People who have lost an arm or a leg often perceive the limb as though it were still there. Treating the pain of these ghostly appendages remains difficult
People who have lost an arm or a leg often perceive the limb as though it is still there. They can also feel excruciating pain in specific parts of the phantom limb
Contrary to popular belief, the author says, morphine taken solely to control pain is not addictive. Yet patients worldwide continue to be undertreated and to suffer unnecessary agony
Pain is not a fixed response to a hurtful stimulus. Its perception is modified by our past experiences, our expectations and, more subtly, by our culture
How do environmental influences at the beginning of life shape the behavior of an animal? Some clues are found by experiments in which Scottish terriers are raised in restricted surroundings...