“In all our overcrowded cities, New York, for instance, pedestrians are forced to cross streets to get from block to block, to the peril of life and the utter despoilment of broadcloth and patent leather. Nine tenths of all the accidents from collisions occur at crossings. This city employs a large number of policemen to assist people in fording rivers of filth and prevent them from being run down by reckless drivers. Crossings should be tunneled. Bridges are required to be too high to accommodate the loaded vehicles and omnibuses. Tunnels at crossings, on the contrary, need not be deep, and they can be lighted day and night with gas, for one-fourth the expense of keeping policemen to guard the principal crossings.”

Scientific American, December 1868

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