THE influence of sea power on the rise and fall of governments is well understood. In the past sea power has been won and held by vessels that cruised and fought on the surface of the seas, and the logical outcome is the enormous displacements of the fighting ships of all countries. Within the last decade three weapons of warfare, which in future struggles for the control of the seas are to be of great importance, have been undergoing development. These three weapons are the automobile torpedo, the submarine, and aero-craft. Too much stress cannot be laid on their influence on sea power, the submarine carrying the automobile torpedo as the destructive agency, the aero-craft acting as a scout. A number of erroneous ideas exist in regard to the modern submarine, which prevent a thorough understanding of that type of vessel-its achievements and its future development. A few of the causes and conditions producing the above result will be dealt with briefly. The policy of secrecy that has been maintained in the development of the submarine has led to its being looked upon as something mysterious. So long as the popular idea of a submarine is one of mystery, just so long will it fail to receive the recognition it deserves. Many unreasonable claims are made for new inventions; even those barely out of the experimental stage, and the submarine has not escaped; although now it has passed beyond the experimental stage; a fact which the progressive programmes of construction, especially in Great Britain, prove most conclusively. Those who do not know the submarine, quickly bring to your attention certain dangers to which it is exposed, that are supposed to make it as much of a menace to itself as to other vessels. These dangers are generally grouped under the head of “explosions” and “collisions.” A few moments' reflection will reveal the fact that these risks are not peculiar to the submarine, except in the case of a collision when the submarine is rising from a complete submergence. These dangers are avoided by submarines in the same way as by surface vessels; although there is more care exercised aboard the submarine than on any other type of vessel. The danger of explosion lies in the storage battery and the fuel oil, which are the sources of power respectively for submerged and surface cruising. Thousands of power boats, automobiles, etc., use gasoline without fear, and the same is true of the storage battery, except as to numbers. The danger of collision is no greater for the submarine than for surface craft, except in the case when the submarine is changing its depth from sixty feet or more to one of about twenty. At sixty feet the submarine is clear of the hulls of shipping; at twenty the shipping can be observed through the observation tubes, or periscopes. The time to rise from sixty feet to twenty is hut a few seconds, and before the ascent is made it is the practice to carefully “listen in” on the submarine bell receivers for the noises made by the propellers of passing vessels, and a submarine commander is almost assured that no danger lies above before changing depth. Even the danger from collision is not so great as is generally supposed. The submarine may be divided into compartments, any one of which may be flooded without destroying the flotation; furthermore, being buiLt to run under the surface, it is stronger in construction than those vessels designed solely for surface cruising. The phrase, “The Mother and her Chicks alongside,” which often appears in the press, cannot fail to leave an impression of weakness and helplessness. The battleship divisions of the Atlantic fleet to-day do not assemble without their repair ships, supply ships, colliers, tugs, and tenders, all of which are “Mothers,” and as an effective force they cannot move away from the coast without them. Diving to avoid collision has its share in building up, the mysterious atmosphere about the submarine: It sounds well as a subject of conversation and gives a thrilling touch to a story; nevertheless few submarine commanders ever consider that method of avoiding imminent collision . . During the last half century the advance in hull construction and in propelling machinery has made of the submarine a vessel that can cruise and maneuver on the surface, that can change its depth of submergence with safety and rapidity, and that can readily maneuver submerged. Its tanks, to which water is admitted when a submergence is made, are constructed to withstand the pressure due to a depth of two hundred feet, and they are fitted with simple and quick means of admitting and discharging the water. Air pressure and large pumps driven by electricity are generally used when it is desired to free the tanks of water. Compressed air is carried in strongly constructed tanks for expelling water from the tanks and for renewing the air in the vessel during a submergence; although air renewal is not necessary for runs of under three or four hours' duration. The motive power on the surface is the fuel oil engine; under the surface it is the electrIc motor driven by the power of the storage hatteries. In mak i ng passage from one point to another the modern submarine uses the same methods, appliances, landmarks, etc., as surface vessels. When cruising submerged with the tops of the periscopes exposed, the methods, etc., are the same, except that the be,arings and observations are taken through the. periscope; . and when. totally sub. merged the conditions as regards vision are the same as those aboard a surface vessel cruising in a fog, as it is impossible to see more' than a ,few feet through the waters of the sea. The depth under water is registered on a number of water-pressure gages, and there is never any doubt as to the distance of the vessel from the surface. The operation of making a submergence in the modern submarine is comparatively simple and is readily understood. First, the upper deck is cleared of bridges, life Jines, etc., although in time of war and maneuvers this gear is not rigged. This material is stowed inside of the submarine and can be unrigged within eight minutes. Second, the vessel is completely sealed; an operation that requires only a few seconds. The large holes in the hull are covered by doors with rubber fittings and are made watertight by the throw of a lever; the smaller holes are closed by a turn of a. valve handle. Third, water is first admitted to one or more large tanks to destroy the major part of the floating power of the vessel; then to the tanks forward or aft to level her; and finally to tanks in the center of tho vessel. The water admitted to the last tanks does not materially change the inclination of the vessel, and it is admitted in small quantities until the floating power is reduced to from six hundred to a thousand pounds. Gages record the results of each stage. The submarine in this condition exposes about ten feet of her periscopes and is ready for running submerged. The electric motors are then started, and the resistance of the water, acting on horizontal rudders and the deck, forces the submarine below the surface. The desired depth is obtained by giving the* proper inclination to the rudders and the vessel. In fact, the control of the submarine in changing and maintaining its depth is very similar to the control of a surface vessel when making a passage on the surface. The modern submarine, starting with its main tanks free of water, can totally submerge within three minutes. Such a weapon is not and cannot be a mystery. What the Submarine has AccomplishecL-The record of the “Davids” before Charleston during the cvil war, when a blo{kading squadron was kept on the move for over a year, three ships injured, and a December 9, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 531 fourth sunk, proved at that early date the value of the submarine. The radius of action of the “Davids” was, limited, that of the modern submarine is almost unlimited. The Division of Submarines now in commission on the Atlantic Coast was actively engaged in cruises, maneuvers, and target practices, from March 1st to November 1st of this year. During that time the Division cruised from Annapolis, Md., to Portsmouth, N. H., and familiarized itself with all harbors along the coast. The harbors of Chesapeake Bay, those of Newport, Provincetown, Boston, Gloucester, Rockport, Portsmouth, and Vineyard Haven Sound were successfully navigated by the submarines in the submerged condition, and, at times, much to the surprise and astonishment of the unsuspecting shipping. The submarines were often separated from the tenders for periods of two to four days and severe weather conditions of gales, snowstorms, and fog were encountered. As the conditions were successfully met from time to time, officers and crews gained confidence in the reliability of the weapon placed in their hands. While the Division was in the waters of the Chesapeake, three- and four-day cruises away from the tenders were made for the purpose of thoroughly developing the crews. On one of these cruises a gale, accompanied by snow and hail, struck the Division when at anchor in the lower Chesapeake. The blow continued throughout the night and the following day. Two submarines lost their anchors and were forced to keep under way throughout the night; the others rode out the gale without experiencing any serious trouble. All returned the following day to Annapolis against high head winds and seas, that covered the vessels with frozen spray from the tops of the periscopes to the water lines. The ice-covered submarines were such beautiful marine pictures as they came into the harbor that the discomforts of the run up the bay were soon forgotten. Nantucket Sound and the waters of Massachusetts Bay were repeatedly navigated in fogs. During the operations in Cape Cod Bay, twenty to thirty torpedo vessels, submarines, and surface craft would enter Provincetown harbor at night and in dense fogs. In due course of time after such an exercise, the wireless would flash the signal that all vessels of the submarine Division had returned. The most successful cruise of the Division in a dense fog was a run in close formation from the inner harbor of Gloucester to that of Provincetown without any navigation landmarks having been sighted, and except for a few minutes, the submarines were not visible from one another, although they were less than 100 yards apart. The Division had spent the week-end at Gloucester and the run was made in order that it might report ready for the night attacks 011 the battleships. A run, that in many ways simulated war conditions, was made during June from Newport, R. 1., to Gloucester, Mass., when prac-iioally the entire distance of 190 miles was made by the submarines in the submerged condition. Two stops were made, one at the entrance to Nantucket Sound, the other at Provincetown. The longest time of any one submergence was about twelve hours, and the greatest distance snbmeged on any one run was about fifty-five miles. During the entire run the submarines were separated from the tenders and were self sustaining in every respect. Less than sixty hours were taken for the run, although no attempt was made to make a record. The battleships, the torpedo craft, and naval militia engaged in combined maneuvers off Newport from July 18th to 20th. The part assigned to the submarine Division approached war conditions almost perfectly. All harbors f!om Gay Head to Mon-tauk Point that could be used as bases by an invading fleet had to be protected. The disposition of the seven submarines was made accordingly, and they were suc- cessful beyond the expectation of the most enthusiastic. In the day problem two succeeded in attacking before the battleships anchored, the others within three hours after they had anchored. In the night attack the invading force pierced the line well to the eastward and only two submarines were successful. The exercise was declared finished before the submarines at the entrance of Long Island Sound had time to come up. The readiness with which the modern submarine can deliver an attack was vividly demonstrated on the morning of the 19th. At 3:30 P. M. on July 18th the “Grayling” an.hored on the outer line between Block Island and Gay Head, ready in every respect for quick work. At night lights were screened and a watch of three set. At 4: 10 A M. of the following morning the lookout reported an armored ship to the southward and eastward, distant several miles, and standing to the northward. “All hands” were called at once, hammocks lashed and stowed, thirty fathoms of anchor cable hove in and anchor secured, and preparations made for running submerged. At 4: 24 A. M., just fourteen minutes from the time of receiving the first report, the “Grayling” was submerged and running at seven and one-half knots to intercept the armored ship, which proved to be the scout “Washington.” At 4:58 A. M. an attack was delivered. The scout was then standing rapidly to the eastward but later returned, and another attack was delivered. After the second attack the “Grayling” rose to the surface in order to impress the scout with the utter folly of carrying on scouting operations so near the enemy's coast. The operations of July and August in Cape Cod Bay were a continuation of the successful work in the sham battle off Block Island. A method of attack developed by the “Narwhal” and “Grayling” off Gloucester is worthy of note as showing the reliance that can be placed in the modern submarine. The “Narwhal,” cruising at depths of from seventy to one hundred feet directly under the “Grayling,” which was submerged to a dep.h of fifteen feet, was directed by the “Grayling” for over two hours. The speed of both vessels was seven and one-half knots and the means of communication was the submarine bell apparatus. When the “Narwhal” rose to the surface in obedienoe to a signal from the “Grayling” she was in her designated position. The mobility of the Division is shown by the dtstance cruised during the eight months away from the navy yards, viz., 25,000 miles on the surface and 3,800 submerged. The achievements have been accomplished with submarines developed by a commercial company, and it is reasonable to suppose that they will be greater when their development is undertaken fly the navy. In view of what the submarine has done can anyone doubt its future? The Submarine Compared to Other Types 01 Warships.-The essential military characteristics of a man-of-war are, seagoing and sea-keeping q uali ties, invulnerabili ty, and powerful and destructive armament. A man-of-war to be sea-going and sea-keeping must be seaworthy and habitable in all conditions of weather and sea; its motive power must be reliable, it must be readily handled and maneuvered; and it must have a large radius of action. The modern submarine is built to stand the great pressure due to 200 feet submergence; (Continued on page 684.) 532 SCIENTIFIC AMERICA December 9, 19 1 1 The Fleet and Its Readiness for Service (Continued from page 515.) Vessels Built. [March 1, 1911.] g” : 1? “ , “ > s! “. o. . .0 gn g a | a .= ” r. gS £ “S ' 1 . 0 o8 :. $ 3-g, S g'S 1 g 80” 5 I . “'" I ,= ------------------i_____ England............. 8 47 4 34 81” 176« 59· 68 ...... Germany................ 4 2 2 1 9 41 93 2 7 86 United States.......... 4 25 12 3 1 3 28 18 5 France................... ...... 17 “"” 21 12 65 225 60 3 Japan ..................... 13 2 11 16 57 59 9 3 Russia ....................... 9 .. . . 7 11 97 45 31 2 Austria. . . ............ .” .. 5 . .... 3 6 14 47 6 6 1 Battleships having a main battery of all big guns (11 inches or more in caliber). 2 Battleships, frst class, are tbose of (about) 10,000 tons or more displacement. • Armored cruisers having guns of largest caliber in main battery and capable of taking their place in line of battle with the battleships. They have an increase of speed at the expense of carrying fewer guns in main battery, and a decrease in armor protection; also called battleship cruisers. • Includes all unarmored cruising vessels above 1,000 tons displacement. • Includes smaller battleships and monitors. No more vessels of this class are being proposed or built by the great powers. 6 Includes vessels of colonies. Vessels Building or Authorized. [March 1, 1911.] .o .” o co 03 • 518 is a ' . E :0 p | a” l.o a £ | 5| 0' 1 | 0 1 > > “= 0 « E0 r England·............... lo “>” “ ~16' “39'” ~ 18' Germany .............. 9 .... 3 ..... 4 16 12" United States . ... .... ... . . 6 ........."."..... 12 — 16 France . .............. 2 5 .. 1 .. .. 20 2 28 Japan·.................. 2 .... 1 ... 5 4 .... 4 Italy .. . ..... . ."... . .. ...... 4 .'. '.'. “.'.'.'.'. “3” 10 50 13 Austria .................. 26 1,.. “..1................... 6 1 England has no continuing shipbuilding policy, but usually lays down each year 5 armored ships, with a proportional number of smaller vessels. 2 Includes vessels of colonies. • Germany has a continuing shipbuilding program. governed by a teet law authorized by the Reichstag. For 1911 there are authorized 3 battleships. 1 armored cruiser, 2 cruisers, 12 destroyers. Eveutual strength to consist of 38 battleships, 20 armored cruisers, 38 cruisers, 144 destroyers. • $3,570,000 authorized for experiments and further construction. • One more battleship. 2 more armored cruisers, 1 more cruiser, and several destroyer and submarines authorized to be laid dowu .wd completed by 1916. 6 Building under agreement with navy department before authorization by Delegations. NOTE.-The following vessels are not included in the tables Those over 20 years old, unless they have been reconstructed and rearmed since 1900; transports, colliers. repair ahips. converted merchant vessels, or any other auxiliaries; vessels of less than 1,000 tons. except torpedo craft; torpedo craft of less than 50 tons. A Landsman's Log Aboard the Battleship “North Dakota"-V. (Continued from page 5S9.) target. “One hundred down,” says the spotter. “What next?” I ask of an ofcer standing near me. “A six-gun salvo-have you got your ear-protectors in place?” I am raising my hands to press the little bulbs more snugly in position, when there bursts forth a Titanic crash! My whole frame feels as though some unseen hand had struck i a violent blow; and I fnd myself fung, in the efort to keep my footing, entrely across the platform in the direction of the target (the efet of the recoil) and then fung backward, and then alternately forward and backward, until the ferce whipping of the mast subsides. The spotter looks over his shoulder at me and pOints at the sky, and there, I see six, sharply-defned, circular, black spots, symmetrically disposed, in pairs, on a long horizontal line across the heavens-the six shells. "Baron Munchausen?" Nay, good reader, question not my veracity; it is a common phenomenon and may be seen at any big-gun target practice when the weather is clear, as it was that day. Steadily, the little ink-black spots diminished and drew together under the infuence of the perspective, rising gradually to the highest point of their trajectory, when they faded from sight. The fre-control platform has quickly steadied to absolute quiet; and we listen with keen attention for the spotter's verdict. Up go those magnifcent, fashmg bursts of pulverized water; and I hear the spotter call into the mouthpiece: “A straddle,” which means that some of the shells have dropped in front and some beyond, making the average of the whole six a hit on the target itself. Later, a four-gun salvo went clear through the target, tearing part of it away and throwing up the vast telltale geysers just beyond. The physioal efect of the blat of these 12-inch guns is something.that defes description; but the plate shown on page 528 bears dramatic evidence of the power of the mighty air-wave. The photographer had ,the temerity to stand on the forward bridge of the “Michigan” to photograph a four-gun sBlvo from turrts 1 and 2. After the discharge, he found himself on his back on the after side of the bridge, his camera smashed to fragments, but his picture saved, except for the diagonal crack which will be noticed in this illusrtmtion, I'unning from left to right-mute evidenoo of the mishap. Dramatic in every way is a salvo of the main batteries of a modern battleship. Its appeal to the eye may be judged from the handsome photogravure insert which is inclosed within the present issue. Later in the day, the net screen which covered the target was brought on board, where it was carefully conned over by the umpires, the ordIance ofcer, and the spotter, who searched every square foot of it, looking for the coveted ragged rents with as much care as ever a western prospector looked for a color of gold in his pan. The four-un salvo that carried away a part of the target cost the “North Dakota” dear; for a considerable portion having disappeared, by the rules of the game, and indeed by the necessities of the case, any later shots that may have passed through the gap did not count. For this and other reasons, I could not understand the disappointment of that ship's company when they learned the result-four hits and six ricochets. Credit should be given for the fact that since, for economy, three-quarter powder charges were used, the sight-bar range was actually about 13,000 yards, or between six and seven miles. To me at least this was a ftting and altogether satisfactory climax to that never-to-be forgotten cruise aboard the “North Dakota." If the present log has served to give the people of the United States a clearer knowledge of the fne work Which is being done in the United States Navy, not only by the “man behind the gun,” but also by the man behind “the man behind the gun,” it will not have been written in vain. The landsman's thanks are due to George von L. Meyer, the Secretary of the Navy; to Admiral Hugo Osterhaus, Commander-in-Chief of the Atlantic feet; and to Oapt. Albert Gleaves and the ofcers of the good ship “North Dakota” for the many courtesies extended during my stay with the Atlantic Fleet on the Southern Drill Grounds. (End Of Landsman's Log. For earlier chapters see issues 01 October 14th and 28th and November 11th and 25th.) Our Rank Among the N aval P o w e r (Continued from page 523.) increase the number of merchant vessels fying the American fag, the navy will lave to depend upon its own colliers in time of war, or purchase or charter merchant vessels in foreign countries-probably the former, as the risks under charter would be considered too great. Such a procedure would be most uneconomical, as greatly increased prices would no doubt be demanded, our needs being known. In the event of actual hostilities, the supply of ammunition to a fleet is the most important factor. The battleships of the present day carry ordinarily about 100 rounds for each of the heavy guns. In the event of hostilities, by stowing magazines and shell-rooms to their fullest capacity, this amount would probably b increased to about 120 rounds per gun. When we take into account the rapidity of fre of the heavy guns of a modern battleship, and the range at which an action will begin, it would not seem improbable if the total amount of ammunition would be shot away in an engagement with an enemy without either feet gaining such a marked advantage as to make the action decisive and fnal. If such action takes place in close proximity to the shores of the enemy, it would not be very difcult for its feet to withdraw temporarily to a fortified basis and replenish rapidly its magazines and shell-rooms. The question presents more formidable diffculties for a feet operating at a great distance from a base. Ammunition must b carried to the feet in properly equipped ammunition ships; ships so ftted as to be able to rapidly discharge their ammunition into the battleships. Arrangements can be made by which a limited amount of ammunition can be carried by all auxiliaries, including colliers, supply ships, repair ships, transports, etc., but these ships must be especiaIly ftted for carrying the ammunitIon, and at the best can carry but a limited quantity. Other necessary adjuncts of a well balanced feet are repair ships, hospital sMps, transports and mine laying vessels. Repair Ships. It is believed that if any feet is accompanied by a sufcient number of properly equipped repair ships, it will be necessary for said ships to visit our dock yards only at very distant intervals, primarily for cleaning their bo1toms. Numerous small accidents to the machinery or appurtenances of a modern battleship can b readily and efciently repaired by a properly equipped repair ship. After an action between two fleets, the value of a repair ship cannot be over-estimated. Many ships of the feet may be damaged in such a way that they can be temporarily repaired and ftted to take their place again in the line of battle by a repair ship. The United States possesses but one ship of this type as opposed to three in England and two in Germany, and while the Merchant Marine of this country may possibly furnish a number of ships suitable for this purpose, time will be required to install in such ships a proper equipment. Hospital ships, while a necessary adjunct to the feet, can undoubtedly be acquired by purchase or contract of vessels under the American fag or in foreign countries, as said vessels act under the Red Cross Agreement and are not to be considered as subject to capture so long as they perform the duties for which they are designed. Transports for the conveying of bodies of troops and advanced base outfts can probably be acquired by purchase or contract preceding hostilities, and will probably only be needed in the event of distant operations of the feet, where it becomes necessary to seize and defend a base, to which vessels of the operating feet can repair at intervals for coal, fuel, ammunition, or other supplies. Submarines. In the present state of naval development, the submarine is essentially a vessel designed a an important part of the mobile defenses of our coasts or outlying possessions. It is understood that the French Government is now designing and building a type of submarine, which it is believed will b able to accompany the feet even in distant operations, its radius of action and habitability having been developed to the extent which makes such a use of this type of vessel a probable success. Of this type, the submarine, England possesses seventy-four, Germany fourteen, United States twenty-six, Franoo sixty-six, Japan ten, and Russia thirty-one. Personnel. When we come to consider the number of commissioned ofcers and enlisted men available for duty in the feet, we fnd that the United States Navy is sadly defcient. Although the number and size of our vessels of war have increased very largely in the last ten years, there has been no proportionate increase in the commissioned personnel of the Navy. If the Navy Department were caIled upon to-day to commission all of its fghting vessels now in reserve, and which, in the event of war, it would be necessary to place in servIce, it would be impossible effciently to ofcer and man these vessels. Of late, when it has been found neceSSary to commission some new battleship, cruiser, or even torpedo destroyer, it has been found equally necessary to place some vessel of the same type in reserve or out of commission, in order to provide the personnel for the new ship. It is difcult to compare conditions between countries which have compulsory military service and countries where service in the navy i' purely voluntary. England, although compulsory military service does not exist, maintains a very strong reserve of both ofcers and men. In all other European navies compulsory service exists, so that these countries are from year to year building up” a reserve of ofcers and also of trained men, who have served at least three years with the colors. In Germany this is a most important factor, as with their system, which carries a man along either in active service or in the reserve until he reaches the age of 45 years, a very large body or trained men is available, in the event of hostilities, for commissioning all ships in reserve, or for other purposes. So far as the commissioned personnel of the United States Navy is concerned, it compares most favorably in education, training and experience with that of any other country, but in numbers it is wholly inadequate for the present and future needs of the Navy. The analysis of the composition of the various feets, by which their strength and relative rank is measured, shows that Great Britain holds, beyond a shadow of a doubt, the frst place. Considering the navies of the United States, Germany, France and Japan, it is clearly seen that the United States outranks France and Japan, as the superiority of our battleship feet is so great as to ofset every advantage they may possess in the other elements which make up naval strength. To establish the relative positions of Germany and the United States is more difcult. Our only superiority lies in the battleships themselves; in all other essentials of feet strength, we are outranked. Giving due weight, however, to all factors, it would seem that at the present writing the margin of superiority rests with our feet, a margin so slight that, considering vessels building and authorized, two or three years will undoubtedly relegate the United States fe to third place among the nations. Decemher 9, 19 I I SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN >s.i The Most Extraordinary Tests to Which Musical Instruments Have Ever Been Subjected Twenty-six Pianola Pianos on the 45,000 Mile Cruise of the American Battle Fleet When Admiral Evans' fleet began its memorable cruise around the world from Hampton Roads, there were twenty-six Pianola Pianos distributed among the different ships. The Battle Fleet covered over 45,000 miles in its trip, crossing the equator four times. It passed from the extreme cold of the Straits of Magellan to the heat and humidity of the tropics. During target practice in Magdalena Bay and at Manila every object on board was subjected to terrific strain. In one instance, the force of concussion as the big guns were fired, was sufficient to bend in the steel bulkheads of one of the mess-rooms, where a Stuyvesant Pianola Piano was installed. In two cases, during the storm encountered between Manila and Yokohama, Pianola Pianos broke loose from their fastenings and were hurled to the other side of their mess-rooms, before they could be secured. Yet the Pianola Pianos in these rooms when examined fur months later needed only slight a4usting and were very little out of tune. These Pianola Pianos were the common property of the different messes to which they belonged. They were not played by one or two people as would be the case in a private home, but were used by anywhere from a dozen to a hundred or more different individuals. According to the testimony of the officers and men, the different Pianola Pianos were played almost continuously during the whole fourteen months of the cruise, and shared with the big guns the interest of all visitors who came aboard. On the return of the fleet, a special representative of the Aeolian Company was sent to Old Point Comfort to inspect these instruments. Without exception every Pianola Piano examined was found in excellent playing order. Besides tuning and such slight regulation as fourteen months constant use would naturally involve, they were practically in as good condition as when the felet departed. * *** * * It is of the utmost importance that the distinction between the Pianola Piano and other so-called Player-pianos be understood. Only pianos containing the genuine Pianola and bearing the word “Pianola” upon the fall-board are Pianola Pianos. In the means it provides for artistic playing-in its musical quality as a piano and in its durability as assured by the thoroughness and fidelity of its construction-the Pianola Piano occupies a class apart from, and superior to all other instruments of its type. STEINWA Y, WEBER, STECK, WHEELOCK or STUYVESANT PIANOLA PIANO Prices from $550 up Write today for free catalog “S” .ontaining illustrations, full descriptions and details of easy payment plan The Aeolian Company has agents in all the principal cities ot the world and maintains its own establishments in the following cities , CHICAGO ST. LOUIS CINCINNATI INDIANAPOLIS DAYTON FORT WAYNE 408-410 So. Michigan Ave. 1004 Olive St. 25 W_ 4th St. 237 N. Pennsylvania St. 131 W. 3rd St. 208 W. Berry St. FOREIGN BRANCHES: LONDON The Orchestrelle Co. PARIS The Aeolian Company BERUN The Choralian Co. MELBOURNE, SYDNEY and ADELAIDE The Pianola Co., Proprietary, Limited THE AEOLIAN CO • AEOLIAN HALL, 362 Fifth Ave., near 34th St., New York The Largest Manufacturers of Musical Instruments in the World 534 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN December !, I! 11 LIDGERWOOD COALING DEVICES In the U. S. Navy ” Without Coal our Battleships are as Helpless as a Dismasted Sailing Vessel in Mid-Ocean." The U. S. Collier “ Vestal,” fitted with the Lidgerwood - Miller Marine Cableway, delivered under test 72Y2 tons of coal in one hour to the U. S. S. “ Virginia,” 400 feet distant in tow, speeding 12 knots per hour. The Marine Cableway will operate in any sea fit for towing a battleship. The U. S. Colliers, “Neptune,” “Vestal,” “Prometheus,” “ Mars,” “Vulcan,” and “Hector” are fitted with the Lidgerwood-Miller Marine Transfers and Colliers Nos. 11 and 12 will be so fitted. One Man on the Collier “ Neptune” can discharge 1 00 Tons of Coal per hour to a vessel alongside. The “ Neptune” has twelve Marine Transfers. LIDGERWOOD MFG. CO. 96 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y., U. S. A. Recent Development in Ordnance (Concluded from page 5f1.) Armor. There has been no important advance in quality of armor since the Krupp process of hardening was introduced about fourteen years ago; during this period the side armor belts of our battleships have been of from nine to eleven inches thickness. To meet the increasing power of guns and penetrative effect of projectiles, a tendency toward increasing this thickness to twelve or thirteen inches is evident, and the Bureau of Ordnance has even had one experimental eighteen-inch plate made and tested with a view to possible future demand for armor of that thickness. That the art of armor making has not stood still, in spite of there having been no radical changes in methods, is shown by the two photographs on page 520. The former shows an armor plate produced in 1905, and the latter a plate produced in 1911, against each of which three projectiles have been fired. In the one case the flaking of the hard surface was excessive, in the other almost nil. It will be noted that neither plate was completely penetrated. Thin plates, which are not technically classed as armor, have been much improved in resisting power by changing the alloy used; a nickel-chrome-vanadium alloy has been adopted, and this when specially treated produces turret and conning tower tops of great resistance. Experimental Work. Much valuable information has been obtained by experimental firing at the U. S. S. “Katahdin” and “San Marcos” (formerly “Texas"). Each of these is a vessel of small military value, but capable of affording an actual target for experimental firing. The “Katahdin” was ftted with armor plate targets erected on her upper deck; one target represented the side of a battleship, the other a turret barbette, and in both the armor plate was braced by appropriate framing and structures. Firing was conducted with a 12-inch gun on board the U. S. S. “Tallahassee” at ranges of 7,700 to 8,500 yards, using service ammunition, but not with explosive shell, as the object was solely to determine penetrative effect. Two hits were scored on each target with r'esultant complete penetration of the armor, as was expected in accordance with theoretical calculations. The results of this test also proved that a projectile while in flight is at all times tangent to the trajectory. The “San Marcos” furnished a target for more extensive firing, the greater part of which was conducted by the U. S. S. “New Hampshire” for purposes of gunnery training of the personnel. The most striking lessons of this firing were: (1) The fact that, at ranges of 10,000 and 12,000 yards, the “New Hampshire” could place her shots on any portion of the ship at will, thus proving the accuracy of her spotting and pointing. (2) The tremendous havoc wrought in the “San Marcos” by the passage or bursting of entering shell. Modern Submarines (Concluded from, page 531.) therefore it is apparent that none of the surface elements can damage it. Its natural subdivision into tanks for submerging purposes gives it a safety which every surface craft strives for by putting in double bottoms. There is no smoke, no leaky or hot steam pipes, or any other of the numerous disadvantages of the ordinary surface vessel. The reliability of the motive power, the internal combustion engine, is assured, and the modern submarine being a twin-screw vessel is readily maneuvered. The radius of ac tion of submarines now under construction exceeds 5,000 miles on the surface and 100 submerged, the maximum speed ·Oi the surface being 131 knots, that submerged 101 knots. Ten miles is the farthest that a submarine can be seen on the surface, and its submerged radius of action is such as to permit many hours of maneuvering unseen and unsuspected, beneath the surface. The comfort of the crew depends entirely on the weather and sea as it does in all craft. The submarine may escape from heavy weather (Concluded on page 536.) LEGAL NOTICES 1 ATENTS If you have an invention which you w ish to patent you can w rite fully and freely to Munn&Co. for advice in regard to the best way of obtaining protection. Please send sketches or a model of your invention and a description of the device, explaining its operation. All communications are strictly confidential. Our vast practice, extending over a period of more than sixty years, enables us in many cases to advise in regard to patentability without any expense to the client. Our Hand Book on Patents is sent free on request. This explains our methods, terms, etc., in regard to PATENTS. TRADE MARKS, FOREIGN PATENTS, etc. All patents secured through us are described without cost to the patentee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. MUNN&COMPANY 361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK Branch Office, 625 F Street, Washington, D. C. DS£r, RNLD PAT E N T S SECURI .IURWED FEE Free reooJ't as to Patentability. Illustrated Guide Book. and What To Invent witb List ot' [nvenfions \Vanted Rnd Prizes offered for invenUon3 sent free. V JCTOIl .J. FV ANS&CO .• WasbingWn. D.C. Galvanized Rounds, Half Rounds, Spikes, Chains-in fact ANY-THING Galvanized always in stock. J C H GALVANIZING CO. 1110-12-14 No. Front Street Philadelphia, Pa. 2 «MW -” CvtLC |AU[,3L-----, ENGINES FROM 2 TO «0 HP. PALMER HROS., IN STOCK Cos COB. CONN. Maxim Silencer Annuls Concussion, Reduces Recoil and Stops Flinching Adopted by the United States War Department for its military advantages and its great value in improving the marksmanship of the ordinary soldier. Made in all calibres, for all military and sporting rifles. Provided with coupling for easy and im mediate attachment. Interesting Catalog sent anywhere or the asking. MAXIM SILENCER, Hartford, Conn. THE EDISON ARTICLES on the development of the STORAGE BA TTERY can only be found in the leading Military and Naval publication. the ARMY&NAVY JOURNAL Published every Saturday at 20 VESEY STREETP NEW YORK The5Pinstructive and interesting articles began in the Oct. 21 st issue and will run every week for a year. See page 5 10 of this Scientific American - then subscribe at once for the A.&N. Journal $6. 00 Yearly. Single Copie., 15 Cents Admiral Mahan'. New Work NAVAL STRATEGY Compared and Contrasted with the Principles and Practice of MIlitary Operauons on Land By ADMIRAL A. T. MAHAN This new work, just issued, contains the results of almost a lifetime's study of the subject, by the world's foremost authority on naval matters. Wzth J Map, and Plans. 8'o. Cloth, $3.50 nel. UTLE, BROWN & CO. PUBLISHERS 34 Beacon Street, Bo.ton December 9, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 535 The Edison Storage Battery ” Buill like a walch bul as rugged as a ballieship" AS GREAT AN ADVANCE IN WORLD PROGRESS AS WAS THE Edison Incandescent Lamp TremendQusly superior to all other storage batteries because: It embodies an entirely new and correct principle. It is lighter and vastly more durable. Excessive vibration and concussion do not affect it. No damage done by prolonged and oft repeated overcharging. No injury from remaining idle in a charged or totally discharged condition indelnitely. Extremely small loss of charge while standing idle. Contains no acid, therefore no acid laden gases evolved. No injury to metal work from gases. No personal discomfort from gases. It prevents asphyxiation of a submarine crew in event of prolonged enforced submersion, bcause of the affinity of its solution - potash - for carbonic acid gas. Short-circuiting does it no injury. It maintains its capacity for many years. No buckling or growing of plates. No plate renewals. No shedding of active material. No sediment in jars. No cleaning of jars. No breaking of jars. No sulphation or corrosion of parts. No expert attention required. It has changed the entire aspect of the electric pleasure vehicle situation. It makes the electric truck a proltable investment by eliminating battery repair and renewals and ensuring reliability. It banishes unsightly trolley wires for street car propulsion. It makes the electric locomotive a safe proposition in mines and powder mills. It renders expensive railway terminal electrlcation unnecessary. It changes taxicab operation from loss to pro lt. It solves the train fhting problem. It has added new tne to country house lighting. It practically doubles the strategic efficiency of the submarine and will outlast any boat in which it is installed. It can be relied upon for power in emergency, for illuminating magazines and handling rooms, hoisting ammunition, operating turrets and laying guns. It is dependable for sight lighting and gun lring, even if charged only once in six months, and is the only storage battery made that will stand up to concussion of gun lre. IT WILL OPERATE YOUR KLAXON HORN ONE YEAR ON ONE CHARGE; WILL LIGHT YOUR CAR, RUN YOUR IGNITION SYSTEM, FURNISH POWER FOR YOUR ELECTRIC SELF STARTER AND LAST FOR MANY YEARS. Manufactured in Sizes from 1 Ampere-Hour Portable to the 15,OOO Ampere-Hour Submarine Types We are running an interesting continued story on the Edison Storage Battery Development, Theory, Construction, and Application, in the advertising columns of the Army and Navy Journal, Beginning with the weekly issue of October 21, 1911, and addressed to the personnel of the Army and Navy. They are of general interest, judging from the widespread favorable comments we are receiving. APPROVED: EDISON STORAGE BATTERY CO. ORANGE, N. J. Cpyright, 1911, by EdiM Storagt BattefY Co, b36 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Decemher 0, Hili POPE QUALITY HAS NEVER BEEN QUESTIONED /Jfter you lave satisfied Q/1 yourself tlat tle PoPE-HARTFORD }as no superior in any feature Consider the price- 4 cyI. 50 h. p. Touring Car $3000. 4 cyl. Limousine $4150 34 Pleasure Vehicles Three Ton Trucks Public Service Wagons Catalogues on Request 6 cyt. 60 h. p. Touring Car, Model Z8, $4000 With Catalogue Equipment (Specify the one desired) THE POPE MANUFACTURING CO. Hartford, Conn., U. S. A. YEARS' EXPERIENCE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF HIGHEST GRADE MECHANICAL VEHICLES A LCO Motor Trucks 65 Per Cent of all Alco Trucks are Owned by Million-Dollar Companies And 62 per cent of all Alco Trucks are Re-orders. B IG concerns own Alco Trucks -big concerns like the American Express Company, Gulf Refining Company, Barrett Manufacturing Company, Gimbel Brothers, Standard Oil Company, Singer Sewing Machine Company. Big companies, like big men, don't make many iig mistakes. They are shrewd. They know. Sixty-five per cent of all Alco Trucks are in the service of companies rated in Bradstreet's at $1,000,000 or more. This is only natural, for the American Locomotive Company is itself a big company. Capital $50,000,000. And of considerable transportation experience-dating back to 1835. Builders of 50,000 locomotives. Knowing this, these big companies felt that the American Locomotive Company ought to build a good truck. It had experience no one else possessed, extensive capital, large physical equipment, an organization already at work. Whether or not it really had built a good truck must be determined by actual service. This was the logical reasoning upon which nearly e very sing le big com pany m ade its first Alco p urchase. And since its frst pu rchase e very single big compa ny has ordered more Aleo Trucks! Every single one! And sixty-two per cent of all Alco Trucks were purchased on such repeat orders! In the serviceofDepartment Stores 78 per cent are re-orders; Oil Refners, 74 pcr cent; Express Companies, 64 per cent; Packers, 53 per cent; Brewers, 50 per cent-the five lines of business in which motor trucks are most used today. Repeat orders speak with eloquent emphasis of satisfed owners -stronger than mere claims-powerful testimonials. These are compelling facts. They tell the smaller business man that he can avoid an unwise purchase if he selects the Aleo. They are evidence which must determine the verdict. Our new book is full of vital facts. Write for it today. AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY 1888 Broadway Builder._^LA leo 6.culinder.Tand.4- New York Builder. of A leo 6.culinder and 4-culinder Motor Cars and A leo Tax/cab. Movers of the World'. Good. since 1835 Capital , $50,000,000 by remaining under the surface. This was actually done by the “Snapper” in 1910, when she remained on the bottom off Boston Light Vessel in seventy feet of water for 12% hours. The invulnerability of the submarine is well nigh perfect. In its approach, after sighting the enemy, its invisibility affords better protection than any armor or watertight subdivision that has been put abroad a surface vessel. The exposure of ag much as five feet of one or more periscopes, each six inches in diameter, is necessary, in an attack, for periods of two to five minutes, although with that amount of the periscopes exposed there is still fourteen feet of water over the hull, which is ample for protection. The armament consists of the torpedo tube and the torpedo. History teaches that the gun has always decided the naval battle, and admitting that to be true, may there not be a change in the character of the gun? It is a very simple matter to designate a torpedo tube as a gun and a torpedo as a projectile. In fact the similarity is so marked that it is surprising that they were not so named at the beginning. Let the world become imbued with the belief that in the modern submarine there is nothing wonderful, weird, or unusual, and that duty aboard is not a hazardous undertaklllg, and a new era in the development of naval warfare will have commenced. A Geographical Excursion Across the United States IT is announced that the American Geographical Society, which celebrates its jubilee next year, is planning in connection therewith a transcontinental excursion for the purpose of geographical study, in which delegates from the geographical societies of other countries will be invited to participate. The party will be “personally conducted” by Prof. W. M. Davis, of Harvard, who has lately had experience in carrying out similar undertakings in Europe. It is expected, also, thM the American members of the party will, so far as they are able, act as guides for the foreign visitors. While the natural featurBS of the landscape are to be the principal objects of observation, attention will also be paid to the agricultural and industrial development of the country. It is expected that the ex()ursion will leave New York some time in August, 1912, on a special train, and will spend six or seven weeks in traversing the country. The itinerary, as now planned, is to include, among other pOints of interest, 'the highlands and gorge of the Hudson, Niagara, the shore·lines of old lakes in Ohio, the southern end of Lake Michigan, with its artificial outlet into the Mississippi system, the upper Mississippi and Missouri, the Yellowstone Canon and National Park, the Rockies of southern Montana, the Oascade Range, Seattle, and Puget Sound. The return will probably be made by a southerly route. Fishing With a Steam Pump ONE of the most singular fishing devices imaginable W1S discovered by accident in France. Though extremely simple, the system is revolutionary. A pond on the farm of La Marlequette, bordered by rocky shores, was drained one year by the aid of a steam pump. Each stroke of the piston drew up twenty-five gallons of water and the pond was emptied in a few hours; and not only was the water drawn off, but all the fshes also were transferred to a new element. This was a revolution. The owners of ponds in the neighborhood followed suit, and the· proprietor of the pump made a specialty of thig sort of work. He “let” one of his pumps, modified for the purpose. The peasants of the region called it “the fish pump.” Each stroke of the piston brought up torrents of water, in which were fish and crawfish, together with mud and debris, One pond of seveI1al acres was cleared of fish at an expense of 36 francs, or $7.20. The process was ingenious, but as one cannot have his fish and ert it, too, and as such rapid consumption would have led to e h ually rapid, extermination, \^^tS1S^SJSS^ to take rs V^> The //* (Reg, U, S. Pat . Of,) PROOF is a proof @ not a cloth It is the only proof that will make any cloth peruently rainproi without the use i rubber. It permeates every fibre of the yarns of which a cloth is woven, rendering them thoroughly rain proof. This proof prevents a cloth from becoming water-logged, soggy, heavy or wet from rain, snow, fog or dampness of any kind. It is permanent, contains no rubber and does not change the appearance of the cloth in the least. This circular registered trade mark is stamped on the back of every yard of “Cravenette” proofed cloths. For furtner information 'rite us. Factory, Hoboken, N. J. N.Y. Office, 100 Fifth Ave. The many who have worn Jaeger Underwear do not need to be told of its merits. The few who have not should lose no time in adopting it, as it beuefits pocket as well as health 1 the end. AII “weights for all wants Dr. Jaeger's S. S. Co.'s Own Stores New York : 306 Fifth Avenue, ZZ Maiden Lane. Brooklyn: 504 Fulton St. Boston : ZZ8 Boylston St. Philadelphia: 1516 Chestnut St. Chicago: 126 N. State St. Agents in all Principal Cities. CONGRATULATIONS Here's a pipe you can keep clean and dry without taking any time or doing: any dIrty work. It means 2ood health PIPE SMOKERS to you and improved flavor to any tobacco. A wonderful treat for every smoker. No knocking or scraping to keep th1s pIpe r t ghr . One twist of the patent bowl and it's ready for another smoke. The cleaner is part of the pipe-can't be mig laid. takes no space. it DEFI » SELF CLEANING PIPE br iar bowls used in all Def” pipes are seasoned by a scientific secret process. --Defi” superiority. Four styles. straight or curved stems. French briar bowls. finest solid rubber bit. Send 7 5 ct s .• Style E, Style G. $1.00. Style H. selected French briar. Sterling silver mounted. $1.50. The name “Def” is on bit and bowl. For Christmas, Style M. genuine amber bit. beautiful silver mounting in a handsome leather case. with holiday packing. $5. Correspondence frod reliable dea';ers desired DEFI PIPES, Dept. 24,131W. 31st St., N.Y. Insure feet comfort, health, protection and neat appearance. They keep your feet warm in cold weather and dry in wet weather, and can J be worn all day long-without injury or discomfort. EVERYBODY NEEDS EVERSTICKS. | Always for sale where good shoes are sold. ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTES. L THE ADAMS 8 FORD CO. CLEVELAND, OHIO None etnuinewith* OHt THIS eors(* December !, I!Il SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 537 Bath Iron Works, Ltd. BATH · MAINE · U • S· A Builders o/Torpedo Boat Destroyers, Torpedo Boats, Fast Steamers and Yachts Parsons Marine Steam Turbines and Normand Water Tube Boilers Specialists in Light Construction and High Speed Estimates cheerfully furnished to meet the most difficult requirements 538 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN December 9, 1911 Hupmobile Long-Stroke “32 “ Five Passenger Touring Car—$900 F. o. B. Detroit, including equipment of windshield, gas lamps and generator, oil lamps, tools and horn. Thiee speeds forward and reverse; sliding gears: Four cylinder mot or, 3 l^ -inch bore x 5 Y-inch stroke. Bosch magneto. 106-inch wheelbase. 30 x 3 Y-inch tires. Color-standard Hupmobile blue. The new touring car will be first exhibIted at the Grand Central Palace, New York, Jan. 10-17; and subsequently at the principal automobile shows throughout the (ountry Hupmobile Runabout-$750 F. O. B. Detroit. including top. wind shield. gas lamps and generator. tbree oil lampst tools and born. Four cylinders 20 H, P .. slidtng gears. Bosch maeneto. In tbe new Hupmobile prant.'now t earjng completion . which WIll have when fimshed a capacity of 15.000 ro 20,OOOcars a year, the Runahout-always a car of unprecedented popularity-will continue to occupy the same large part In our manufacturing plans that It does at present. Hupmobile Coupe-Chassis same as Runabout-SHOO f. o. h. Detroit. Hupmobile Roadster-Chassis same as World Tourinj Car-$850 f, o. h. Detroit. A totally new idea of what you ought to get for $900 A new and larger Hupmobile which immediately thrusts up o n your attention a score of tangible superiorities which set It In a class apart from cars of its price. A five-passenger Touring Car for $900 which rejects every characteristic of commonplace construction; and makes clear its InvaSIon of the field above that price; by points of difference and departure which no motorist can mistake. Evolved out of the expenence which has built thousands of the Hupmobile Runabout -- the quality car today, as it always has been, of the runabout class. Designed by E. A. Nelson, Chief Engineer of the Hupp Motor Car Company since its inception and designer of the original H upmobile Runabout. To him and the skilled shop organization which he has continuously maintained, we owe the inimitable lines, the marked simplicity, the efficiency and the high quality of workmanship incorporated in the Runabout. Impressed with the same strong individuality as the Runabout; and still further removed from comparison by: - First, the small-bore, long-stroke motor. Second, the body design and construction whkh attains the purpose of the “ underslung “ and avoids all of its disadvantages; and Third, the Americanization, after close study abroad, of invaluable engineering principles entirely new to this country. These highly specialized features speak so plainly of greater structural soundness ; more progressive engineering principles; and costlier and more careful shop practice; that it is obvious, they proclaim a product without precedent at the price. Small-bore, long-stroke motor-37x5/- inches-6C% more pulling power for mountain work and heavy roads; 4 to 50 miles of speed; ability to pick up quickly without feeling the weight of the car, or throttle instantly to a walking gait. U nit power plant. Cylinders cast en bloc, with three bearing crankshaft (found only in other cars selling upward of $2500) instead of two. Bearings extra large, having bronze back, Babbit lined. Valves enclosed by pressed steel cover, keeping oil in and dirt out-noiseless, minimum wear, minimum adjustment. Thirteen-inch multiple disc clutch, action positive, smooth and easy. Transmission gears of 40 H. p. size, run slowly and quietly. Full Boating rear axle, amply strong fot a seven passenger car. Aluminum crank and gear case; drawn steel used in parts where lightness and strength are requisite. 4^ x 82 Photogravure Free W rite for detailed description and the 4Yx8Y photogravure of the new touring car. Hupp Motor Car Co., 1233 Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich. Classified Advertisements Advertising in Ods column is 7;) cents a Ime. No less than four nor more tnan 12 Jines accepted. Count seven words LO the Hne. All orders III nst be accompanied by a remittance. AUTOMOBILES. A N EW WWH ITE S T EAM ER, Model 0-0, complete with top. Will sell a t a very rea8 0nable price, Addrss A. A. Hopkins, 943 St. Nicholas Ave .. New York City. AUTOMOBILES AND MOTORCYCLES. AUTOMOBILES. $50.00 up; Motorcycles, $20.00 up; L uaranteed for one year, shipped treight prepaid. largest list and lowest prices in the world. King, Automobile Broker, Dept. S. A., 215 West 125th Street, New York City. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES: A STRONG, old established, manufacturing company. rith a national selli ng or, a nization, :ants to add a new line of guildin: material or constructr;n specialty to manufacture and sell. Address X, Box 77g, New York. FREE SAMPLE !oes with the first letter. Something new. Every firm wants it. Orders from $1.00 tf $100.00. Nice plea!ant business. Big demand everywhere. Write for free sample. Metallic Mfg. Co., 438 N. Clark, Chicago. GOLD DREDGING MINES very rich in Colombia. Mining Engineerwisbes partner, Will give liberal inducements, big profits, best of referenies. Address by mai· :n1y. '8. pickeY:ann, lo9 wJ:i 54th 8treet, N::) o:k. INVENTORS.-Send a copy of your patent to us and we will send you our contracts outlining our liberal manufacturing offer. For further particulars address, Atlantic Snpply Co., Long Branch, N. J. HELP WANTED. LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE WANTED.-Splendid income assured right man to act as our representative after learning our business thoroughly by mait Hormer experience unnecessary. An we require is honesty, ability, ambition and wHlingness to learn a lucrative busi-ness. No soliciting or traveling. 'his is an exceptional opportunity tor a man in your section to get into a big paying business without capita! and become independ· ent for lite. Write at once for full particulars. Ad-dr : : r E. R. Marden, Pres., ihe National Co-Operative Real Estate CompanY:L 378 Marden }tilding, W:sgfngton, D. C. _________________ PATENTS FOR SALE. BASIC PATENT No. 940.697 of a “Inner-illummated.” two-light interchaugeable - ad., Revolving Sign, for sale, outrigbt, royalty or state rigbts. If's the most attractive and inexpensive sign invented. No competition, fully developed. and the market demands it. “ Inventor/' 2008 Broadway, New York. PROPOSALS. PROPOSALS FOR BRICK DORMITORY. CEN''RAL S''EAM HEA'ING AND POIVER PLAlT. Depart· ment of the Interior, Office of Indian Affair. Washing. ton. D. C • November 15,1911. Sealed proposals. plainly marked un the outside of tbe sealed envelope: ^ Pro-posals fof Bf:Cf Dormiiory, Centr1l S}:a1 Hea\ing and P6S!r Plant, for the Rapid City Indian School, Soutg Dakota,” and addressed to the CommiSSioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C, will be received at the Indian Office untH 2 o'clock, p. m., December 29, 1911, for furnishing materials and Jabor for the erection of a brick dormitorYtcentral steam heating and power plant, at the Rapid City Indian School, South l)akota, in strict acrdance with the plans, spec1ficatioD and ins%ucti bns to bi7de; ss, ;tich may be xamr atthis Office, the offices of the Supervisor of Construction. Denver. Colorado, the American Contractor. Chicago, Ill. . Scien-tific American, New York City, the Im provement Bulletin, Minneapolis. Minn .• tbe Journal. Rapid City. 80uth Dakota. the Bee, Omaha, Nebr .• the United States Indian Warehouses at Chicago, Ill., St. LOliS, Mo., and Omaha, Nebr .• the Builders and 'raders Exchange at St. Paul, Minn .. and at the school. For further information apply to the 8upe;intendent of the Rapid City Indian School. Rapid City, South Dakota. C. 1". Hauke, Acting Commissioner. REAL ESTATE. TEXAS INVESTMENTS.-Buy farm orclard garden lands near Houston. tbe gr e atest and most prosperous city in the south:: sti where values are up alh\ f e e t::e and fortunes made in re:lU::t:te in short while. EafY terms it desired. Single crop pays for land . several crops an nual ly. Address E. C. RObertson, 51 Kiam Bldg .. Houston, f'ex. WANTED. w ANTED-Purelaser for Lilley's patent Bracket. Patented in five countries . . very low price will be accepted. For furtber particulars address. Brackett Box 77,, New York. W AN'l' ED.-One cbemist at $8.00 per diem; two first class laboratorians at $5.04 per diemj two second .class laboratorians at $4.48 per diem; and two fourth-cJass Jaboratorians at $3.28 per diem. A competitive examin-ation will be helg JanUa\f 5, 1912, at the NaJ1 Y:rd, Washiigton, B. C• fgr tilling ;A e :bove positions ai t he Naval Proving Ground. Indian Head, Md. For furtber information address, .. Commandant, Navv Yard, Washington, D. C.'1 MISCELLANEOUS. RUPTURE. A new patented device worn in place of the ordinary truaa. S.mfle' mmJortiiDle, and inexpeii' Hive, indorsed by leading aurae-cniF. For pfcriietilai'S. address, J. D. Howe, M. D .• Tiffin, Ohio. FREE TUITION BY MAlL.-Civil Service, Drawinl : Engineering, EJectrjc Wiring, Agricultural. Poultry, Normal, AodemlC, BookkeePing, Sborthanc Courses. Matriculation U. Tuition Em to first Jg plicants' Ap-ply toCAR.NEGiE COLL EGG Ks i6JERS, gHr6. INQUIRY COLUMN umAD TIUS COLUMN CAREFULLY.-You will tnd tuqairles tor certain classes of articles numbered :n consecutive order. It you manufacture tbese goods write us at once and we will send YOU the name and address of the party deSiring tbe inti Irmation. rlhere is no charge for tbis service . In every case it is necessary to Iive the number of the inquiry. Where manufacturers do not respond promptly the iUUNN&CO•• inquiry may be repeatea. Inc. Inqulry No. 9240.-Wanted. addresses of owners of 1imestone ty :ds running not less tban 98 per cent, and near a rail9y. I nquiry >'o. 9; 41 .-W a.nted, ad dre sses of owners 0 1 deposlts o]f. molders,sand smtab. le for heavy castings. Inquirr: o. 924.2.-Wanted, addresses of makers 01 bag valves. Inq¥iry No. 9243.'-'Vanted, address of maker of Rover 8 monogram embossers. Inqui-l .o. 9244.-Wanted, address of manufacturers makin- rollers, scrapers, and driers 8uitable for maKlnjr soup leaves. Inqui- wo. 9 . :4.-Wanted, t he name and addreR8 of manufacturers of lead pen LI ls and pen holders. such as are used for prInting 8e verdsements on. In q uiry No. 925;1.. - \hVan ted, to bu iy i l patent rol ler, a ball-bearm g axle, w h ich eou. lr be purcb Rd on a loyalty baia: it muat be cbean and ful1y pn;ved. Inquiry No. 92£fi. Wanted a ddr ess('s of parth!s baving PItchblende depOSIts. tf able to ship ore. Imuiry No. 92f7. W antm eed addres8es of firl1 sel 11Ti*r second·ha nd water t urbl! s. Inquiry No. H2rH-Wanted addresses of parties havIng gem materials to oOer in allY part of tie world. December 9, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 539 (£am> ptmbmt? [The editors are not responsible lor statements made in the correspondence column. Anonymous communications cannot be considered, but the names 01 correspondents will be withheld when so desired.] The Diesel Engine and the American Merchant Marine To the Editor of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: In a recent issue comment was made in your columns on the failure of the American inventor to keep pace with his European rival. In the issue of October 7th, a very interesting article appears on the Diesel engine and its economy over the steam engine, especially when applied to oceangoing steamers. One of the remarkable, as well as regrettable conditions, as far as our shipbuilders are concerned, is the indifference displayed to improvements in hull and motive power, particularly motive power, that have appeared in foreign-built tonnage in the past few years. Foreign steamship builders are experimenting with the producer-gas engine, seeking to ascertain its economy as como. pared with the usual type of three-cylinder engine used generally in steamships; the oil-burning motor marine engine has been given a long test by foreign marine builders, and several steamers to be operated with gas engines are to engage in the trans-Atlantic trade this coming year, and possibly this fall will see one or more gas-driven ocean liners headed for our shores. These steamers that promise to run across this year will be passenger as well as freight. Iurope has no oil or fuel; it has to be imported, while the United States is the greatest producer of oil in the world, and yet our shipbuilders lag far and away behind the foreign steamship builder in applying the oil and gas engine to marine service. It is fair to speculate on what causes the paralysis of the American shipbuilder, and one of the apparent causes is that it is shielded too much from competition. The coasting trade-and by the coasting trade is meant every port in the United States and Alaska-from Eastport, Me., on the extreme northeast to farthest Alaska, in the northwest including Porto Rico, is called American coasting trade, and only American-built vessels can engage in the trade now; this gives a monopoly to the shipyards of the United States, and shielded from foreign competition the necessity for developing new and improved types of engines and steamers is not found necessary. As to seeking to compete with the foreign builder in the steamship trade of the world, the American gave that up long ago; the only way that he can see, to get. even the smallest footing in that trade, is for the government of the United States to pay him for making the attempt. This attitude is the more surprising, as we make iron and steel far cheaper than can any other country in the world, while our exports of iron and steel the past year have been of tremendous volume and the competition of foreign nations in these articles is of no avail against the American manufacturer. It is also true that the report to the Stanley committee made by the United States Steel Corporation showed that it sold steel plates $8 to $11 per ton under the domestic prices. That, evidently, is one reason why our shipbuilders cannot compete with the foreign builders; that condition can be remedied by putting steel and iron on the free Iist, and with these commodities free, independent yards would be started that would not be so conservative in applying the most modern development in marine engineering to ocean tonnage. The Panama canal will be opened in a couple of years; already one American line is to bid on the contract offered by the Postmaster-General for a line between the American and Pacific ports of the United States, and already it is given out that the steamers this line will require to carry out the contract if secured wfll tax the capacity of our coast yards, when combined wLth the government work. Further government contracts must be considered only on a different price basis It is not difficult to see that, in a few years, trade on th( Pacific will grow at a tremendous rate. Alaska has mineral stores that will keep a mighty fleet busy, to say nothing of the trade between Honolulu, Philippines and the UnHeu States. It is true that the Philippine carrying trade is not yet confined to American-built steamers, and it is lucky it isn't, for there is no American tonnage to-day that would engage in it except at prohibitive freight rates. If ever there was a time propitious for the restoration of the American flag to the deep sea trade, it is now. The new development in marine engineering will make the vast foreign tonnage built up to the present time practically obsolete. As stated in your issue of October 7th the economy of the Diesel engine is so great, that no coal-burning steamer can compete with the motor-driven. And yet we have still to learn of any intereSt being taken in this new marine departure by any American shipbuilder. It “as the same with the turbine engines. We followed far behind Europe, even in the experimental state. We were far behind Europe in taking up the automobile and the airship. It is true that we came to the front with a rush, and we may do so in shipbuilding eventually. What our iron and steel industries need is, less coadling by the government; the stimulus of competition will enable us to achieve a place in the deep-sea carrying trade of the world that subsidies will never secure for us. And again it becomes apparent that the tonic of free ships would be of immense benefit to our deep-sea foreign trade. A free ship bill now would allow our people to invest in these modern motor-driven ocean steamers and establish the American flag in' the carrying trade of the world, and the old bugaboo of the American wage scale would be of little consequence in this type of steamers as the coal heavers would be a thing of the past. Chicago, Ill. CHARLES DEPESEE. Nitrogen and the Soil To the Editor of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: I am in receipt of a copy of the letter of Drs. Lyon and Bizzell of Cornell University. Their contention that they were the frst to announce the faot that non-legumes may secure a supply of combined nitrogen from legumes (when the two are growing together) should be qualifed. According to their own admission, their first article was received by the editor of the Journal 01 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry on April 21st, 1910, and appeared in July, 1910. The inclosed letter from Prof. A. D, Hall, Director of the Rothamsted Experiment Station, and editor of the Journal 01 Agricultural Science, will show you that my article was received by him in August or early September c 1909, UnfortunatEly, however, the issue of the number of the Journal of Agricultural SCience, containir.g my article; was delayed for more than a year, and the article in question appeared in print, therefore, in 1910, Instead of 1909. In this article of mine, I state distinctir that the non-legumes, separated by a porous wall from the legumes, were able to obtain very considerable quantities of combined nitrogen. Furthermore, the photographs show distinctly the benefit derived from the association. I did not submit analyses, even though those had been made, since I did not regard it necessary to submit figures in a preliminary publication. Furthermore, the bulletin pubhshed by Drs. Lyon and Bizzell, and entitled “A Heretofore Unnoted Benefit from the Growth of .Legumes” is dated March, 1911. rn other words, this Wlas submitted to the printer several months after my article in the .Tournal of Agricultural Science appeared in print. According to the admission of Drs. Lyon and Bizzell, the number of the Journal containing this article was received at the Cornell University Library in October, 1910. Hence, they were not justified iI designating their bulletin as they did by the title given above. It will be shown by the writ!r (in his 1 I i m n n i m d i m n i i I What Motor Trucks Mean F you are not using motor trucks, we take it for granted that you do not understand the benefits to be derived from them. Possibly you have the wrong viewpoint-perhaps you have been making too many comparisons with the horses and not really investigating what the truck meant to you as a machine to perform certain work. The individual or firm that has a better delivery system has an advantage-the kind of business doesn't matter-service is appreciated universally. If The White Company can place in your hands a more efficient means of making deliveries, they have given you an opportunity of extending your field-of broadening the horizon of your product -of making good-where you had been unable to go before. White Trucks Known for Performance HO into any large city in the United States-ask the men who have the _____| largest delivery problems, to see w hat they know about these White trucks. Almost regardless of whether they own them or not, you will find that they know their record for splendid performance. To the man about to invest in trucks, a list of White owners will appeal as almost a directory of the big business men. They have invested their good money in White trucks and their endorsement is the fact that they are continually increasing their equipment. No one buys and buys again the thing that fails to stand the test. We could tell you why-because it is all in the designing-in the building-in the care we take in the production of the truck. The important thing to you is that they do perform-that White trucks satisfy their owners-and, therefore, must be the kind that you want. lSOO-lb. delivery wagons, 1/i-ton, 3 -ton and S-ton trucks-all with a universal type of power plant. Let us submit a solution of your delivery problem. It will entail no obligation 540 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN .ecel ber !, 191 ] Poultry Secrets Disclosed We offer to all poultry raisers the essential knowledge and secret methods of many of the most successful poultry men of America. As a rule these secrets have been guarded with extreme care, for it is on them that the great successes have been built. They have cost years of labor and thousands of dollars. They will cost YOU only a trifle and a few minutes to write us. How We Obtained These Secrets Michael K. Boyer, Associate Editor American Poultry Advocate, has had exceptional opportunities and the closest friendship with poultrymen all over the country They have freely told him many of their most jealously treasured secrets, many others we have bought, and this scattered material, together with several of Mr Boyer's own valued methods, has now been coIIected in book form. It must be clearly understood that every secret printed has been obtained in an honorable way. "Poultry Secrets" First published in 1908, this coIIection of the carefully guarded secrets of famous poultrymen created a sensation 1 poultry circles It has run through thirteen editions, and is stiII selling at a lively rate. CONTENTS SECRETS OF FOWL BREEDING - Burnham' s Secrel of Breeding. Felch's Mating Secret. Mendel's Secret of Heredity. Secret of Alternating Males for Fertility. The Grundy Melhod. Curliss' Secrel of Halchmg More Pullets than Cockerels. DaVIS' Secret of Raising Every Chick. Babcock's Secrel of Developing Ihe Spike on a Rose Combed Fowl SECRETS OF FEEDING Secrel of F eeding Grams. Dr. Woods Laying Food Secret. F eeding Linseed Meal. Feedin! Meal and Salt. Proctor's Salt Secrel. Brac-kenbury', Secrel of Scalded Oals. Feeding Charcoal. Gril and Oysler Shells. Secrel of Green Feed. Secrel of Feed al Fifteen Cenls per Bushel. Sprouled Barley Secret. Smith's Secret of Preserving Vegetation in Poultry Runs. Important Feeding Secret. Miscellaneous Feed Poinlers. Chick Feed Secrels. Seely's Secrel of Dry Bran Feeding. Gowell's Fattening Secret. Gray's Fattening Secret. Greiner's Corn Feeding Secrets. McGrew's Secret of Feeding During Moulting. SECRETS OF HOUSING AND CARE - Secrel of Successful Y arding. Secrel of Telling the Laying Hen. Secret of 200 Eggs per Hen per Year. Lawney's Secret of Insect Killers. Secrel of Successful Moulting. Zimmer's Secret of Secu ring Foster Mothers. Broody Hen' Secrels. John Robinson's Secret. Secret of Chicks Dying in Shell. Secrel of Sealy Leg Cure. Sccrel of How 10 Hold a Fowl. Blan-chard's Secret of Stopping Cocks from Crowing at Night. EGG SECRETS-Brown' s Seerel of Preserving Eggs. Secret of Killing Ihe Ferlilily of Eggs. Secret of Obtaining Winter Eggs. Secrel of Ihe Angell Syslem. Secrel of Eggs A II the Year. Secret of Having Perfect Eggs. Kohr's Secrel of Selecling Layers. Kulp's Secret of Producing Great Lavers. Professor Rice's Fat Hen Secret. Crane's Secret of Holding Eggs lor Halching. Boswell's Secret of Testing Eggs. Dr. Woods' Egg Hatching Secret. MARKETS SECRETS- Judgmg Ihe Age of Dressed Poultry. Secret of Dressing Fowls. Secrel of Celery· Fed Broilers. Secrel of High Priced Slock. Truslow's Secret of High Prices for Ducks. SECRETS OF EXHIBITING -Drevenstedt's Secret of Exhibition Fowls. Heimlich's Secret of Exhibition Fowls Zimmer's Secret of Line Breeding. Rigg's Secret of Uniform Markings. Marshall's Secret of Training Show Birds. Lambert's Melhod of Growing Good Tails. Heck'sSe-crel of Adding Exhibition Weight. Fishel's Secret of Preparing Fowls for Early Fall Shows. 14th EDITION NOW READY Revised and up-to-date READ WHAT PURCHASERS SAY I received Far m Journal and .. Poultry Secrets,” and am very much pleased with both. The secrets are worth their weight in gold. Why, I paid $5.00 for the sprouted oat method. You certainly give a fellow over his money's worth. Andrew F. G. Morey, Utica, N. Y. I purchased a copy of “Poultry Secrets,” and find many helpful ideas in it, especially Dr. Wood's Egg Hatching Secret. Mrs. F. T, Darnell, Westfield, Ind. By putting within our reach these .. Poultry Secrets,” you are doing a more philanthropic work than giving alms or endowing hospitals, for you make it possible for us to make both ends meet. L. Boyce, Milwaukee, Wis. Received your book of “Poultry Secrets.” It's an exceptionally instructive work, and worth $10 to any progressive poultry-man . I would not care to take that for my copy if I could not get another. Robt. F. Kingsland, Montville, N. J. The Farm Journal came to hand, and later “Poultry Secrets,” also arrived, all of which I was very glad to receive and have been greatly interested in reading same, and think you are doing a glorious work in diffusing such valuable knowledge for so little money. F. B. Meade, Boston, Mass. As to “Poultry Secrets,” I wIll say. ( have lectured on this subject over the greater portion of this state for the pas I 6fteen years, and have about every book Ihal is published on t his subJecl in my library. and I consider thIS book of yours the most valuable I know, by far, for the general public. L. A. RIchardson, Marine, III. Is tillS cock properly held ? “Poultry Secrets"* tells you fo' to carry jo'ls, and scores 01 secrets far more important and fdferto unre'ealed. Profusely illustrated, with many fine drawings and diagrams. 64 pages Have you use for such a book ? Then read the Offer below. The POULTRY SECRETS BOOK is sold in combination with the Farm Journal, Philadelphia. The FARM JOURNAL is the standard paper for everyone who lives in or near the country, or ever has, or evel expects to. A particularly fine poultry department, more valuable than most poultry papers. 33 years old, 750,000 ,ubscriber, and more. Goes everv' where. Clean, clever, cheerful, amusing, intensely practical. Cut to fit everybody, YOllng or old, village, suburbs, or rural routes. Unlike any other paper and alway: has been. AMERICAN POULTRY ADVOCATE, the great New York State paper, published at Syta-cuse, and full of good reading matter, is always welcomed by the subscriber. Now in its 19th year. It is conceded to be one of the best poultry papers published in the United State,. Well edited by recognized authorities on the subject of practical poultry raising. Has a guaranteed circulation of 45,000 copies per month. SPECIAL OFFER For $1.00 (casl), mOTley order or check) we w'l1 senu postpaid the Poultry Secreta Book &* E<V*lxVLi VrrtilX arId HIt Farm Jouroal for two vears” and American Poultry Advocate two years, all for S1.00 (to Canada $1.60, foreign wuntrres $2.00). lf order IS sent at ollce to AMERICAN POULTRY ADVOCATE, 175 Hodgkins Block, Syracuse, N.Y. fonthcoming bulletin) that the beneficial effect of legumes or non-legumes, was noted and recorded many years ago; in fact, empiriool observations on this subject were recorded more than one hundred years ago in English books on agriculture. Hence, the writer does not claim that he was the first to observe this effect. Nor are Lyon and Bizzell justified in making this claim for themselves. It is the contention of the writer that he was the first to demonstrate in an exact and scientific way (by properly controlled pot experiments) that diffusion of nitrogen oompounds, out of the roots of legumes takes place, and that these nitrogen compounds miay diffuse through sandy soil and through porous earthenware, and may be absorbed by non-legumes separated from the legumes in this manner. JACOB G. LIPMAN, Director. New Jersey Agricultural College Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. Wooden Shoes To ihe Editor of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: In your issue of October 28th, 1911, under the oaption of “W Jden Shoes,” the United States Vice·Consul at Amsterdam,, Holland, is made to say that Lancaster COUlty, Nebraska, is a large importer of wooden shoes from Holland. For the benefrt of your readers, anu particularly the enlightenment of the Honorable Vice"Consul, we would like to have it understood that Nebraska is thoroughly civilized and we have the lowest percentage of illiterates of any State in the Union. The United States Custom House was opened in Lincoln twenty years ago, and a search of the records of importations fails to disclose a single shipment of wooden shoes for any firm in the State. You might be interested in knowing that the largest wooden (shoe) sole factory in this country is located at Columbus, Nebraska, sixty miles north of LincoIn, and that the entire output is consume{} in the territory lying east of Ohio and north of the Potomac River. W. S. WHITTEN, Secretary Lincoln Commercial ClUb. Lincoln, Neb. Lieut. Rambaldo-The End of a Promising Career SOME months ago the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN m entioned the daring project, conceived by Lieut. A. E. Rambaldo, of the Dutch navy, of exploring the interior of New Guinea by drifting over it in a balloon. This plan found many warm supporters in Germany, where it was chiefly promoted, but had at length to be given up, as the necessary funds were not forthcoming. Recently news has been received that Rambaldo met an untimely death in Java on August 5th, while making. a balloon voyage, in company with Lieut. van Steyn, also of the Dutch navy. from Soerabaia in the direction of Semarang. In attempting to make a landing in a forest, Rambaldo had climbed into the upper branches of a tree; a sudden upward movement of the balloon pitched him to the ground, while his companion was carried away in the lightened balloon. His lifeless body was recovered the following day. Van Steyn effected a safe landing. Rambaldo, who was not yet thirty· two years old at the time of his death, was an aeronaut of the type that is commoner in Germany than elsewhere. He was a keen student of the new science of aerology, and spent many months in studying the methods of upper-air research at Lindenberg Observatory and at other aero logical stations. Subsequently he made a long and valuable serIes of kite observations during a cruise to the West and East Indies on board the Dutch man-of-war “De Ruyter.” Having been ordered to duty in Java, he founded an aeronautical society in that colony, and took, an active part in inaugurating the aerological work of the Batavia Observatory, the brilliant results of which during the last few months have added much to our knowledge of the upper atmosphere. At the time of his death he was planning to return to Europe to take a course in aviation, and had recently published in the German aeronautical press the outline of a project for introducing this art on an extensive scale in Java, for the The Dean removmg scale from the tube of a return tubular bOler SCALE plays havoc with a boiler and digs deep into the coal pile. And you can't prevent scale from forming by the use of chemicals. You must remove it by a mechanical cleaner. The Dean Boiler T uhe Cleaner Is used by over 12,000 concerns to fight scale. It cleans fire tube or water tube boilers. It is operated by air or steam and cleans 10 to 30 tubes.a hour. Suppose you write for our booklet “ Scale Removal Made Easy.” which lells iust how Ihe DEAN does ils work and how it can save you money, THE WM. B. PIERCE CO. 319 WASHINGTON STREET, BUFFALO, N, Y. GOERZ BINOCULARS THE ST ANDARD OF QUALITY in ARMY and NAVY circles throughout the world We also manufacture High-grade Photographic Lenses and Cameras. Send for our new illustrated catalogs C. P. GOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO. 317 East 34th Street, NEW YORK, N. Y. AGENTS-$452& A WEEK ENDETS Kn Mnnd til FM£J lujunil; il giuJjIlUTTWB, bfl( MM kU rlu+ c -king utmaila. eio. No fcfif, Balder. Cement or rivet AD/ O Ihna. Ftt IPT auific*. Biruwt*. Emple ?**. Iflfc Onmpli a- |l:a, 25fl, poftpiltd. Wnndcrful Opportunity far livs t -.Mir* *4*T~ CoHattftMfg.Co.. Bo* i$2t Amsterdam, BY. PHILADELPHIA t Karnes Walnut and 13th Sis. Ideally localed in the center of business and social life 335 Rooms Batb. Rooms $2.00 per day up Room and Bath, $2.50 per day up Suites of 2 to 6 Rooms FamOU3 its cuisine Eugene G. Miller, Mgr. Print Your Own uewsp:lper. Press $b, La,.!er e money. Bi! proiit printing , rules ae':vY rite Ht:l dory tor pre!s ca;!iog, TY: cards, paper, c. TilE 1)UF8S CO., Merhicil. 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Your stenographers will like the L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter because it enables them to do hetter work, do it easier, and do more of it. You'll want it, yourself, for the same reasons and also because, on account of the ballbearings throughout, it keeps in better order and gives much longer service. Send for “ Another Decis;on by ExpertsH tellint how the Savage A rms Company chose a typewriter equipment. L. C. SMITH&BROS_ TYPEWRITER Brancbes in all large cities Head Office for Domestic and Foreign Business, Syracuse, N. Y., U. S. A. CO. THE BEST LIGHT A complete lighting plant in ] itself. Makes and burns Its own gas. Cheaper than kerosene and more brIlliant than electricity or acetylene. For homes, stores, factories, churches, etc. Made In over I 200 styles. Every lamp war-I ranted. Used In every CivIlIzed country on earth. Agents wanted. Write for catalogue and pnces. THE BEST LIGHT CO. 87 E. 5th Street. Canton. O. R.__^is the m ost cfIi c ie n t device RIFE m ade for pum ping w at er b y water. gj a HH Ra ises water 30 feet for each foot j*****"* of fall- no tro nb le »or pnmping M expense. Satis- RIFE ENGINE CO. 2533Trinity Bldg., N. V, IUI IIIURAICE FaR SD 4 Try a 50-cent new size bottle of “3-in-One"' and insure your gun against wear and tear and repair expense. "3-in-One” has the most wonderful lubricating, cleaning, polishing, ru st -preventing, gun -saving Qualities_ Every action part works easier. surer, truer, if oiled with “3-in-One.” Saves wear on delicate parts_ “3-in-One” is a penetrating, non-drying oi\' Won't gum, harden, or collect dust no matter how long gun stands. Removes residue of burnt powder “clean as a whistle.” All big gun factories use it. Contains no acid_ 3 11 .IE Buy the economical 50-cent size-just 8 times as large as 10-cent size-2Y times as large as 25-cent size! FREE Write for sfwrl: *"*"'*'bottle a'd “3-in-One” Dictionary_ Library Slip Iree with each bottle. "J-IN-ONE” OIL CO. 42 roadw G y New York Ctty and Queries, i Kindly keep your queries on separate sheets of paper whe'n corresponding about such matters as patents. subscriptions. books. etc. This will greatly facilitate answering your questions, as in many cases they ba ve to be refen'ed to experts. The full name and address should be given on every sheet. No attention will be paid to nnsigned queries. FuJI hints to corresnondents are orin ted from time to time and will be mailed on request. (12572) S. B. asks: If a meter were attached to the wire or a five-horse motor, and tbe current (500 volts) turned on for, say, one hour, funning only single lllOtO!, would it use as mucb juice in one hour as if the motor were doing full five horses' work? A. If a lve borse-power electric motor is run without load, it will only require the current to turn it whieh is able to overcome the friction of the parts of tbe motor. If full load is put upon the motor, it will tben require five borse-power to turn it. This is exactly the same as any other machine, a grindstone, for instance. A boy can turn it swiftly when there is nothing grinding upon it; but if a man holds a scythe upon it, bearing down with all his force, even a man might not be able to keep the stone in motion. Power must be furnished to any machine in proportion to the work called for from the machine. (12573) G. W. M. asks: 1. What are the chemical elements found in the atmospbere? Is there any chemical change wben subjected to heat' A. Atmospheric air is made up of 21 per cent of oxygen, 78 per cent of nitrogen, about 1 per cent of argon, and a minute trace of belium, xenon, neon, krypton, hydrogen. No chemical change is produced by simply heating the air to any moderate degree, unless some other substance is present which can be burned with the oxygen. At the tempera lure of tbe electric arc the nitrogen and oxygen combine and form nitric and nitrous oxides. 2. How is commercial oxygen, used in medical science, produc(d? A. Oxygen for industrial and medical purposes is made from chloratc of potash or from binoxide of sodium. The' former is heated in a retort with manganese dioxide, and the latter is simply dropped into water. (12574) E. J. L. asks: WiII it be too much bother to advise me the numher of cubic feet in a perch of stone? Tbe di< tionary and printed authorities all seem to agree on 24%, but masons here claim that there are only 16% A. A “vereh” of masonry is not a lleasure whose value is everywhrre tbe same. It seems to be usually 1t '2 fcet long and 1 % by 1 foot, which would make it contain 24 % cubic feet. It is often tahrn at 25 cubic feet. b” * has other values in different places. If all such peculiar measures could he dropped and our work measured in feet. yards, etc., it would greatly simplify matters. (12575) J. B. C. asks how to oxidiz( silver. A. 1. Add four or five thousandths ammoniulIJ sulphide or potassium sulphide to water at a temperature of 160 to 180 degTees Fahrenheit. ''hen the articles are dipped into this solution an iridescent coating of silver sulphide is produced, which, after a few seconds, turns blue black if allowed to remain in the liquid. Remove, rinse, scratch-brnsh, and burnish when desired. 2. 'bere are two distinct shades in use, one produced by a chloride, which has a brownish tint. and the otber by sulphur, which bas a. bluish-black tint.. To produce the former it is only necessary to wash the article with a solution of sal ammoniac (ammoninm chloridf). 3. A much more beautiful tint may be obtained by employing a solution composed of equal parts of copper sulphate and ammonium chloride in vinegar (or dilute acetic acid). The fine black tint may be produced by a slightly warm solution of sodium or potassium sulphide. 4. Bromine, f gr.; potassium bromide, 5 dwt.; water, 10 oz.; boil the silver in this usually 2 to 5 minutes. then polish with rouge. 5. Dissolve sulphate of copper, 2 dwt.; nitrate of potash, 1 dwt.; ·ammonium chloride, 2 dwt., in a little acetic acid. Warm the article and apply the solution with a camel's hair pencil and expose to the fumes of sulphur in a closed box. Parts not to be colored must be coated witb wax. 6. Dip the clean silver article in a solution of sulphide of potassium (liver of sulphur), 2 dr. to 1 pt. of water. Heat this solution to a temperature of 175 degrees Fahrenheit. Immerse for a few seconds only, when the article becomes blue black. For a velvet black, dip the article, previous to oxidizing, in a solution of mercurons nitrate and water, and rinse. Then dip in tbe sulohide solution as above. For a brown shade, oxidize the potassinm sulpbide as above, then dip in a liquid composed of 10 parts of blue vitriol and 5 parts of sal ammoniac to 100 parts of vinegar. After oxidation, hrush with a scratch brnsh very lightly. to brighten and variegate the surface. There arl many other methods, among which will be found the following: 7. Expose to the vapor of chlorine. 8. Use a solution of equal parts of copper sulphate and ammonium chloride dissolved in vinegar. WateWan's Ideal IburftSftPeii Always Acceptable | W ATERMAN'S IDEAL is one of the very few gifts which the rec eiver can put right in pocket :r p urse for constant u se. If e ver yone had th e selecting of th eir own Christmas presents this is the kind that would be purchased. As a gift to anyone, or for yourself, there is not another article that shows better purchasing discretion than Waterman's Ideal Fountain Pen - it is a compliment to your taste. This pen is made in a very wide range of sizes and styles in order that the pen technique of every writer may be individually suited . Your selection may be exchanged until satisfactory. Whether you buy a plain Waterman's Ideal or one studded with diamonds, the quality is of that same successful standard which the careful workmanship and Waterman patents have brought to continued perfection. This is the gift for people who are hard to suit. From Stationers, Jewelers, etc_ Standard, Safety and Self-Filling Types. Icold SlIbJlitlleJ. Smd for Gii Book. frs/rnu-e/i tsi J ok. ^C L.E.Watet-man CoJ73BK<radway,N.Y I 8 School St.. Boston; 115 So. Clark St., Chicago; 17 Stockton St., San Francisco; 107 Notre Dame St.,W ., I Montreal: Kingsway. London : 6 Rue de Hanovre, Pari.. 54' SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN December 9, 191 1 THE STANDARD RAILROAD OF AMERICA Railroads are known by the service they render. The PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD has gained its title by always giving its patrons the best that can be provided-the best kept and protected roadbed and track, the newest steel equipment, the most satisfactory dining car service, and the fastest time consistent with safety. Its standard is exemplified in the "Pennsylvania Special" which makes the less than 18-hour run between New York and Chicago with clock-like regularity. Leaves NeW York - - - 4.00 P. M. Arrives at Chicago - - - 8.55 A. M. Leaves Chicago ... 2.45 P. M. Arrives NeW York - - - 9.40 A. M. The New York portal to this splendid service is the Pennsylvania Station one block from Broadway at 32d Street, which typifies by its simple grandeur the excellence and high character of Pennsylvania Railroad service throughout. THE EDISON CONCRETE HOUSE C *IH; it is constructed, :: much it !ill cost, i: it pr:ctical f;om an :;chitectural and engineering standpoint? These and other important questions relating to the structure are discussed i n a good, thorough. illustrated article pubhshed in Scientific A merican Supplement 1685. Price 10 cents by mail. Order from your newsdealer or from MUNN&COMPANY. Inc. 'Publishers 361 Broadway, New York ONLY $36. With ou 00 ' he Wonderful lilt IT LANTERN our Improved famous ALCO RADIANT LIGHT new 1912 Model haf lllaIlY improvements and double brilliancy. Write for illustrated circular of this :tlld Lanterns of all styles and lights at bottom prices. IF YOU O"N A IANTERN we should have your name to lail t o you our regular announcements of new slide and lecture set1. *75,000 Lantern Slidesto rent. POST CARD MAGIC I.ANTERN reAec tf im a g e of p o st ca rd or any EngRneerWNng, Microscope, Optical, Scientif S C, Photo, Lantern Slide Supplies Here's the Pile that Never Fails whenjou want Correspondence Quick J LTO It's the nearest fool-proof-nearest careless· clerk·proof filing cabinet ever devised. It's easier to file correspondence Quicker, and more accurately in a Multoplex Cabinet, because the drawers have InSIde Metal Adjustable ParItIOns. These keep each folder upright and easy to get at. mean efficiency and economy for many reasons- ^|jg||^ Filing Cabinets -they enable your file clerks to do Quicker and better work -make misfled or lost letters almost unknown -can be filled to capacity-5,OOO sheets-without crowding —insure instant locating of desired papers -prevent crumpling or tearing of filed correspondenc< , -effect big saving in drawer equipment, as no guide,cards are needed and light weight, less expensive folders can be used. No Follower Block True Vertical Filing No Waste Space Write for Our Book “Faultless Filing” Today It covers fully each money saving point.oet- _________.______._______________^—____ lined here—tells of thehigh grade, guaranteed constr uctio n of our c abinets—tells of our new check file system, a wonderful convenience. tells you everything you'll want to know about our cabinet from your viewpoint as tbe man with the filing system to finance. Write for the book today, mentioning your fr Dame and in What capacIty you serve. "Inventors and Inventions" A NEW BOOK JUST PUBLISHED BY H. ROBINSON 41 W. 33d ST., NEW YORK. INDISPENSABLF AND INTERESTING TO EVERY INVENTOR OR PROSPECTIVE INVENTOR. PROfUSELY ILLUSTRATED CLOTH BOl'ND, $ 1.00. IT TREATS AUTHORITATIVELY IN A CLEAR, POPULAR AND ENTERTAINING STYLE THE fOLLOWING SUBJECTS: How to Invent. financing a New Invention. Marketing a New Invention_ Advice to Inventors_ The Glory of Invention. Pictures of famous Inventors. Various Ways Employedlto Cheat ard Rob Inventors. Present Available Means of Proteding an Invention. Treatment the World accords to Them, and Other Important Subject.. EVERY HOME LIBRARY SHOULD HAVE Stories of Useful Inventions By S E. FOR MAN. author of “A HIstory of the United States.” etc, Sixteen “ t r ue stories,” stories of human progress as shown in man's making of the match, the stove, and other inventions which are most useful to man in his daily life, told to stir and hold the interest of the young reader. MANY PiCTURES. 12rm, 248 PAGFS Price $1.00 net, postage 11 cents Published by THE CENTURY CO. New York We have been asked If we use the name of the subscriber when writing to the people whose names appear on the lists sent in by our friends. Of course we do not mention the name of the person who sent us the list without permission. If this doubt has deterred you from sending us a list don't wait any longer, send in the list at once and rest assured that your wishes regarding the use of yoar name will be respected. All you need do Is simply send us the names of those whom you think the “ Scientific American” will interest and we will do the rest. Of course the more names you send us the better will be the results obtained and the longer the period for which your personal subscription will be extended. For each new subscription received from the list you send us we will extend yoor subscription four months. Thus if we get three subscriptions from your list we will extend your subscription for a full year. Don't fail to put yoar name and address on each list you send us, so that we may be enabled to give proper credit. Mail all lists to Circulation Department, Scientific American, 361 Broadway, New York City. EpS M aglca I A ppara t US. 6—t-9 Grand Book Catalogue. Over 700 e nera .. n •• a5c, Parlor Tricks Catalogue, free. MARTINKA&CO. . !lfrs .. <U3 Sixtb Ave. . New York Learn Watchmaking We teach it thoroughly in us many months as It formeriy took years. ))oes away with tedious apprenticeshlp. :oney earned while studymg. POSitions secured. Easy terms. Send for catalog. ST. LOUIS W A'J'CIIMAKING SCIIOOL, St. Loul., Mo. HUMETtll I NO OR IMBIICA6 S? ANYI” I NG *WIP _________ 118.124 North Clinton !t. C..BfS lVacaftf'.^f^USA Veeder Counters to register rec i proca t1 tI g tnOVemellts or re\·oll 1tions. Cut full size. Booklet Free. VEEDER MFG, CO, 18 Sargeant St., Hartford, Conn. I Cyclometers, Odometers. ^Tachometers. Counters and Fine Oaitinqs . Represented ill Great BrItain by :1 ARUT&Co., LTMI'l'tW, 1 City Road, lillshllr: Sllmlre, London, E. C; France,'by MARTT&Co., LIMITED, 107 Avenue Pm·mEntier, Paris, Germany, Austria-HuIgry am;1. Sc!]:'navi run w. LOEWE&Co.,HntteK St*asse 17-20, BerlIn. Countries by Why not enJOY absolute comfort in your automobile over all klOds of roads' You can accomplish this if your automobIle IS eqUIp ped wah tbe The New 1912 FLENTJE Automatic Hydraulic Jounce&Recoil Preventers in a clsisi hy itself anaoiA “BEST IN T;;J ;[ LD" In a short tlme yoU WIll save lhe cost of the preventers on tires and sprl ngs and engIne and body of your car. Try a set on thirty d ays' free tnal and three years' guaran tee. and be conVinced of the correctness of my claIms. S5000 a side to any sback a b sor be r manufacturer to dis pT9ve that “The Flentle 1 1 is the best In the world. For further particulars, apply to ERNST FLENTJE, 1643 Cambridge St” Cambridge, M .... New York Branch. 1926 B'way, cor. 641h St., Room 400 N. Y. City DectflllwJ 9, J 91 J SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 543 Inventors! Start a Shop of Your Own Instead of paying some one a profit to furnish power for your small shop or experimental room, buy an I H C Gasoline Engine and start a shop of your own. A small shop, with a lathe, shaper, power hack saw, drill press, emery wheel, and portable forge, can he run at a surprisingly low cost for power when an I H C engine is installed. You can shut the engine down when not needed, cutting off all expense, and can have its full power ready to me within a few seconds after starting it again. Furnish your own dependable power with an I H C Gasoline Engine They are made in all styles and sizes, one of which is just what you will need. All I H C Engines have proved themselves the simplest, strongest, most reliable, most economical, and most durable power outfits made. Let us send you the facts. Write now for catalogue. Read about I H C superiority in design, materrals, and workmanship. Then decide to buy one and furnish your own power. If you wish, we will help you decide on the size and style of engine best suited to your needs. International Harvester Company of America (INCORPORATED) 15 Harvester Building CHICAGO U SA Bu ild Y our Own Motor trom a set of o n r castings. DIot d roeyele, f nrine or Stationa ry. Our finishe o , atta chable o u tfits ft any wh eel. Send stamp for-particul:us. Steffey Mfg. Co_ 2941 W. GIrard Ave. P hiladelphia, Pa. For all Purposes The High Powered, JAeht ~ Weight Cu shin an Engine measures out j ust enough gasoline to do the work required. Advanced 4 cycle type. Weight under 200 lbs. 4 h. p. rating but actually develops over Automatic Throttle Covernor witb High Orad. Schebler Carburetor. ' Easy speed changing is butoneofseveralmarks of superiority. Special friction clutch pulley wIth belt and chain drive. Sold on 10 year guarantee. CUSHMAN MOTOR WORKS, 2070 N. St.JL1ncoln.Neb. Use KEROSENE Engine FREE! Amazinl “DETROIT” lero. sene lnshitped on 15 days' IREE Trial, proves :eros:i; cheapest. safest, most powerful fuel. If satisfied, pay lowest prf!; e!:rgiven ;r;efIe farm engine; if not. pay n othing. Gasoline Going Up! Automobile owners are burning up so much gasoline l h;t tle wOrd?s sJ;r; is running short. Gasoline Is 9c to 15c higher than coal oil. Still goinr up. Two pintsof coal oil do work of rhr': p?nt! gasoli:e. N waste, no evaporation, n o ::plosion from coal gil. Arm aII-n g “ 0 ElR 0 IT" The “DETROIT” is the only engine that handles coal oil sucC:f: ; !y; uses alcohol, gasolin? and benzine, too. Star!! without cranldng. Basic ;!ient—only three movrng parts-no cams-no sprockets-no gears-no valves-the utmost in simplicity,po:er andtength: McOounted on ::ii:!i!i! sizes, 2 'hoh . p., in stock : eeady to stip. Completeenginetested ju:t be f ore crating. Comes all ready to run. Pumps. saws, threshes, churns. s:har::es miik· grinds feed, shells corn, runs home erectric-lighting plant. Prices (stripped), $29.50 up. Sent any place on 15 days' Free Trial. Don't buy an engine !!ll you investt, at Tb a::zi::, money-!::in:i :Z: er-saving “DETROIT.” Thousands in use. losts only postal t: En: out. If you arefirstin your neighborrhood to write, wewill allow * JOU Sp ecial Efxttra -Low Introdu cory p rlcew{i Writewl Detroit Engine Works, 127Bellevue Ave., Detroit, Mich. not carbonize methodical reVISIOn, developing them to include present conditions, and showing the conclusions to be drawn from the three most recent wars in which navies have borne an active part: Japan and China in 1894, United States and Spain in 1898. and Japan and Rnssia in 1904. The contribution of each war to the snbject was considerable, the last named being especially frnitful in furnishing examples of correct and incorrect naval strategy. He shows the principal strategic strongholds existing to-day, tells how the balance of power on the sea is maintained, and how it may be readjusted if Germany continues to increase her navy. IIe takes up the subject of coast defenses, both as protection to the country and as hases of supplies, remarks upon distribution of fleets, and explains the changPR nnd tactics made neCCSRUl',V by recent devicps, such as the wireless. Dpfning naval strategy simply as “the proper use of means to attain euds,” his analysis of the naval events of history from this view-point brings a snbject supposedly technical and difficult within the comprehension of the average reader. COST - KEEPING FOR MANUFACTURING PLANTS. By Sterling H. Bunnell, Ph.B., M.E. New York: D. Appleton&Co., 1911. 8vo.; 233 pp. Price, $3 net. To reach its highest efficiency a manufacturing plant must be watched as a doctor watches a patient. It is the cost-keeping departmpnt that mus' point out the weak spots aud indicate a rtmedy. Without accurate knowledge of weak spots-that is, of instances where the cost of operations exceeds or approximates the Rt1ling price-remedies are mere guess-work, On the other hand, there is so much of compllcation and red tape about many cost-keeping systems tbat manufacturers hesitate to adopt them. Mr. Bunnell, while avoiding in great measure the encumbrances incident to thrse systems, sacrifices nothing of efficiency. He surveys the field of cost-acrounting in a genfral way, gives some valuable counsel on the introduction of an adequate system, and then proceeds to sustain and amplify the general plineiples by reducing them to practical appllcation. All the necessary accounting forms are drawn and their uses explained, so that the routine of cost-keeping may he established with the least amount of labor and worry, and may result in accurate and progressive knowh'dge of vital facts and details. He clearly demonstrates that the efficiency of this department and the prosperity of a business are very closely related. It would be hard to find a more enlightening or sensibly-written work on the subject. MOEDEBECK'S TASCHENBUCH FUR FLUG-TECI-INIKER UND LUFTSCHIFFER. Berlin: Verlag von M. Krayn, 1911. 920 p.; 238 illustrations. It was in 1895 that the late Capt. Moedebeck issued bis admirable aeronautic handbook. When we consider that the dirigible at that time had hardly developed much beyond the experiments of Renard, and that Lilienthal alone had made any experiments in dynamIc fight, we can readily understand how bold an undertaking Moedebeck's was. Yet he carried tbrougb his scheme with good judgment and with such foresight that his book proved a boon when the dirigible really took its place in our daily lives. In the first edition it was almost out of the qnestion to devote much space to the flying machine for the simple reason that the flying machine as we know it did not exist. In the second edition, issued in 1903, the remarkable performances of the dirig ible still took up the major pOl'tion of the book. Unfortunately Capt. Moedebeck was not spared to revise this last edi tion. That task has been intrusted to Prof. Suering, of the Royal Meteorological Observator' at Potsdam. That he has done it ably follows almost as a matter of course from his scientific standing. As it now comes to us, the book is divided into the following cbapters: Gas ('he PhYSical Propelties of Gases and Technology of Gases) ; A tmospheric Physics ; Aerological Observations; Kites and Parachutes ; Balloon Technics ; Navigating a Balloon ; The BaSis of Balloon Navigation ; Practical Aspects of Balloon Navigation ; The History of the Airship ; Airship Construction, Practical and Theoretical; Navigation of Air Vehicles; Animal Flight; Gliding Flight; Technics of Flying; Engines for Airships and Flying Machines ; Aerial Propellers ; Society News ; Tables. ARTISTIC HOMES. By Mabel Tuke Priest-man. New York: A. C. McClurg&Co., 1911. 8vo.; 148 pp.; illustrated. Price, $2 net. There is a steadily increasing appreciation of sensibly-planned and at the same tim2 ar tistically satisfying houses that is encouraging to those of us who wO'ld have America surpass her older rivals in modes of taste as well as in business methods. A home that is pleasing and restful to the eye contributes substantially to the contentment and education of mankind, and costs no more in the long run than many of the pinnacled and castellated atrocities we see around us. The growth of this appreciation of the truly beautiful and usefuI in bore-making has been fostered to no small degree by such works as Mrs. Priest's “Artistic Homes,” in which are described and pictured ideal dwellings visited by her in this country and in England, with concise statements of thlir cost and all the essential details of their construction. , · SFETY Fountpens for Christmas They are made for continuous practical service and for that purpose are unexcelled. The construction is simplicity itself. There are no complicated parts to break or get out of order. The “Ladder Feed” and the “Gold Top Feed” furnish the exact amount of ink required, and automatically prevent Hooding or skipping. The “ Screw Down Cap” creates an ink tight chamber around the pen pomt and renders leaking or sweating absolutely impossible no matter in what position the pen is carried. The nib is of 14 karat gold, tipped with irid10m and is practically wear proof. 39 Made in a variety of Sizes and Styles to suit requirements. For the man who wants a pen for practical work none can equal the .. Swan Safety.” A pen for every purpose. Nibs to suit the requirements of all styles of handwriting. For the Bookkeeper the Posting pen is unexcelled, and for ladies a large assortment in gold and silver is offered. iiWAN may be depended on for years of satisfactory service and on , account of its ab-k solute r eliability J is ini able to the fotnraa PBKi- FOR XMAS A "SWAN" is always an ideal present and one that will recall pleasant memories of the donor for years to come. Sg^ Not a Toy but a real help for busy men and women. Pices. $2.50 and uP. at all Stationers and Jewelers. MABIE, TODD&CO. (The Makers) f* B^J 17 Maiden Lane, New York m^^' 124 York Street, Toronto MANCHESTER PARIS 209 So. State Street, CLicago 79.80 High Holborn. London BRUSSELS SYDNEY The only bond paper whose method of distribution assures you Impressive Stationery at a Usable Price Made in White and SIX Colors WIth E to Match That economical method of distribution is simply sell i ng direct to respon,ible printers and lithographers in 500 lb. lots and upwards, instead of through local jobbers in ream lots to any printer. You save the jobber's profit and the heavy expense of handling small lots if you secure your business stationery on Construction Bond. You can obtain such stationery from the most responsible printers and lithographers in practically every city in the United States -from Boston to Los Angeles and from the Twin Cities to Galveston. Ask us on your business letterhead or card and we'll send you the names of those in your locality and a complimentary portfolio of specimen letterheads on Construction Bond. Other fine bond papers will produce impressive stationery; but only one fine bond - Construction Bond - has the economical method of distribution that assures you Impressive Stationery at a Usable Price. Send your business card for specimen letterheads. W. E. Wroe&CO., 1015 Michigan Ave., Chicago 544 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN December 9, 1911 KEENE'S DEPENDABLE RAZOR ^f An Easily Made High Frequency Apparatus CAN BE USED TO OBTAIN EITHER D'ARSONVAL OR OUDIN CURRENTS. A plunge battery of six cells. a t wo-inch spark induction coil, a pair of one-pint Leyden jars, and an inductance coil and an the apparatus required, most of which can be made at home. Supplement No. 1618. Order from your newsdealer or from Munn 6 Co., Inc., 361 Broadway, N. Y. The Allen Dense-Air Ice Machine was introduced into the U. S. Navy in 1886. Since then 215 more machines have been placed on our naval vessels, providing to the whole crew daily fresh meat and vegetables, cool water and ice, and cooling the powder magazines. The early ones are still doing their work regularly after transfer to newer vessels. H. B. ROELKER 41 Maiden Lane, New York V. Leading GasolineTruck of America ASK any owne r of a “Mack” t ruck (t here are th?usands of the: every-X where) his candid opinion as to the sort of service he IS r ece t vlng from *- * this mode of transportatio n. Ask him as to cost of maintenance; economy of operation; possibilities of heavy haulage under all road a!d weather conditions' ask him how his “Mack” truck s t and s up under continUOUS and strenuous service. We are perfectly willing to let a “Mack '. owner's experience guide you in your selection of a motor truck. Bttllt 10 all Sizes a n d all types, 1 to 776 tons. Catalog for the asking INTERNATIONAL MOTOR COMPANY Executive Offices: 30 Church St., N.Y. Works: Allentown, Pa., Plainfield, N. J. ( Salel and Service Stations in A” Principal Cities .) J Huge Icebergs of the Southern Ocean THE September Monthly Meteorological Ohart 01 the Indian Ocean, published by the British Meteorological Office, contains a most useful account of the icebergs of the Southern Ocean, as reported by ships of all nationalities during the twenty years 1891-1910. In the southern hemisphere icebergs attain dimensions far exceeding that attained by similar formations in the northern hemisphere. They may be fallen in with anywhere poleward of the parallel 30 deg. S. As many as 4,500 different bergs have been actually count-ed in a run of 2,000 miles; estimated heights of from 800 to 1,700 feet are not uncommon; and instances of bergs having lengths ranging from 6 to 82 miles are numerous. The most northern ice of the Southern Ocean. so far as the records from the beginning of the nineteenth century show, was a fragment of a berg sighted by the barque “Dochra"' in 26 deg. S., 26 deg. W., in April. 1894. Icebergs are seldom sighted on the regular trade routes south of Australia. between the west coast of South America and the meridian of 80 deg. W., and between the Falkland Islands and the east coast of South Ame;·ica. As to the abundance of icebergs in certain years, besides the case above mentioned of 4,500 bergs seen in one voyage, several other remarkable records are cited. Thus in March, 1910. the “Prima” passed between 2,000 and 3,000 icebergs in two days. while steaming from 54 deg. S. 36 deg. W. to 47 deg. S. 38 deg. W. The many flotillas of icebergs passed by vessels during the prolific period 1892 to 1897 included some of the loftiest on record. In January, 1893. when 400 miles east of the Falklands. the “Loch Torri-don” passed many bergs varying in estimated height from 500 to 1.000 feet, and one of 1,500 feet. The “Charles Racine” sighted a berg 1.500 feet high, midw.lY of the Cape and Australia, in December. 1896; and one of the same height was sighted from the “Zinita,” in November, 1904, about 120 miles south of the spot where that of the “Loch Torridon” was observed. The loftiest berg on record. which had an estimated height of 1,700 feet above sea-level, was passed by the bark “Emil Julius” in June, 1884. when in 44 deg. S. 49 deg. E. Since the heginning of 1889 there have been reported 39 instances of bergs from 800 to 1.700 feet in height; and 16 of these had an altitude of 1,000 feet. So far back a s 1840 a berg 1,000 feet high was sighted not far from the Cape of Good Hope. Since the beginning of ]884, 42 ships have reported bergs having estimated lengths of from 6 to 82 miles. In May, 1892, the “Strathdon,” in 44 deg. S. :W deg. W., sailed 40 miles along the side of a berg. This ice-island was 1,100 feet high. In January, 1893, the “Loch Torridon,” in 50 deg. S. 45 deg. W., by sailing along the side of a berg determined its length to be 50 miles; and two months later, about 2CO miles farther west, the bark “}thelbert” is said to have passed one which was 82 miles long! Some of the extreme lengths reported in good faith are. however, perhaps based on optical illusion; as a berg is sometimes unwittingly viewed through a gap between two other huge bergs, situated on either side of it, and overlapping its ends. A case of this kind was observed during the “Challenger” expedition. A cubical iceberg will float with about one-ninth of its total height above the water. It is not difficult, however, to imagine a lofty pinnacle berg having its base spread over a large area. and the under-water depth comparatively insignificant. In the majority of bergs the vertical heights of the submerged and visible portions seldom vary directly as the corresponding volumeJ. Throughout the five months ended April, 1855, a book-shaped ice-island drifted about between the parallels of 40 deg. S. and 44 deg. S. and the meridians of 20 deg. W. and 28 deg. W. The longer side stretched 60 miles, and the shorter parallel side 40 miles. Between the two was a bay quite 40 miles from side to side at its widest part. Several ships entered this cul-de-sac under the erroneous supposition that there was an exit; and one was lost with passengers and crew. In 1892 and 1893 the “Cromdale,” “Was- MaJe by JOSEPH RODGERS. iSONS, SHEFFIELD. ENGLANtV "ADE ON 1l0NOR This t a z or is absolutely perfed, both in shape and sbaving qualities. No tiDer quality ot steel can pos,lbl. be put intoa razor. Rodders steel h:s 230 y ears ot quality behind H. Eaeh razor IS perfectly ground, h:udelled and tempered indivulually, ilstJDg a perfect Itnl most lastilll sha\ing edge. lou simply canoot buy a bEtteT rnor than ;his. lONEY BACK GUARANTEE The price of Keene's Uepend»b1e Razor is $3.00 and the “allie for your moue” is all in the bIadt - no fancy h 9 D ,lI e or tntsh. Ordel' nne ioday ltod se e what a r e al. creamy shave you get. Use It every da y toi 30 da y s . then it yo u are not thoroughlv s:ltisfied, send the raz(r hacr , ami we wi,11 return yom money. This razor is w:l.ranted tor 50 years. Remit price ot r:or, or, it you preter, send tor (,nr cataLogue ot Joseph Rodge r s&Sons Razors. Pocket Knives and Scissors. KEENE BROS., Dept. 2399. 32 No. (Inrk St., thieago, 111. TABLOID'oe,", FIRST-AID Ready-for-Accidents outfits for motorists. aviators. travellers. home. farm. workshop. camp. etc. Complete. reliable and portable. Of all Druggists. or write : ^ Y BURROUGHS WEI,I,COll&Co . . 3 •• West a3rd St., O. Annual Motor Number JANUARY MAGAZINE NUMBER 0/ the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Issue 01 JANUARY 6th, 1912 In what respect do leading types of motor trucks for 191 2 differ mechanically? How can the owner best protect his investment in motor trucks? What is the cost of operation as compared with horse-drawn trucks ? Can truck chauffeurs be made of ordinary teamsters ? These are vital questions to the intending purchaser of motor trucks, which are ably discussed in an article entitled “Selection of a Motor Truck." The pleasure vehicle has now become so standardized that the Riding Qualities of an Automobile (the subject of an another article) now receive more thought than heretofore. The springs, the upholstering, the balance and hang of the body, all enter into the maig up of a comfortable car. Other matters now of paramount importance to the motorist are the Abolition of the Starting Crank, Lighting Systems, which make automobiling at night safe and pleasurable, and the efforts to solve the Tire Problem. These form the subject of three special articles. The Comparative Cost of Light and Heavy Cars is debated by a man who has made a painstaking comparison of every detail of his personal expenses in connection with the two types of cars. The various phases of the automobile industry are discussed. Price Fifteen Cents on All News Stands Munn&Co., Inc .• 361 Broadway, N. Y. December 9, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 545 "Red Devil No. 024 Far Famed as a GLASS CUTTER 'Mtllzons ha'e been sold It will cleanly cut a maxImum number of feet of glass with a minimum effort -and the tool will prove it. “ It's all in the wheel “ At all dealers. lOc It's one 01 the “Red De'zl” Tool Famzly. Slith&HelenWay Co. 150 Chambers Street New York City Bristol's Recording Water Level Gauges for automatlcally recording depths of water Or other lIqUIds I jn tanks. reservotrs !'• rivers. etc. etc. W nte I fOlnew 24 - pag e Illus- \ trated lulJetlD N 0 142 cataioiing tbese Recorders. THE BRISTOL CO. Waterbury Conn. 3ab POROX Storage Batteries 1'he best for hrnition and Jight. No 10ss of current. Absolutely reli:Wt Trar:rarent tars are used for all batteri es. 6 volt. 60 ampere bour batl ery Price 8ti4.00. Send for catatOQue ALBERT MULLER Hoffman Boulevard. near Hillside Ave. JAMAICA. N. Y. IE? uh . VIL TER MFG. CO. 899 Clinton Street. Milwaukee. Wi•• CRUDE ASBESTOS DIRECT PREPARED ASBESTOS FIBRE for Manufacturers use FROM MINES R. H. MARTIN, OFFICE. S1.PAUL BUILDING 220 B'way, New York. Your PATENTS and BUSINESS :RIZg:! I ncorporate Y:o° La". the moat libclat. Expeuse the least. Hold Il1cetll l ES. transact bOllnell anywhere. Blanks. By Law. and forms for mailII2 stock full-paid for caab. property or services. free. President Stoddard FORMER SECRETARY OF ARIZONA. <"dent a.ent for many thousand COlllplmcs. Reference: Any bank in Arizona. STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, 80: 8000 PHOENIX. ARIZONA STUDY LAW High·Grade Instruction by Correspondence Prepares for the bar Three Courses” College Post G r aduat e and Busmess Law. Nlueteenth year Classes begin eacb month Send fOl catalog 2lng rules for admiSSlon to tbe bar of the severa I states Vh1cago Correspolldellee School of Law 006 lteaper Block, thicaao Do Your Let the Red Devil Water Motor 8-1neh Dotor. I:nproveldld c on struc ti o n, absol utely p erfect, ruDS your w ashing machine and a hundred othlt things. Prc)w er for small tools. % horse power °n ^-inch Pipe, 80 pouNds presS', ! horse power on 2-in.ch pi;e, 60 pounds p;essure. Ne' : t price, *5.00 c as h WIth order. No. 1492 4-inch Motors for grlnding, polishlDg arid buffi:g. BUDS sewing mlachines, fsnB, bottle washers, etc. Price with emery. buffine whel'3 s£ver polish and pull,;: $&00. Jo. 1493 Motor and pulley only *2.50.,-horse power on 80 pounds pressure . lm pro v ed con stoo tion. Ppeeds, oiutt to 5,000 re:-ohitions per minute. Only seien-tiffically and mech t nically perfect small w at er motor manufactured -Patenten con struction makes It p ossl h1 e. Tremendous o :: w:rrants the price. Money back for any reason. C ATALOG UE AND LARGE SHEET F RE E W RITE TO-DAY IlIncb Bucket Wheel DIVINE WATER MOTOR- COMPANY D ept . 12. Uti ca. Ne w Y ork, U. S.A. For the name o f your local hardware tool dealer, w e wiU se n d von fe bo okle t on “Theory and DeSign of Water Motors." dale,” and “Ranee” had a like experience. At daybreak one morning the “Wasdale,” northeast of the Falkla-.ds, was discovered to be in a bay, of horseshoe shape, hollowed out of the side of an ice-island. This bay was 20 miles long. It varied in width from 10 miles at its broadest part to 4 miles at the entrance, and swarmed with large loose bergs. Recent Views on Road-Tarring By Dr. Guglielminetti SINCE the author made the first tests as to the tarring of macadamized and· ather roads about ten years ago, the question has been taken up in France by the Dust Prevention League, and the results were discussed at the International Cangress of Roads held at Paris in 1908 and at the Brussels Congress of 1910. Since that time, it may be said that surface tarring has entered into standard practice. As regards the question of hygiene, it appears that the desired end has already been reached, inasmuch as the amount af dust is much lessened. The other paint to be considered is that of cost. All road engineers are agreed that tarring has the effect of lessening the wear of roads and increasing the life of the pavement, to say nothing af the reduction in street-cleaning expenses, including watering, mud removal, and sweeping. But it was somewhat difficult up to the present to give any good figures for the economy realized on any given road. In fact, it requires a certain time to estimate the economic results as to upkeep of a road where the nature and amaunt af traffic vary considerably from one year to another. At present we are able to give some figures relating to the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, a wide avenue leading out to the large park of the same name. The figures are given by M. Bret, ane af the city engineers. This avenue is one af the finest in Europe, measuring 0.93 mile in length and 53 feet in width, and being bordered by a riding track and a footway. The total surface is 25,466 square yards. It was newly macadamized in September, :906, and was first tarred in May, 1907. Since then it has not been macadamized; before the tarring was adopted it had to be re-laid every three years. The figures for expenses were drawn up for three and one-half years preceding the tarring, then for four years afterwards. Comparison of the figures shows that the annual saving up to the present is 11 cents per square yard, or about 25 per cent on the re-laying and upkeep expenses alone, not counting the economy on cleaning expenses. It is noticed that the road was tarred only once in 1907, and after 1908 it was tarred twice a year, in spring and autumn. The author, who is a leading official of the league, arranged with the city engineers so as to have tarring done in autumn in order to have a fresh surface for the winter traffic. The result was striking, and in the spring following it was found that the surface was still in a very good state and the tar had remained on the greater part of the road surface, except in the middle where it had commenced to wear off. The Economic question involved appears to be settled, and the life of the road may be considered as doubled, so that the tarring! expenses are more than made up by the increased wear, as above shown. On the other hand, the frequent relaying of ordinary roads, which requires two months, causes great disturbance in the traffic, while the tarring process needs but a few days in order to allow the tar to dry. As regards the efficiency of the process in laying dust, the results are remarkable. Before this, the avenue in question had to be frequently sprinkled in the hot season every two or three hours, but one washing per day is all that is now required, and no one complains of the dust. Many thousands of automobiles per day pass over the avenue, so that at certain times, it used to be almost impossible to carry out the sprinkling; hence arose great clouds of dust and much discomfort and spoiling of clothes_ At present this has disappeared, and all agree as to the benefits of the tarring process. It would be too much to say that tarring could be carried out with equal advantage on all kinds of macadamized roads, for in the present case the traffic, No-Tank you! Pummo Soap for Mine:" ONeE tried, PUMMO SOAP is indispensable to mechanics and other workers who need a soap that will remove dirt, grease, grime and stains more thoroughly and quickly than ordinary toilet soaps. PUMMO will make the skin cleaner and whiter than any ordinary soap-in half the time. PUMMO SOAP is composed of pure vegetable oils, glycerine and finely powdered Italian pumice. While its cleansing action is quick, searching, thorough, it leaves the skin soft, white, refreshed. If your dealer does not have PUMMO, fill out and mail the coupon underneath and we will gladly send you free sample Made by THE N. K. FAIRBANK COMPANY Price 5C - FAIRBANKS »pummo ^^^ SOAP Accuracy! -the chief aIm of naval training. This is why navy officers and men as a rule prefer the Smith&Wesson. Made with a degree of precision that has never been equalled. Smith&Wesson, 427 Stockhridge St. Springfield, Mass che Smith&Wesson .44 hand ejector, 4 and 6 j inch barrels, blue 01 nickel .nisk Send for our inter,tmg booklet. ' he 'e"· Smith&Wesson For 56 years manufacturers of superior revolvers 546 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN December 9, 1911 Inter-Pole Motors are Best for use on Board Ship because they have the following characteristics : Lightest possible weight and smallest dimensions for a given horsepower output. Hig h est insulating obtained through impregnation of coils by vacuum process. They will not spark, even on momentary overloads up to 100%. Give equally efficient service on constant and adjustable speed working up to 1 to 6 ratio. Can be furnished with either Ring Oiler or Ball Bearings, the latter requiring no attention. It will pay you to write for Bulletins and look up INTER-POLE construction, which is the only one giving perfect results. ELECTRO -DYNAMIC COMPANY, Bayonne, N. J. Try the Wonderful Columbia (Kerosene Engine at our Jtisk Test it out on your own place for fifteen days. Give it the hardest engine test l0u can think of. Compare it with any other engine. If the Columbia doesn't develop more power at less cost, send it back quick. No conditions. We are willing to let you be the judge and jury. Kerosene (common lamp oil) is by far the cheapest fuel today. The price of gasoline is climbing all the time, while kerosene remains the same, and in the right engine, it lasts longer and produces more power per gallon than gasoline. You get ALL the power when you use a Columbia. because it is the right engine. It is the one really simple and perfect kerosene engine. It never bucks when you need it most. It la always on the lob. Write for Particulars of Our Big Special Offer We are going to double our output for next year. We can do it easily. It f just a matter of getting engine users to test the Columbia for themselves. So we are making a great, special money saving offer on Columbia Kerosene Engines. This offer is liable to be withdrawn at any time. 80 write today for full particulars, for it is a money saver you would hate to miss. Free Book No. 8 full of engine facts yon need to know, sent free. Shes 2 to 16 H . P. Columbia Engine Co., 96 Fullo' St., Detroit, Mich., U. S. A. DOUBLE THE FERTILITY OF YOUR FARM By Breaking up the Rich Subsoil WITH RED CROSS DYNAMITE Ordinary plowing turns over the same shallow top-soil year after year, forming a hard and nearly impervious plow sole that limits the waterholding capacity of the land and shuts out tons per acre of natural plant food. Dynamiting the subsoil makes this plant food available, aerates the soil, protects vegetation against both drouth and excesS rainfall, and soon repays its cost in saving of fertilizer expense and largely increased yields. Write for Free Booklet To learn how progressive farmers are using dynamite for removing stumps and boulders, planting and cultivating fruit trees, regenerating barren soil, ditching, draining, excavating, and road-making. Write now for Free Booklet-"Farming with Dynamite, No. 29. E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS POWDER CO. PIONEER POWDER MAKERS OF AMERICA ESTABLISHED 1802 WILMINGTON, DEL., U. S. A. though dense, consists exclusively of light private vehicles, as the road is closed to heavy conveyances. In considering the question we must see what roads , are best adapted to the tarring process. The failure properly to take into account this factor may explain the want of harmony between the city engineers having charge of streets and the engineers occupied with country roads. which was noticed at the Brussels Congress. The city engineers favored the suppression of macadamized roads in cities and considered that such .should be paved with stone, wood, or asphalt as traffic increases. Opposed to this opinion were the other road engineers of nearly all the nations represented, and they showed the- good results which road tarring had given, claiming that in towns having a lighter traffic this could be used to advantage. To conclude, a judicious choice should be made, and the tarring should not be done on macadamized roads where the heavy traffic required a re-laying every two years or even once a year. Such roads should certainly be paved, reserving the tarring for other kinds of ways. The question, however, has been raised as to whether tarred roads have not a bad effect on the eyes of drivers and also upon trees and plants which border the routes. As to the harm done to the eyes, proof appears to be wanting, as the road from Paris to Versailles is entirely tarred, as well as the above-mentioned avenue, and we hear of no serious complaints for eight or nine years past, nor upon the roads in the south of France around Nice, where the dust is much greater, Laboratory experiments as to the effect of such dust on animals' eyes are of no avail, as any kind of dust is of course bad for the eyes. Opinions are divided as to trees and! flowers. Plant· growers claim that dust and tar·vapors cause harm, while engineers think this is exaggerated. At Paris, the opinion is in favor of the tarring, in spite of any sIight harm that; may be done, owing to its other advantages. Dr. Griffon, in a paper read be·, fore the Academy, speaks first of tar vaporS and then of dust. Vapor is bad for plant cells in laboratory tests, but this is not conclusive, as in reality such vapor must be very weak. He noticed that after the spreading and during the hardening of the yet unused roads, no effect was seen on the plants. As to dust, this has some effect on weak plants such as the begonia and others, which is not given from ordinary roads, but trees and shrubbery, also most plants and flowers, appear to show no harm. Leaves of trees may become brown or withered, but this often occurs in city streets, and is due to other causes. On the whole, his extensive inqUIrIes in France and England lead him to favor the tarring. No complaint apears to be heard in other countries. Since 1910, over 10,000 miles of road has been tarred in England, and the review The Surveyor does not note any serious injury to the eyes nor to plants. In Germany the same opinion appears to prevail, as also in Belgium. Owners of villas and gardens in the Riviera are among the most prominent members of the league, showing that they still favor the tarring. One reason for this latter opinion is that the plants in the south are of stronger growth, which leads to the opinion that the plants on Paris avenues should be changed. To bring out the question, the Prefect of the Seine department lately appointed a commission of leading experts. Shrubbery and various plants will be set out along tarred and un· tarred routes to compare results, and laboratory tests will be made upon any spots occurring in leaves. Attempts are made to purify tar and some samples are now produced which are much less harmful to plants and come near to Norway tar, which is quite inoffensive. It remains to be seen whether this will be economical or not, In any case, it seems evident that it is better to change the plants than to abandon the tarring, owing to its disadvantages. Dust also needs to be suppressed as much as possible. Even while no dust comes from the wear of the road itself, such is urought from the outside by wind or vehicles. The road should therefore be properly watered, and the author proposes to use one of the recent oil products which mix with the water, such as Instructive Books Gas, Gasoline and Oil Engines; Including Producer-Gas Plants By GARDNER D. HISCOX. M. E. 6)^ x 97 inches,. 476 pages, 412 illustratIOns. Cloth. Price, $2.50. t This new revised and, enlarged edition is a.. comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date work, and treats fully on the construction,. installation, operation and maintenance of gas” gasoline, kerosene and., crude petroleum engines. It treats on the gas, gasoline and oil engine: as designed and manufactured in the United States, the stationary, marine and vehicle engines, their theory, care· and running. Electric ignition by induction coils and jump sparks are full y-explained and illustrated. Practical Steam and Hot Water Heating and Ventilation By ALFRED G. KING. 6% x 97 inches. 402 pages, 304 illustrations. Cloth. Price, $3. 00. t A modern practical treatise, prepared for all engaged in the business of steam and hot-w ate r heating and ventilation. I t is an original and exhaustive work and describes all the principal systems of steam, hot - water, vacuum, vapor and vacuum . vapor heating, together with the new accelerated systems of hot - water circulation. It includes chapters on up-to-date methods of ventilation, fan or blower system of heating and ventilation, estimating. radiation and cost, and such other tables and information as make it an indispensable work for heating contractors, journeymen, steam fitters, steam fitters apprentices, architects and builders. Machine Shop Tools and Shop Practice By WILLIAM H. VAN DERVOORT, M. E. 6) x 9%. 552 pages, 673 illustrations. Cloth, Price, $3.00. f] A very exhaustive and fuII y illustrated work,describing in every detail the construction. operation and manipulation of both hand and machine tools. It includes chapters on filing, fitting, and scraping surfaces; on drills, reamers, taps, and dies : the lathe and its tools; planers, shapers, and their tools; milling machines-and cutters; gear cutters and gear cutting; drilling machines and drill work; grinding machines- and their work; hardening and tempering; gearing. belting and transmission machinery; useful data. Modern Steam Engineering l.R Theory and Practice By GARDNER D. HISCOX, M E, With a chapter on Electncal Engineering by Newton Hamson. E< E. 6% x 9Y· inches. 487 pages. 405 illustratIOns. Cloth. Prrce. $3.00. t This is a complete and practical work for stationary engineers and fremen, dealing with the care and management of boilers, engines, pumps, superheated steam, refrigerating machinery, dynamos, motors, elevators, air compressors, and all other branches with which the modern engineer must be familiar. It fully describes and illustrates the properties and use of steam for the generation of power in the various types of engines in use. The slide valve, high-speed, Corliss, compound, multi-expansion engines and their valve gear, the DeLaval, Parsons, Curtis, and other turbines are included, and fully described and illustrated •. MUNN&CO., Inc., Publishers 361 Broadway New York December 9, 1911 **STAR” LargeLine of 01 t\M\ Attachmen ts For Foot LATHES or Power MJI*.M.mRMJiJ Suitable for fine aeCllrate work i n tile I'epair slinp, garage, (,001 room and machine shop. Send for CIltniogne B SENECA FALLS IFG. CO. 69; \Yater Street Seneca Falls. N. Y., U.S.A. SEBastIAN h!HES 9to IS Inch Swing High Quality Low Prices Catalog Free ' THE SEBastIAN LATHE CO” 120 Culvert St., Cincinnati, O. : riction Disk Drill FOR LIGHT WORK. JIU8 These Great Advnntale8: The speed can be instantly c h an g ed from I to 1600 without !stopping or shiftmg belts. Power applied can be g:aduated ,to drive, with equal safety, the smallest or largEst drills within its range-a wonderful econollly if time and great. 'saving II drill breakage. I Send for Drill Cahogue. W. F.&Jno. Barnes Company Est:blished IB72 • • »99 Ruby Street. - . Uo(;ford. Ill. Ideal Lawn Mower Grinder 1912 M ODEL N O W R EADY 'Better th:m e\'er before. Grinds a il makes .f Mo wers perfe ctly il 1 5 minute s W ithout -emoving reel-knIves or stl':ight bhde. Ball-"bearing; operated by halld or power. SEND “TO.DAY for full description of; thIS wonderiul bbor · sa\er and money-maker. Will 'more than nay tor itself 'rst season because it does the work so lWh quicker land better. Skate Sharpener Attachment for “barpening .-kates. Over 5.000 in use. Fully warr:mted. Sold on -easy payment terms. \rite to-day. Don't delay. HEATH FOUNDRY&'G. CO., Plymonth, O. Responding to the Call fro™ tlie practical mechanic for a Brea.pt Drill ttiat skiiii aallpa« an ex (Rind, we are pleased to mtro-ducethp “A. J.W.&CO.” UK East DRILL wiifi Ge AT* Locking Device. S lit bas all the strong. tuseful and practical pcints of existing Dr i lls. aad” t'eal 1m - provements added that are peculiar to itself. Price, $!.!O. A. J. WILKINSON&CO., MACHINERY 184-188 \asJiington Street. BOSTON, MASS. AIateur Bench Lathes WRITE FOR BOOKLET Lathe Talk I G00DELL-PRATT CO. TooUrnitht Greenfield, MM. ?§u USE GRINDSTONES? It so we can supply you. A ll sizes mounted and unmounted. always kept “n stock. Remem ber. we m fkea specialtyof select i nl st ones for all special purpcses, Send ,for catalogue HI." The CLEVELAND STONE U ' 6th Floor, Hickox Bldg., Cleveland. 0.!U |K ^r?=^\\T A MTP1^ To manufact u re METAL Jt-3^ ' “ r%4™ I MUKf SPECIAL TIES, 20 years experience in making Dies. Tools and Special I Machinery. Expert work. Complete equipment. NATIONAL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS Dept. 2, 412 So- Clinton Street, - Chicago, III. Experimental&Model Work Circular and Advice Free Wm. Gardam&Son, 82-86 Park Place, N. Y. IISGHWERDlE STAMP CO. «»HEEEL STAMPS LETTERS&fiGURES. BRIDGEPORT CONN. INVENTORSeWxepe bn.umi ledntmalo W 0 r ko light manufacturing dies and tools. -. SCHWARZ&CO., 123 Liberty St_, N.Y Models&Experimental Work INVENTI O NS DE VEL OP ED SPECIAL MA CHI NER Y . . . E. V. BAI LFARD CO. , 24 Fra nk fort St., N.Y. 1D TDDCD Expert Manufacturers RUBBER Fine Jobbing Work PARKER, STEARNS & CO., 288-290 Sheffield Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. MASO N'S N EW PAT . WH IP HOIST S save expense and liability in cident to Elevators. Adopted by principal storehouses in New York & Boston Manfd. by VOLNEY W. MASON&CO., Inc. Providence. 1:. I •• r. 8. A. LEA RN TELEGRA PHY MORSE and WIRELESS at home with OlNIGRAPII AUTO]TIC 'fRACIlEU in halt Isn:[ time-trifling cost. Sends you messages witbout limit automatically-easily become expert. Price $2.00. Catalog free. OlNIGRAPlI MFG. CO. Dept. 16. 39 Cortlandt Street, New York. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 54.7 "Westrumite,” and this will aid in keeping down the dust. The Crusade Against the House Fly Of July 24th, there was instituted in Washington, a most interesting crusade against the common house fly. For several seasons one of the leading daily newspapers of the capital has been printing in display type the legend SWAT THE FLY, but this summer this same paper began its campaign in earnest. Realizing that it is human nature to desire a pecuniary incentive for any public service, several hundred dollars in prizes were offered, one hundred dollars being the grand prize for the greatest number of flies killed, and many other prizes of lesser amounts representing first, second, third and fourth prizes, etc. Only children under the age of sixteen were permitted to enter, the fly-swatting contest. Each contestant is furnished with a fly swatter, and paper boxes for the dead fies were distributed. Each day the boxes contairing the offerings of the workers are collected and the flies so exterminated are first counted at the Health Office, and then cremated. The first five days of the campaign saw the leader in the contest with the proud record of 40,000 flies killed. with a long list of those who had more than 20,000 to their credit. It is interesting to note that the children have organized themselves into squads and range over several blocks of territory, killing the flies in kitchens, grocery stores, stables and refuse heaps. Even out of doors the fly has no peace, but is kept busy dodging this veritable army of determined swatters. Up to date, by actual count, more than 2,000,000 of these pests have been exterminated, and the service performed in the interest of public health is enormous, when compared to the comparatively small outlay of money. The only pity of it is that the campaign had to be financed entirely by private means, and that the municipality of the District of Columbia could not “raise the ante” and make the prizes attractive to grown persons as well. It is not expected that in four weeks of the Evening Star's contest, Washington will be reduced to a state of absolute flyless-ness, but that there will be a slump in next season's crop there is not the slightest shadow of doubt. ConSidering the propagating possibilities of the fly, it would seem worth while for other cities to follow Washington's example in this regard and get the children started. Think of the enormous slaughter of flies there would be on the East Side, for instance, if the myriads of kids, excited by the prospect of winning a handful of dollars, could be induced to “swat the fly." Restoring Hardened Rubber. -Everyone is familiar with the very undesirable change to wnlCh rubber is subject on prolonged standing, such articles as rubber tires becoming hardened and brittle. According to a note published in the Motor World, there is a simple remedy for this trouble, provided it has not gone too far. This consists in immersing the article for a short time in an alkaline solution composed of one part of ammonia to two of water. As an example of the efficiency of this process, an old bicycle tube which seemed beyond restoration was found quite fit for use after half an hour's immersion in such a solution. In explanation of the effect it is supposed that there is a tendency for acids to be formed in the rubber, and that these acids are neutralized by the alkaline solution. On the strength of this, it is suggested that when tubes or other rubber articles are stored, a small quantity of quick lime or ammonium carbonate be included in the wrapping, though it could be kept from actual contact with the rubber. Periodic washing with ammonia and water is also suggested as a preventive. Boston Street Lighting. -The total number of lamps on Boston's streets on January 10th of this year comprised 3,973 arc lamps, 1,206 tungsten incandescent, and 11.742 gas. During the year 1910 the cost of electric lighting was $408,900; that of gas lighting, $277,256. Naphtha lights were used in small numbers during the year at a cost of $1,833, but all of these have now been replaced with gas lights . Municipal Journal. Do you send Valuable Packages by Mail? Government rates 150% higher than Hartford Mail Package Insurance AS a business man whose business requires _C\^ the use of the U. S. Mails for sending valuable merchandise have you ever considered the question of cutting down both the expense and the time of having your package registered by the Government? The Hartford Fire Insurance Company does both by its Mail Package Insurance. For example: A package worth $5.00, weight 8 oz. P. O. Registration . . . . .10 Postage, 1st class, .02 per oz. . . .16 .26 Hartford Coupon .... . 02Y Postage, 4th class, .01 per oz. . . .08 .10Y Saved by Hartford Mail Package Insurance .15Y BESIDES you don't have to go to the Post Office to register the package. Smd today forfull information as to cost of certificate books and method of using. Hartford Fire Insurance Co. Hartford, Conn. 548 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN December 9, 1911 The accepted sty l e-fabric of universa l wear for the man who cares-OSWEGO SERGE A weave that serves well both tailoT and wearer No suit becomes you like a serge of blue. And of all good serges, OSWEGO SERGE is best of all. Whether this suit of yours be custom-made or ready-ta-wear, it is your right to demand the cloth by name. When you order, specify OSWEGO SERGE. This is what your money buys: Sixteen ounces of pure wool to every yard; a blue, rich in tone, that favors the boy of six to t he man of sixty; a fabric that has body, quality and feel; that holds its shape, drape and appearance. Not only a sty l e-fabric-but economica l , because of its price and durabili t y. AericanWoolen Company Wm.NWood. Presjdent In order to be sure of the cloth when ordering a custom suit from your tailor, or a ready-to-wear suit from your clothier, insist on OSWEGO SERGE the cloth for now. Samples furnished on request. If unable to obtain OSWEGO SERGE, send us the name of your tailor or clothier, accompanied by money-order or check for quantity de s i r ed at $3.00 per yard, and we will see that you are supplied. (3Y yards to a suit.) Order the Cloth as well as the Clothes American Woolen Company of New York J. CLIFFORD WOODHULL, Selling Agent American Woolen Building, 18th to 19th Street on 4th Avenue, New York Mechanically the Jbbo” D IS RIGHT ALTHOUGH a car may be a masterpiece of artistic beauty, a symposium /"\ of beautiful ideas, yet if it is not right mechanically it might as well “ be a piece of statuary or a bit of the landscape. It is its mechanical ability to propel itself that makes it a thing of life - that makes it an automobile. rherefore. the engineers of the Abbott-Detroit have seen to it that this - the most vital thing about a motor car, bas received the utmost cafe and consideration. Mechanically, the Abbott-Detroit is right. No other car has ever endured the terrific punishment-over all sorts of roads-in all kinds of weather - under all changes of temperature and pressure—tbat the now famous Abbott·Detroit . . Bull-Dog” bas. This wonderful machine is a stock Abbott-Detroit “30” Touring Car which over a year ago was started on a 100,000 mile trip around the borders of the United States and tbrough other countries of the Globe. It bas now covered over 40.000 miles of this trip and is on its way to New York where it will be exhibited at the Annual Automobile Snow. It is still in perfect running order. We ha ve just finished a book describing tbis wonderful trip, which will ue sent free upon request. Send for our beautiful Art Oatalogue which describes all tbe Abbott-Detroit models in detail. ABBOTT·DETROIT “44" Seven -passenger, Fore-door Tourmg Car, fully {qu1pped (less Top. WindshIeld. Speedometer and AUXIlIary Seats) $1800 Fore-door Deml Tonneau fully equipped (less top. \lndshield and Speedometer) $1775 Fore door Llmousjne fully eqUipped $3000 ABBOTT MOTOR COMPANY ABBOTT.DETROIT “30" Fore-door Tourmg Car. fully eqUIpped. (Jess Top, W1ndshleld and Speedometer) $1350 Fore-door Roadster. fully equipped (less Top. WIndshIeld .nd Speedometer) $1275 ColonIal Coupe fully eqUlpped $2150 Anv model can be eqUIpped wttb Dynamo eqUlpment for ElectrIC L1ghung $90 Abbott Detroit Self-Starter $50 613 WATERLOO STREET DETROIT, MICHIGAN EXCEPTIONAL OPPORTUNITY TO VISIT South America and Panama Canal 20,000 Mile Cruise, leaving New York Jan. 20, 1912 Calling1 at Port af Spain, Pernambuco, Santos, Buenos Aires (Across the Andes), Punta Arenas (thr?lgh the Straits of Magellan), Valparaiso, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia. Para, Bridgetown, and a VISit to the Panama Canal. Duration of Cruise 80 Days-Cost $350 and up. Exceptional side trips everywhere. Cruises De Luxe to the West Indies. Five Delightful Cruises to the WE ST INDIES Panama Canal. Venezuela and Bermuda Leaving New York by the Palatial Twin Screw Steamers S. S. Moltke (12,500 tons), 28 days, Jan. 23. Feb. 24, 1912, $150 and up. S. S. Hamburg (11,000 tons), 21 days, Feb. 10, March 7, 1912, $125 and up. S. S. Moltke (J2,500 tons), 16 dan. March 26, 1912, $85 and up. Every luxury of travel, every refinement of service msured GRAND ANNUAL EVENT Around the World November, 1912, and February; 1913, by the Large Cruising Steamship, "VICTORIA LUlSE" (16,500 tons). GRAND ANNUAL CRUISE TO THE ORIENT By the most palatial cruising1 steamer afloat, S. S. “VICTORIA LUISE” (16,500 tons). Sailing” from New York, January 30, 1912, on a 78-Day Cruise to Madeira, Spain, the Mediterranean aml the Orient. Cost $325 and upward. The “Victoria Luise” is equipped with modern features providing1 every luxury and comfort on long1 Italy and Egypt Special Trip by the superb transatlantic liner “Kaiserin Auguste Victoria,” the larg"-estand most luxurious steam-erof the service. LeavesNew York February 14, 1912, for Madeira, Gibraltar, Algiers. Villefranche (Nice). Genoa, Naples and Port Said. To or from Port Said. $165 and up. To or from all other ports, $115 and up , Aviation N OTHING so fully illustrates the real up-to-dateness of The Century as that part of it devoted to aviation. This is entirely an achievem ent of the last twenty years. Today if is a fact so real that Grahame -White says that in five years the Atlantic Ocean will be used only to bathe in. Science T HE CENTURY gives the latest research and thought in every department of science -botany. geology, zoology. biology, mineralogy, mathematics. physics, etc. - information indispensable both to the working and to the teaching scientist. The Art of War T HE art of war and the engines by which it i· applied have both advanced materIally in twenty years, This advance is shown clearly by picture and text. by hundreds of new definitions and the eniargemen t of old ones. by pictures of baule.hips, guns and other implements of war. Wireless Telegraphy SINCE the appearance of the first edition of The Century wireles telegraphy has appeared and has become so efficient that it has been used in several instances to preven t disasters at sea, notably in the rescue of the steamship Republic. Business No p ha se of th e dev el opmen t of the wo rld h as b e en so impor tan t in t he la s t tw o de cades as the development of business. New definitions of old words, and a grea t vocabulary of new words, have come into existence. The business man will find The Century a necessary part of his business library. Nature AGREA T educational feature of The Century. is its very complete definitions and illustrations of animals, plants and minerals. including many discoveries in the natuta J world. made since the first edition appeared, all the illustrations of these natural objects are such as to be acceptable both to the specialist and to the layman. Electricity T HIS is a branch of modern science which is closely connected with the progress of modern business and which is also in process of growth and creating history every day. Definitions of all electrica I terms and of many forms of electrical apparatus are wiven, in each case with the latest information. Exploration A MONG the maps in the Atlas section of The Century is a map of the North Polar region, as far as it has been explored to date, with records not only of Peary's various journeys but also of the (outes of all other explorers, with their points of .. farthest north .. . One-fifth of the World's Progress has been made in the last Twenty Years In bringing The Century Dictionary, Cyclopedia and Atlas up to date in the new and enlarged edition just issued, not only has every page of the book been revised, but the neW maller added has amounted to one-fftth of the original work, a striking indication of the world's progress during the past two decades. When The Century was published (J 890-9 J) it was, in its field, the most complete of works of reference. But the world has gone ahead since then with startling speed. The older sciences have grown immensely; new sciences have sprung up; new discoveries and inventions of all kinds are almost numberless; medicine has been revolutionized by studies in immunity and serumtherapy; radium and radioactivity have been found ; aviation and wireless telegraphy have become commonplaces; war has devised new engines for land and sea; and so on, almost indefinitely. And with all this has come a vast host of new words and new facts which a book like The Century must record. In fact, only upon such a foundation as was laid in The Century twenty years ago, could so complete a work today be constructed as The New and Enlarged Edition of THE CENTURY DICTIONARY, CYCLOPEDIA AND ATLAS As a Dictionary, the new revision now defines, spells and pronounces 100,000 more words than the first edition, which defined 120,000 more than any other English dictionary which had preceded it. As a Cyclopedia, The Century has two great points of superiority over any other existing work-the fullness of its information and the accessibility of that information. It has complete, recent and authentic information on every cyclopedic subject-biography, geography, history, art, science or trade-and, in addition, owing to its dictionary arrangement, inslanl access to any detail of this information. It is not necessary to read a long article to get at the isolated fact wanted. The cyclopedic matter is arranged under the dictionary headings, and The Century is the only work in any language so arranged. As an Atlas, it is one of the most comprehensive in the world, and the most convenient. It gives the name of nearly every named spot on the surface of the earth, with a population according to the latest United States and foreign censuses. As a book of Quotations, it con” tains 200.000 more than Bartlett As a bpok of Synonyms, it diff erentiates more synonyms than Crabbe. As a Classical Dictionary, it lists more names than Anthon. As a Dictionary of Authors, it gives more names than Allibone. As a Thesaurus. it suggests more words than Roget. The paper on which The Century is printed is the only paper which answers your purpose. The paper in a work of reference is important. It must be as thin as possible so that the books will not be too bulky. It must be thick enough so that it can be consulted without the irritation of pulling two leaves apart, and it must be thick enough so that the printing and cuts will not show through the sheet. We considered every kind of thin paper made, and tried it in printed form. We know from our own experience that the paper in the Century is the best for a work like ours, and that it could not be any thinner without interfering with your satisfactory use of the books. Fill out the attached coupon and get specific information about the scope, price and terms of The Century today. Sold only by The Century Co. The Century Dictionary, Cyclopedia and Atlas, in all its editions and additions, including the just issued superb Revised and Enlarged Edition, was edited and published by The Century Co. of Union Square, New York, publishers of the Century Magazine. B.lievin8 that the best interests of a work of such importance are best served by keeping the selling of it in their own hand. Te Century Co. announce that the new edition of The Century Dictionary. Cyclopedia and Atlas is sold onlv by The Century Co. THE CENTURY CO. Union Square, New York City Automobiling T HE Century Dictionary. CycIopecia and Atlas is a complete reference book for automobile terms. Pictures are given of various types of cars, and also detailed mechanical drawings of a typica I car. AU of the words are defined in their proper place in the Dictionary. T Medical Discoveries Ti 'HE CENTURY record. the progress in the discovery of serums for the prevention and cure of disease. such as cancer, consumption and other malignant diseases. This is only one instance of the progress of both medicine and biology; in both the latest discoveries are described and all the terms used are fully defined in this up-to-date edition of The Century. r---------* L Invention MANY new tools, machines and processes have been devised in the last twenty years to make the various trades and manufactures easier, better and more profitable. Specialists in technology, tex tiles, chemistry, electricity. metallurgy, mining, naval construction, photography, tools and machines, were in charge of these departments. Culture A MAN of education is marked by his familiarity with great works - in literature, painting,sculpture, music and architecture. Insuchmatters The Century is especially complete, giving. as it does, the name of every important writer. arlist and musician, with the names of great books, operas, pieces of statuary and painting. Use this to ask for coupon inforlation THE CENTURY co. Union Square, New York City Send me today full information about the new edition of The Century Dictionary, Cyclopedia and Atlas, with the understanding that this request incurs no obligation on my part. I Name I I Street I | Town J I Siale L _________ Victor-Victrola IV Oak $15 Victor-Victrola VI Oak U5 Victor-Victrola VIII Oak $40 Victor-Victrola XIV Mahogany or oak $150 Victor- Mdtadte. • • •• •• With a Victor-Victrola as low as $15 and others gradually ranging up to the magnificent Victor-Victrola at $250, why should you longer deny yourself the pleasure that comes from their possession? When these wonderful instruments bring right into your home a wealth of the world's best music, fairly dazzling in the wideness of its scope and the array of talented artists interpreting it, you surely don't want to deprive 'your family of this great pleasure! The pleasure of hearing such famous grand opera stars as Caruso, Melba, Tetrazzini; such eminent instrumentalists as Paderewski, Mischa Elman, Maud Powell; such noted vaudeville “head-liners” as Harry Lauder, Blanche Ring, George M. Cohan; such celebrated musical organizations as Sousa's Band, Pryor's Band, Victor Herbert's Orchestra! Whether the home actually feels the need of music, or whether it is already gay with melody, no home can afford to be without the exquisite music produced by this greatest of all musical instruments. Hearing is believing. Go to any Victor dealer's and hear your favorite selections. Victor Talking Machine Company, Camden,N. J., U. S.A. Derliner Gramophone Co., Montreal, Canadian Distributors Always use Victor Records played with Victor Ncedles-there is no other way to get the unequalled Victor tone Victor Needles 6 cents pcr 100, 60 cents per 1000 New Victor Records are on sale at all dealers on the 28th of each month Victors $10 to $100 •• Victor-Victrola IX Mahogany or oak $50 Victor-Victrola X Mahogany or oak $75 Victor-Victrola XI Mahogany or oak $100 Victor-Victrola XVI Circassian walnut $250 Mahogany or Quartered oak $200