floor. The building has been inclosed to the twenty-fourth floor at the front and to the twenty-seventh at the rear. We are indebted to Mr. Francis H. Kimball, the archi tect, for the details given above. Aeronautical Notes. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell has recently completed his first flying machine built of tetrahedral cells, and he expects to test the machine at his place at Bad-deck, Nova Scotia, within a few days. Although hav ing the tremendous projected surface of 2,200 square feet, this machine, with its 20-horse-power motor, will weigh but 290 pounds. In other words, the surfaces of Dr. Bell's machine will be loaded to about one-tenth of a pound to the square foot, which will make it amply able to carry a man at a very low rate of speed. In order to ascertain the actual horse-power required to fly the machine, it will first be towed with a tugboat. For this purpose a special float hav ing a cradle that can be tipped in any desired posi tion has been constructed. A French inventor and mechanical engineer, Julien Arbin, of Meaux, has designed a flyer which he claims will be able to lift itself and travel at the rate of about 10 miles an hour. The framework of the ap paratus measures 10 meters (33 feet) in length and the total width is 3 meters (9.9 feet). It will be fitted with ten horizontal propellers about 10 feet in diameter, which will be driven by a 100-horse-power gasoline motor. The total weight of the machine, including two aeronauts, one of whom is placed at the motor and the second at the rudder, is 1,200 kilogrammes (2,645 pounds). According to the present plans it will cost no less than $20,000 to build the new flyer. M. Henri Deutsch has offered his airship "Ville de Paris" to the French government, and made a com munication to the War Department to this effect. It is probable that the Minister of War will accept this offer, as the recent performance of the airship proves it to be of undoubted value. During the last six weeks this airship has been deflated while various changes and improvements have been made to its machinery. Chief of these is the fitting of a new propeller having a pitch of about 19.7 feet, and which the engine of the airship has turned at a maximum speed of 186 R. P. M. In a very successful ' trial on November 14, during which MM. Deutsch, Kapferer, and Paulmann were on board, the propeller turned at 140 R. P. M., and the airship traveled at a speed of about 26 miles an hour. A flight was made over Paris, the airship following the mala boulevards and halting over the Place de l'Op ra and the Place de la Madeleine. Finally the airship circled about the Eiffel Tower, where it en countered a wind of about 15 miles an hour. No difficulty was encountered in navigating against this wind. During the flight, the airship attained a maxi mum height of 1,050 feet, while the minimum height at which it flew was about 820 feet. The new pro peller was found to work extremely well, and the airship was maneuvered without any difficulty. By the generous offer of M. Deutsch, France will now have another airship with which to experiment. On the other hand, as regards the airships of the Lebaudy type, M. Julliot states that as soon as the work of enlarging the "Patrie" is finished, the new air ship "R publique" will be commenced. This will be followed by the "D mocratie," which is of the same general construction. After these are finished, it is intended to build three other airships. Each of the airships will be sent to a fortified post such as Toulon, Belfort, Lyons, etc., in the eastern region, and spe cially on the frontier. The "Patrie" is to be stationed at Verdun. The "Lebaudy" is now serving as a train ing balloon at Chalais-Meudon for the army aerostatic corps. On November 8 the "Patrie" made a circular flight around Paris, remaining in the air for four hours and covering a distance of about 85 miles. No attempt was made to drive the airship at high speed, as the aeronauts endeavored to keep in touch with some officers who followed the dirigible in an automo bile. The "Bayard" airship is a novel form which M. Cle ment, the well-known automobile constructor, of Paris, is now engaged in building according to the designs of the aeronaut Capazza. What is new about the form of the balloon is that the upper and lower halves are each conical, the bases of the two cones forming the horizontal median line of the gas bag. When once in the air, this balloon will travel forward and down ward on its lower cone somewhat after the manner of an aeroplane. The design was drawn up some years ago by M. Capazza, but he could not have it carried out from lack of funds. An envelope of rubber-coated tissue is to be used, having the double cone form, with a width of 42 meters (138 feet) and a maximum height of 7 meters (23 feet). The total volume of the balloon is figured at 5,051 cubic meters (178,373 cubic feet). On the framework there are to be two pro pellers, each driven by a Bayard-Clement motor of the usual automobile type. It is designed to carry five aeronauts on board, together with over a ton of bal last, and to be able to remain for ten or twelve hours in the air. A well-developed system of planes will be added to the balloon. The profiles of the balloons are specially designed so as to transform the ascending or descending movements into a sliding movement or lateral displacement, and this gives the system an aeroplane action to some extent. French. Aeroplane Flights. On Saturday, November 9, M. Henri Farman suc ceeded in flying a distance of nearly a kilometer in a circle above the parade ground at Issy les Molineaux, near Paris; but as notice had not been given to the Aero Club of France that he would attempt to win the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of $10,000 for this perform ance, the prize was not awarded. M. Farman's flight was, however, timed by M. Archdeacon, and was wit nessed by numerous spectators. There was a light breeze from the southwest when, shortly after 2 P. M., M. Farman got out his aeroplane, and made a few preliminary runs up and down the field. After the motor had been properly regulated, shortly after 3 P. M., M. Farman attempted the kilometer flight. At first the machine rolled along rather slowly, but it quickly gathered speed, and rose into the air at a slight angle. After he had reached the end of the field, the daring aviator turned his rudder slightly, and the machine made a graceful curve without any sway ing or lack of stability. Once the turn had been ac complished, the machine headed straight for the start ing point, where it landed after having made a flight of 999 meters (3,277% feet) in 1 minute and 14 Sec onds—an average speed of about 30% miles an hour. M. Farman afterward accomplished several other flights, in the last of which he made a huge S, and also demonstrated the facility with which he could make his machine rise or fall in response to the movement of the horizontal rudder. On November 14, while making a flight in a semi circle, one of the blades of the propeller on M. Far-man's machine snapped off. The engine was making 1,500 revolutions a minute, but fortunately the blade was thrown downward, and struck the ground with great force. Considerable trouble was experienced in getting the 8-cylinder V motor to operate properly on this day. Another aeroplane that was tried on this date was that of M. Pischoff. This machine did not leave the ground, trouble also being experienced with its motor. While the inventor was operating it, he attempted to make a sudden turn, and the machine tipped to one side and struck its wing against the ground, finally colliding with a fence and smashing the propeller and front part of the machine. Experiments were also made recently with their machines by MM. Delagrange and Bleriot. The for mer's machine is very similar to that of M. Farman's, but unfortunately it was smashed in its recent first flight. M. Bleriot has built a new and larger Langley type aeroplane, fitted with a 50-horse-power, 8-cylinder motor. He too met with a mishap when he attempted recently to make his first flight with this new machine. Airships for Onr Government. The announcement has just been made that Briga dier-General James Allen, Chief of the Signal Corps, will make use of the funds in the Signal Corps' an nual appropriation for the purpose of constructing two small dirigible balloons for experimental purposes. It is hoped that later Congress will appropriate $200,-000 for the construction of larger airships. The two new dirigibles will be probably of about 25,000 cubic feet capacity, fitted with 30 or 40 horse-power engines, and guaranteed to carry two persons with ballast and to remain in the air at least three hours. All designers and builders of airships will be given a chance to submit their ideas to the Signal Corps, and the idea which seems to be best will be chosen. It is thought that the new dirigibles can be constructed for about $5,000 apiece. As soon as they are completed, the members of the Signal Corps will begin experi ments without delay. Probably by next spring our government will have at least two of these machines. The Forest Reserves have become popular in the West, as the reasons for them are better understood. The Montrose, Colo., Press thus sums up one aspect of the matter: "Stock is allowed on national forests to the limit of their capacity, but it is the policy of the Forest Service that persons living in or near the for ests and owning small bunches of stock shall be first provided for. These are the home builders, the sup porters of towns, schools, and churches. These are the ones first drowned out in an overcrowded range. What an invitation to be able to advertise to prospec tive settlers, that a place will be provided for them to range a small bunch of stock!" The output of German coal for the first four months of 1907 was 46,087,753 metric tons—an increase of 1,-528,039 tons; 18,285,781 tons of lignite, 6.428.148 ton?! of coke, and 4,686,618 tons of briquettes.
This article was originally published with the title "The Largest Single Office Building in the World"