There are fifty-six manufacturers of the staple in Richmond, Va., whose united capital amounts to four or five millions of dollars. More tobacco is raised in Virginia than perhaps in any other State in this country. It is here that the choicest specimens of the weed assume the shape which commends it to the regard of devoted chewers everywhere. Tobacco is put up in as many different ways almost as there are chewers. There is as much difference between the ideas of the Yankee and the Southerner on this question of taste as there is on any other matter. The former likes his " pigtail " plentifully sweetened, and liquoriced to a degree ; the latter, the less sweetening you put in, the better the tobacco. Buyers congregate here who purchase for all parts of the globe. Foreign governments are supplied by agents who reside , here for that purpose. With many citizens i the road to wealth has been via tobacco.— Richmond Smith. Patent Claims Issued from tlie United States Patent Office FOB TUE WEE ENDING FEBRUARY 9S 1858. [Reported odally for the Scientific American.] IMPLEMENT FOR HOLDING OPEN SIIOES, BAGS, &C.— John Allender, of New London, Conn. : I claim a pair oi forceps with one jaw provided with a plate, for the inside of a shoe, sack, or other article, the other jaw carrying two arms, one to clamp the shoe, sack, or other article, against the nrat-mentioned jaw or plate upon it, and the other arm carrying a bar or plate, to spread the opening in the shoe, sack, or other article, substantially as described. I also claim making the bar that carries the arm that spreads the shoe, suck, or other article, adjustable, substantially as described, so that the forceps or apparatus may he adapted to shoes and sacks of various sizes. SEWING MACHINES—Benjamin J. Angell, of Attle-borough. Mass. : 1 ara aware that a method of causing the cloth to progress regularly, in feeding, by the joint action of the surfaces between winch it is clamped, has been previously patented by Allen B. Wilson. I would not, therefore, be understood as claiming such device for this purpose. I claim the combination of the grooves, S S, of the presser with the barbs, t t 11, of the feed bar, and the surfaces, a a and h h, with the thumb screw S', arranged and operating substantially and tor the purpose as set forth. PUMPS—William Boyer3, of Mount Carroll, 111. : I do not claim the employment of two pistons working in the same cylinder. But I claim the combination of the connecting chain, h, with the lifting rods, b c, and with double pistons, G H, working in a single cylinder. A, substantially in the manner and for the purposes specified. HYDEO-OAEIJOIT VAPOR LAMPS—"Robert R. Crosby, of Boston, Mass. : I do not claim applying a separate wick tube and wick to a main reservoir and its wick tube, such being for the purpose of vaporizing the fluid in the wick of the main reservoir by iiame generated by combustion of any of the fluid contents of the said reservoir. But I claim, in a hydro-carbon vapor lamp, combining an auxiliary and separate reservoir, H, with the main reservoir, A, and its main and auxiliary wick tubes, D D G, so that while a fluid rich in carbon may be used in the main reservoir, alcohol, or a fluid having less or very little carbon, may be used in the auxiliary reservoir, and be burned on the wick thereof, extending through the auxiliary \Pick tube. I also claim arranging the separate auxiliary reservoir, H, of the auxiliary wick vithin, and separate from the main reservoir, as specified. I do not claim applying to the auxiliary Durner chamber a closing slide to rotate on the wick tubes, D D, and regulate the amount of aii* to be admitted into the said chamber, for the ordinary purposes of the flame on the wick. But I claim the arrangement and application of a flame guard, K, constructed substantially as described, to the auxiliary wick tube chamber, so as to extend and slide around the upper part of said chamber, have such chamber open beneath it, and operate to spread the heat uniformly against the under side of the vaporizing vessel, E, substantially as specified. CARDS IOE CUEEYING CATTLE—C. S. Dickerman. of Lansingburgh, N. Y. : I disclaim a wooden cylinder furnished with teeth, and furthermore, restrict my claim to a hand card made as described. I claim a hand card consisting of a flat wooden stock having straight wire teeth forced into, but not through, the stock, as described, and provided with a handle, C, or its equivalent, to fit the card f or hand U3e, as sec forth. GRINDING MILLS—H. V. Durye of Fulton, N. Y. : I claim, first, The method, substantially as described, of constructing metallic rollers for grinding mills, when the parts of each roller are connected by the contraction of metallic rods, as set forth. Second, I also claim the method, substantially as described, of attaching the hopper, A, with the rollers, B and C, for the purpose mentioned. Third, I also claim the described method of attaching hoppers, in combination with rollers, constructed as set forth. KAILROAD CAR ASI.E BOXES—George W. Geisendorffj of Indianapolis, Tnd., and Jacob C. Geisendorff, of Ci n-cinnati, Ohio : Weclaimthelu, ODE FG, constructed as set forth, or equivalent evice, in the described combination with the axle, A, and box, C. LUBRICATING APPARATUS FOK JOURNAL BOXES OP RAILROAD CARS—Jacob C. GeisendorffL of Cincinnati, Ohio : I claim the guards, E, springs, G-, ratent t wheel, H, and pawls, I I', or substantially equivalent devices, in the described combination with the lubricating roller F, and axle, A A', for the purposes set forth. MACHINE FOR CUTTING TESONS ON SPOKES—Mahlon Gregg, of Philadelphia, Pa. : I claim securing the cutters at an angle, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. I further claim the combination of cutter carrier, P, bearer, Q, and tubular piece, G, substantially as and for the purpose specified. SHINGLE MACHINE—William Gregor, of New York City : I claim the arrangement of two slides turning upon centers, and acted upon by inclined surfaces, which latter are operated by the motion of the bedplate, as described. I further claim the attachment of a double-edged knife to the bed-plate, in the manner described, moving back and forth with said bed-plate, and at the same time being acted upon by the above-mentioned slides, in the manner as and for the rmrpose set forth. POTATO PLANTERS—Edward E. Hawley, of New Haven, Conn. : I claim, first. The combination of the planting wheel, E, with the knife or cutting blade, G, to effect the purpose named, as set forth. Secrad, The combination of the planting wheels, E E', with the hopper, F, when arranged in relation to each other, in the manner and for the purposes described. ALARM LOCKS—Horace L. Hervey, of Windsor, Conn. : I claim first, The main lock bolt, G, or its equivalent, used for the purposes as set forth and described. Second, The sliding notch wheel, F, tor the purpose set forth and described. Third, the slide piece, D, when used in connection withslidingspringknobs, L. Fourth, The sliding spring knobs, L, for the purpose set forth and described. Fifth, The sliding spring ratchet, C, when used for the purpose set forth and described. STAVE MACHINE—Elias Moore, William Clark, and James Iindsey, of Shelbyville, Ind. : We claim the combination of parts, acting as a whole, substantially as specified, and for the purposes set forth. MODE OF BURNING BRTCK—A. J. Mullen and R. Hall, of Greensboro', Ala. : We claim the construction of a brick kiln with an inclined bottom, a, leading to the % drawing pit, when used in combination with the irregu-3 lar setting of the brick in the kiln, as set forth. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS—Ureli C. Hill, of Jersey City, N. J., and Charles F. Hill, of New York City : We do not claim the cells as agents, in conjunction with forks, to produce a musical instrument ; nor forms nor modes of constructing cells. But we claim, first, The wing and hammer wire to fork prongs, as used in this instrument. Second, The placing of keys, action, and cells in lateral or oblique ranges, the cells and keys crossing each other at right angles, and the manner of suspending cells. Third, The yoke, and method of holding the fork to the cell. Fourth, The arrangements of dainpsrs and damper levers to the keys and forks, so as to damp the forks on their edges. Fifth, The transverse upright action for the movement of hammers across, instead of parallel with, the keys, all substantially as shown and described. HOMINY MILLS—Phillip Homrighaus, of Royalton, Ohio : I claim the construction of the gage plate, M, when used in connection with the hopper, L, and trough, K. substantially as and for the purposes set forth. HARVESTERS—M. G. Hubbard, of PennYan, N. Y.: I claim the attachment of the spring directly to the finger bar, and placing the shoe on one side thereof, and directly in the track of the supporting wheel, as specifically set forth. WASHING MACDINE—Edward Julier, of McConnells-villc, Ohio : I claim the construction and arrangement of the eliding carriage, composed of the side pieces, q q q q2q2 q2, the compensating yoke, y y, the pressure spring piece, z z, the plain roller, U, the ratchet roller, V V X X, the compensating roller, W W, the staff rod, k2, and notched pressure beam and weight, L2 L2 n2, combined and operating together with the driving pitman rod, b2 b2, as sot forth. I also claim the jointed shoulder pieces, d2 d2, the elbow lengths, e2 e2, and fore arms, 12 i'2, when arranged and combined a3 set forth, and operated in connection with an ordinary washtub or board. ' STRAINING RECIPROCATING SAWS—G. P. Ketchan, Jr., of Bloomiugton, Ind, : I do not claim, broadly and separately, connecting a eaw at both ends to crank pulleys. But I claim connecting the slides, c c, at both ends of the saw to crank pulleys, a a, on the shafts, B C by means of pitman, b, the opposite ends of the shafts, 1 (J, being connected by the crank or cranks, E, and pitman or pitmen, F, whereby the shafts are made to move simultaneously, and the same relative positions of their cranks and working parts connectedtherewith-retained at all points of their movement, and the saw, D, operated or driven, and kept equally strained, or at the same degree of tension, at all points of its stroke, substantially as described. [For a further description of this, see another column. ] REMOVABLE WINDOW SASH—Robert II. Kirck, of Utica, N. Y. : I claim jointing the sash or sashes of a window at the center, substantially as describedsothat they may be removed from the casing without detaching the parting beads or stop strips, tho sash or sashes being provided witha catch, or any equivalent device, to prevent the casual folding of the same. [The object of this invention s to admit of the sashes of windows baing removed from their frame or casing without detaching the stop strips or parting beads ; this is effected by the employment of a sash, divided arid hinged in the center, and also provided with a catoh, so that it cannot come out by accident, hut can only be removed by a person who releases the catch.] SCRAPERS FOR GRINDING MILLS—Thomas E. Little, of Janesville, Wis. : I claim the employment of the rotating head, b, having rods, e.and scrapers, f, attached, said parts being arranged to revolve alowly around the runner, nt whatever spoed the latter may be driven, substantially as. and for the purposes set forth. [For description of this invention, refer to another page.] FLOUR BOLTS—Samuel G. McMurtry, of Memphis Tenn. : I am avare that fans have been previously applied to boita to effect the purpose described, and I do not, therefore, claim the employment or use of the fan, in itself considered. Nor do I claim the employment or use of the rotating beaters or brushes within the bolt, for they have been previously used. But I claim the arrangementof the bolt frame, b, bottom plate, r, flanches, 11, plates, c d e, and spouts, E F G H, substantially as described, whereby the current of air is prevented from drawing through the center of the bolt, but is spread so as to pas3 along near the surface of the bolting-cloth, while the flour is not only suspended in a current of dry air, but is conducted through the cloth out upon the annular plates, and down the peculiarly-arranged air-tight spouts to the place of storing, nothing whatever being able to escape, except through the proper channel. [For further information concerning thia invention, eee another page.] OPERATING KATLROAD STATION PUMPS—William McVeigh, of Boone, 111. : I claim tne combination of the roller, I, the inclines, C C, the levers, D D', the lever, J, and pump, H, arranged as described, for the imrpose set forth. ATTACHING INDIA RUBBER SOLES TO BOOTS AND SHOES—Abram T. Merwin, of New Haven, Conn. : I claim securing a sole of india rubber, gutta percha, or other like material, to a shoe, by means of a binder, as shown and described. MANUFACTURE OK WROUGHT IRON RAILROAD CHAIRS —James Milliken, of Philadelphia, Pa. : I claim the manufacture of railroad chairs by forming a pile of the side pieces b and b', in connection with the pieces, a and d, in the manner and substantially as described. CLAMP FOR HOLDING RECTANGULAR PIECES OF WOOD WHILE KING BORED, &c—Henry Miller, of Grafton, Va. : I claim the described apparatus for adjusting, holding and clamping bed-posts, whilst their previously-bored holes are having the screw threads cut therein, aa explained and set forth. CHURN—Enos Page, of Streets borough, Ohio : I do not claim the single use of spiral dashers, arranged so as to force the cream alternately in opposite directions, being aware that such is now new. But I claim the arrangement of the spiral wing dashers, E E', on opposite side and ends of the dasher shaft, in combination with a cylindrical churn body in such a manner that the outer radial edges, d d, thereof, shall respectively sweep, or move in close proximity to. the ends of the churn body, and their spiral edges, e e' e' e', sweep respectively one-half the length of the periphery of the churn body, substantially in the manner and for the purpose specified. MACHINES FOR CUTTING BRUSH FROM COTTON FIELDS —Elias Peck, of Canton, HI. : I claim the arrangement of wheels, S, knives, b, cams, E, and bar, F, the whole being arranged and operated in the manner and f orthe purpose set forth. PEDALS FOR ORGANS, &C—Thomas Robjohn.ofNew York City : I claim the described arrangement of organ pedals in the radial and concave form, to facilitate the performance thereon, as set forth. LEAD PIPE MACHINE—Charles E. Rockwell, of New York City : I do not claim, broadly, the making of the die-plate of greater diameter than the bore of the cylinder, for I am aware that this is seen in Kerh & Krenz-nach's plan,Voght's Technological Journal. But in this device the die-plate, although larger than the bore of the cylinder, is not adjustable in a lateral manner, or by set screws. But I claim having the space between the adjustable die-plate, e, and the base-plate, m. covered or protected by tire end of the lead cylinder, the whole constructed as and for the purposes set forth. JOINTS FOR SHEET METAL ROOFS—Stephen Scotton, of Richmond, Ind. : I claim forming a three-leaved metal plate, shaped thus, T, by soldering or rolling iron, or other metal, for securing the joints of metal roofs, substantially as set forth. WASHING MACHINE—W. H. Tambling, of Berlin, Wis. : I do not claim the employment or use of corrugated and plain cylinders or rollers in washing machines, for they have been previously nsed. Neither do I claim placing said rollers inelastic or yielding bearings, irrespective of the aiTangement shown, whereby the bearings of the cylinder, B, may be rendered either elastic or permanent, as desired. But I claim the combination of the corrugated or fluted cylinder, B, and elastic or yielding frame, C, provided with rollers, 1, when the bearings, c, of the axis, a, of the cylinder, B, are fitted in an elastic or yielding and adjustable frame, and the whole arranged as shown, for the purpose set forth. [This washing machine consists of an elastic frame, and a corrugated or fluted rotating cylinder, which work together. Afull description, with an engraving, will probably appear in a future number of the Sei. AM. PAINTING AND VARNISHING MACHINE—H. Thayerand L. L. Martin, of Warsaw, N. Y. : We claim the mode of flowing paint, size, varnish, or any_ liquid substance, on artkes of wood or iron, by passing them horizontally, or otherwise, through holes cut in two sides of any vessel, while said vessel is filled with the liquid substance, to be used as represented, said holes to be cut directly opposite each other, and to be appropriately packed with flannel, fulled cloth, or any otter appropriate packing, as described by the letters, XXX, and figure, 11, and to correspond in shape with the articles to be run through, as set forth. We also claim the funnel-shaped india rubber tube, with its packing, as represented, and i ts application to paintin?, sizing, and varnishing articles that diminish in size from one end to the other,or that vary in diameter. We also claim the hollow brush, k, standing on the further side of the chamber from the operator, and its adaptation, as described. COLLAPSIBLE BOATS—N. Thompson, of Brooklyn, N. Y Patented in England December ii, 1S57 : I claim a sectional, collapsible boat, made up of eight or more sections hinged together, and constituting a boat similar in appearance to an ordinary small boat, the whole constructed substantially in the manner described. LAP-fJOINTS FOR BELTING—Henry Underwood, of New York City : I claim the straps, b, placed on the rivets, a a', which Iap3, through the outer and inner ends of the Iap3, or " skived'* portion of the parts or ends, A B, of the belt, as shown, so that the straps may project over the outer thin ends of the laps, substantially as and for the purpose us set forth. [This invention is designed to prevent the ruffling or turning up of the outer ends of the laps, winch is generally caused by the friction produced as the joint passed over pulleys, chains, &c., and also to prevent the cutting of the outer ends of of the Iap3 by the heads of the rivets, in case the cement loses its adhesive property or gives way, and the connection thereby is thrown entirely on tho rivets.] GRAIN AND GRASS HARVESTERS—Aaron VanDuzen, of Goshen, N. Y. : I claim the arrangement of cutters and fingers upon both sides of their respective bars, whereby the grass may be cut upon either aide of the finger bar, A, as and for the purposes set forth. [This is a new and improved cutting device for harvesters, consisting in having a series of cutters attached to a bar, the ends of which are pivoted to pulleys, having a chain or belt passing around them. The pulleys are fitted into recesses in the finger-bar and the cutters owing to the peculiar movement of the bar, which is actuated by the pulleys, work with a curvilinearmotion through the slotted fingers and the stationary cutters fixed to tho fingers. The object of the invention is to provide a cutting device that will work with a small expenditure of power, and one that ia not liable to become choked or clogged, and that .may be driven with an easy motion "without any jariing or vibration of the machine.] CORN HUSKERS—F. M. Walker, of Greensboro', N. C. : I claim the cone, H, armed with the spring teeth, J I, in combination with the guide bars, L L, and upright piece, F, the whole being constructed, operated and arranged in the maanerand for the purpose set forth. PLOWS—George Watt, of Richmond, Va. : I do not claim of itself the inclination of the land side towards the mold-board, for the purpose of leaving soil overhanging the furrow, as such device broadly considered is not new. But 1 claim constructing mold-board and land side of cylindrical surfaces of equal diameters, intersecting alongthe cutting edge of tlieplow, in combination with the curved standard. 8, the whole being constructed substantially aa and tor the purposes set forth. MACIENES FOR PLANTING POTATOES—T. B. Whyte of Greenwich, N. Y. : Iclaim the aiTangement of slide, K, knife, e, and adjustable hoard, V, with hoppers, L and L 2. in manner and form and for the purpose set forth. BOTTLE STOPPER—J. B. Williams, of New York City; I am aware that a ball valve is not new, and I lay no claim toit in its general application. But I claim a bottle stopper composed of a metal tube having proper flanges, one end of which is covered with cork, and its top furnished with a ball valve, which moves between guidts attached to the tube or its iiange, the whole being made as set forth. COTTON GINS—L. J. Chichester (assignor to H. G. Evans, Saral. Barstow, and D. L. Winteringham), of New York City : I do not claim broadly the employment or use of grooved rollers in themselves considered, without reference to their application to cotton gins, for grooved rollers are used in sheet metal working devices, crushing machines and various other machines for different purposes. But I claim the rollers, A B, grooved circumferen-tially as shown, and having the peripheries of their flanches, b, smooth or serrated; the rollers being fitted together with or without the elastic wings, e, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. [Full particulars of this invention will bft found in another column.] CORN IIUSKERS—A. I. Davis (assignor to himself and B. D. Moody), of East Cambridge, Mass. : I claim, in combination with the stationary gaurds, II and F, cone C, and knife, E, the elastic or spring rests, e, operating substantially as described. CORN HUSKEES—Daniel Lombard (assignor to himself and G. F. Richardson), of Boston, Mass. : I claim a corn hu3ker, constructed of a chuck mounted on a tubular shaft or provided with a central cavity, and having cutters and spurs arranged Avith respect to the bore or cavity, substantially as specified. FIRE-ARMS—F. D. Newbury (assignor to Richd. V. Dewitt, Jr.), of Albany, N. Y. : I claim the main spring, S, arranged as described to operate the hammer and trigger simultaneously where the hammer is cocked by the trigger. I further claim the ratchet wheel lerer and pin, in combination, arranged aa described, so as to revolve the cylinder, and to hold it firmly in ihe act of firing. I furtherclaim the combination of the main spring, trigger, ratchet wUeel, lever, and pin, for the purpose of cocking the piece, revolving the cylinder, holding it in place, and firing the piece, by one movement of the finger upon the trigger, substantially as set forth in the specification. CANE GUN—JohnF. Thomas (assignor to himself and Saml. Remington), atllion, N. Y. : I claim, first. Connecting the case, A, and barrel, B, by means of the hammer and its rod, F, and the trigger block, and trigger, as set forth. I also claim, in combination with the case and barrel, the catch spring, e, for holiing the case and hammer, when the arm is cocked as set forth. I also claim the continuous grooves or shoulder around the end of the rod, F, so thatsaidrod may turn in its bearings, without preventing the sear from catch-it, whenever drawn back past it, as described. I also claim the combination of the trigger block, G, trigger, i, with its sear 3, and spring 4, and the hammer and its rod, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth. HAND CORN PLANTERS—Joshna Fairbank and E. C. Durfee, of Leon, N. Y., administrators of the estate of J. B. Fairbank, deceased, late of New York City : The particular improvements which constitute the said invention, and which are claimed as having been originally and first invented by the said John I. Fairbank, are-First, The adjustable measuring cups. B, with a movable bottom operated by the upward motion of the cups relatively to other parts, as specified. Second, The thruster, S, and slide, V, or their equivalents, when used for giving the side pressure to the corn, in the manner and for the purposes above stated. HYDRANTS—Kingston Goddard, of Philadelphia, Pa. : 1 do not wish to be understood as claiming, broadly, the use of a plunger, or the construction of a self-closing valve. But I claim, first, The plunger, B, operated upon by a weighted handle, in combination with the self-closing spring valve, C, the whole constructed and operating, substantially as and for the purpose specified. Second, The construction of the shell, A, in two sections, in combination with the removable valve seat piece, D, and bottom piece, e, the several parts arranged and operating substantially as described, for the purposes set forth. EE-IG8UE6. SCYTHE FASTENINGS—Pinckney Frost, of Springfield, Vt. Patented Jan. 11,1853—Re-issued Feb. 9, 1858 : I claim the combination of the loop-bolt and set ring, constructed and operating substantially in the manner described and set forth. CORN PLANTERS—Martin Robbins. of Cincinnati, O. Patented Feb. 10,1857—Re-issued Feb. 0, 158: 1 claim first, The method set forth of discharging seed from a plow or drill by means of the anchored chain, i, j, k, or its equivalent. Second, The chain or cord, i, j, k, adapted substantially as set forth tooperate the discharging mechanism of a seed planter. Third, In the described combination with a suitable chain, or cord, I claim the arm, f, provided with a vibrating claw, or tappet, g, or substantially equivalent devices operating the seed delivering mechanism as set forth.
This article was originally published with the title "Tobacco Manufacture"