The practice of smoking tobacco has spread over the whol-habitable globe, and the consumption of this narcotic, enor. mous as it has been of late years, is rapidly on the increase; so much so, that the manufacture of tobacco pipes has in many countries acquired quite a considerable importance. Pipes vary in form, in composition, and in value, from the common clay pipe worth a fraction of a cent, or the corn-cob of our Southern freedman, which costs nothing, to the aristocratic hookah made of solid silver or gold-plated copper, elaborately carved and sculptured, from which flexible tubes convey the delightful flavor of the Latakia to the luxurious and dreamy oriental reclining on his silken couch. The talents of the draftsman, the potter, the sculptor, the turner, the polisher, the painter, the gilder, and the gold and the silver smith, are all called into requisition by the modern pipe manufacturer. The substances used are meerschaum, porcelain, various varieties of clay, briar root, and several dark colored woods. The period when the first pipe was smoked by man is hidden to us by the impenetrable veil of by-gone ages, but no doubt can be entertained as to its having been done by the aboriginal American. Ancient stone pipes of fanciful shapes have frequently been ploughed up, in various parts of this continent, such as North-Western New York, Cayuga county, etc., and have been found by ourselves, buried amid the remarkable ruins of the pre-historic cities of Central America. MEERSCHAUM PIPES The richest and most beautiful pipes are manufactured from varieties of a clay-like substance, magnetite or nepiolite, better known as meerschaum which translated into English means sea scum or sea froth; this name being due to its low specific gravity and light color. Sepiolite is of a fine earthy texture, smooth to the touch, and is found in masses in stratified alluvial deposits among serpentine. It is a pioduct of the decomposition of carbonate of magnesia, its composition is silica 608, magnesia 271, water 121 in 100 paits. MeeKcbaum is found in Asia Minor in the plains of Eskihi-Sher or Eski-Schehir, in Greece, at Egribos in the island of Negropont, in the isle of Samos, at Kiltschik in Natolia, in the Crimea, at Hrubschitz in Moravia,in Morocco, at Vallecas in Spain (where it is used as a building stone), at Baldissero in Piedmont, in Cornwall, in France (in the departments of the Gard, of Seine et Marne, and of the Seine), but the most remarkable quarries worked at present are situated at Brussa at the foot of Mount Olympus. When first dug up it is damp, soft, and greasy. The Tartars use it as soap to wash linen, and the Arabs of Algeria in the same manner in the Moorish baths. In masses it floats on water. The color is grayish-white, white, or with a faint yellowish or reddish tinge. Vienna, the capital of Austria, was for many years the principal marketfor Asiatic meerschaum. It was from thence that the celebrated pipe makers of Ruhla in Saxony, wlio long enjoyed the monopoly of this branch of manufacture, obtained their necessary supplies. These Saxon pipes were generally sold at the annual fairs at Leipzig. The demand for meerschaums having increased quite rapidly, their price was enhanced and monopoly soon ceased. The French, stepping in, started a serious competition to the Germans, and have at this present day taken a large share of the trade into their own hands. The home manufacture of France is not only self-sufficient, but large numbers of pipes are now exported from thence to foreign countries. Many of the Parisian pipe makers draw their supplies of raw material directly from the mines. Taste and elegance of design, which are general characteristics of the manufactures of the French, are very conspicuous in their pipes. Those made at Nimes, from magnesite of the department of the Gard, are also held in high estimation. A large business in meerschaum pipes is done in Austria at this time. Each finished pipe offered for sale is placed in a separate velvet or silk-lined case; and all genuine meerschaums are mounted in silver—sometimes in gold—and are furnished with amber mouth-pieces. The meerschaum itself is shipped in lumps of considerable size packed in wooden boxes. The value of these pipes depends on their size, on their workmanship, on the purity of the material employed, and on the richness of the mountings; their cost is however always comparatively high and may reach fabulous or fancy prices. The meerschaum bowls are prepared by soaking first in tallow, then in wax, and finally by carving and polishing. We need hardly remark to our smoking readers—and their name is legion—that the high price of meerschaum pipes has 147 led to the introduction of many cheaper substitutes and imitations, some of which are not easily detected by an unprac-ticed eye. None of these can however compare in lightness, or porosity to the genuine material. PORCELAIN PIPES These pipes are manufactured in Germany, from whence they are forwarded to all parts of the world. They are made from very pure china-clay, or kaolin, and are coated with a bright enamel. Porcelain pipes are either plain or painted, in which latter case, their price is proportionate to the artistic labor expended on them, which is often of a high order. The porcelain pipe is an emblem of old fatherland to every Teuton, when he thinks of the long ago and the old friends far away, CLAY PIPES Clay pipes are manufactured in England, Prance, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Italy, etc. Many varieties are known, all of which may be classed under two heads; namely, pipes with stem and bowl united, and pipes in which the bowl alone is made of clay and the stem of some other substance. Among the first we find, clay pipes, white, light, and smooth; clay pipes with ribs and raised lines; clay pipes, white inside and colored outside; clay pipes witli external molded designs; and in general, the common run of all democratic or workingmens clay pipes. In the second category we have pipe bowls representing heads of men, of women, of children, of animals, of fantastic aubjects, or the busts of the living heroes of the day. We have in revolutionary times in Europe often seen clay pipes symbolising political doctrines or caricaturing those in power. In England the largo majority of pipes are made from clay dug at Purbeck in Dorsetshire. The best French pipes are those of Saint Omer, Givet, Marseilles, Nimes, and some other localities. The production of clay pipes is immense, as may be judged from the fact that one manufacturer alone offers three thousand different models for sale. All clay pipes are made in molds from well-prepared clay, their value varying according to the difficulties of workmanship. The cheapest sell as low as fifty cents per gross of 12 dozen; the highest seldom exceed $1-20 per gross. Clay pipes are best packed in boxes with oat straw as a filling. TURKISH AND ALGERIAN PIPES In many parts of Turkey and of Algeria, pipes are made from clay or pulverized cement of a reddish brown color. The bowls of these pipes are of different shape from those in use in the north of Europe, being wide or nearly funnel-shaped at thoir orifice. Some of these pipes are quite plain and exceedingly cheap. Others are covered with the impress of small flowers with raised centers, stamped on them by means of a seal, before baking. Others again, are diversely gilded in arabesque or moorish designs. The bowls of some Algerian pipes we examined, were made from some kind of very heavy wood, studded with imbedded beads and ornamented with brass wire. The stem of a Turkish pipe consists of a long rod of the wild cherry tree pierced in the center by means of a red hot iron. The trappings and ornaments about these pipes are often elaborate and not devoid of a certain degree of peculiar elegance; the mouth-piece is invariably amber. HOOKAH OR HOUKAR—NARGHILAR This gigantic pipe, resembling a censer, from which numerous pliant tubes diverge, permitting different persons in various portions of a room to enjoy a simultaneous smoke, is essentially a sociable, oriental 1 usury. The smoke of the tobacco is generally cooled and deprived of some of its acrid principles by being passed through water in this apparatus. Hookahs or narghilars, being often made of solid richly carved silver, are expensive and seldom manufactured out of Turkey or Algeria. In a well established Mahomedans mansion, this article is never wanting. A special servant, the houkar bou-dar has no other duty than that of attending to his masters houkar which is kept lighted and filled, ready for use, at all hours of the day or night. BRIAR PIPES The old fashioned wood and horn pipes have of late years bean superseded by the well-known briar pipe made from the hard, comparatively incombustible,wood of various species of briar, and of many other trees. These pipes are manufactured in Germany and in France, but more particularly in this latter country where Saint Claude in the Jura has the monopoly of the commoner kinds,; ind the city of Paris, that of the more expensive carved ones. Briar pipes are packed in pasteboard boxes holding from two to three dozen. Their forms are very varied and their mouthpieces of either horn or amber. Their cost in Europe varies from $5 to $25 per gross, according to their degree of finish. Some of the elaborately sculptured Paris briar pipes, sell as high as from $1 to $3 each, in which case the bowl in generally lined with an internal coating of meerschaum. The manufacture of both meerschaum and briar pipes has of late been introduced into the United States, and appears to be in a thriving condition. In our next number we will give an account of the method of manufacturing the ordinary clay tobacco pipes, with a description of the furnace used to bake them. Watch-Classes—How they are Made A Look at the Manufactory—The Different Operations At Sarrebourg, a small town near the Vosges Mountains, which numbers about 2,300 inhabitants, there is a manufactory of watch-glasses which owes its origin to the well-known glass-works of Valerysthal in its vicinity, whence the blown glass is obtained. It is well known that watch-glasses are of two kinds. One kind is simply cut out of blown globes, and j.-svivGS no other preparation, so to speak, than thatof. a trim- ming of -the border, and a more or less imperfect smoothing. This kind includes all the common concavo-convex glasses which are applied to common watches on account of their cheapness. Their convexity is agreat inconvenience. The other kind consists of flat glasses. These are formed from the primitive convex glasses by operations which render them more costly, it is true, but then they are much more convenient. At Sarrebourg these are called verres clwoes. Gliever is an old French word which signifies to bulge or hollow out, but has now no other use than that to which allusion has been made. If the flat watch-glass had been prepared from glass having a plane surface we could comprehend the designation clieve which has been given to it, for the c/ieve glass is not absolutely flat, and to form it a bulging out from its border would have to be made. But it is not so worked; on the contrary, the convexity of the common watch-glass has to be diminished in order to obtain a flat glass; hence, it seems that the expression used designates precisely the reverse of what i it ought to indicate. The manufacture of flat glasses, although not complicated, requires a series of operations which the fragile nature of the material must render very delicate. We will now pass them in review. FIRST OPERATION.—The first operation is that of cutting I out. It consists in cutting according to the pattern the blown globes supplied by the glss-works. To effect this, a concavo-convex watch-glass of the size wanted is applied to the surface of the globe, and, both being held in one hand, the glass is broken all round by striking little sharp blows with a pipe tubs made red hot. As the glass does not crack according to an exact circumference, merely an irregular bowl is thus obtained, the angles of which are afterwards taken off coarsely by grating away the material with common fiat chisels deprived of edge. This first work is done by women, who are paid at the rate of twenty-five centimes per gross; each worker can cut eight gross per day. SECOND OPERATION.—The glasses cut out in the rough form (calottes), and having already undergone a first trial, which classes them according to their qualities, are placed one by one on molds of refractory clay, and submitted to softening in a muffle heated to redness and constantly open. The workman takes each mold successively with small pincers, places it for a few seconds in the muffle, and, withdrawing it almost immediately, applies a pad of paper upon the softened glass, and by rapid pressing in all directions, causes it to lose its convexity and to take the form of the mold which is more or less fiat but slightly arched at the circumference. This op-ation is called chevage, whence the name of clieoe given to glass which has undergone it, and cheveur to the workman who practices it. The molds are carefully made to shape by turners, and classed according to their dimensions, which cor-i respond to those which trade adopts for watch-glasses. As to i the muffles, several of them are put in the same oven side by side, and each is attended to by a workman (cheveur), who produces on an average six gross per day. The pay for shaping is sixty centimes per gross. THIRD OPERATION.—Once flattened and classed according to their thickness and dimensions, the glasses are submitted to dressing. The operation of dressing, which is performed by women, consists in shaving each glass by clipping away with flat and wide chisels that part of the border which gets beyond the circumference given by the mold. This work demands more delicacy than the ordinary cutting out, for here the breakage is more expensive, since the glass has already received two workings. It is paid at the rate of 20 to 25 centimes per gross, according to the thickness of the glass. FOURTH OPERATION.—We now come to the bezeling. Stuck with pitch upon a wooden chuck, which the workman holds in his hand, the glass undergoes a first reducing by means of a grindstone and sand, with a view of preparing the bezel edge which has to fit in the circle of the watch. Then it is placed in a lathe and the bezel is finished off with pum-ioe-stone. The bezeler receives one franc twenty-five centimes to three francs per gross, according to the thickness of the glass; he delivers from one to two gross per day. FIFTH OPERATION.—From the hands of the bezeler the glass is carried to the smoothing shop, where it is submitted to the action of a smoothing wheel mounted upon a horizontal axis, and upon which pumice-stone powder with water is poured from time to time. This wheel, which has a diameter of four decimeters when new, is formed of two cheeks of wood, between which is wrapped and strongly pressed together pieces of waste cloth. There are eighteen similar smoothers placed in movement by one water wheel. This operation is paid at the rate of two francs twenty-live centimes per gross. SIXTH OPERATION.—In short, the glass is finished, but it is dull, and would not in this state be accepted by the trade; hence, the operation ot poljshing, which consists in polishing and brightening at a wheel with English rouge or with tin-ashes (oxide of tin obtained by calcination). This wheel, which bears the name of mushroom, is formed with cloth like the previous one, but it is mounted upon a vertical axis which the workman commands with his foot. The pay for this operation is 1 franc per gross for thin glasses, and 1 franc 25 centimes for thick glasses. Thus, the different operations are the cutting out, the flattening, the dressing, the bezeling, the smoothing, and the polishing. On arriving at the store, where they are prepared for sending out, the glasses are again examined one by one and tried in a gage which finally classes them, and rejects, to be returned to the workshops, those which have not the proper size. There are then six payments for fashioning, which represents for a gross a total varying from 5 francs 55 centimes, to 7 francs 50 centimes, to which should be added the price of the blowa. globes, which is about 1 franc 50 centimes the kilogramme.—Phrenological Journal. For the Scientific American
This article was originally published with the title "Tobacco Pipes"