Several years ago a youth counselor told me about the dilemma he faced when dealing with violent young men. His direct impressions simply didnt match what he had been taught. He saw his violent clients as egotists with a grandiose sense of personal superiority and entitlement, but his textbooks told him that these young toughs actually suffered from low self-esteem. He and his staff decided they couldnt go against decades of research, regardless of what they had observed, and so they tried their best to boost the young men's opinions of themselves, even though this produced no discernible reduction in their antisocial tendencies.