- Acting Editor in Chief Curtis Brainard
- Copy Director Maria-Christina Keller Creative Director Michael Mrak
- Chief Features Editor Seth FletcherChief News Editor Dean VisserChief Opinion Editor Michael D. Lemonick
- Senior Editor, Sustainability Mark FischettiSenior Editor, Chemistry/Policy/Biology Josh FischmanSenior Editor, Space/Physics Clara MoskowitzSenior Editor, Science and Society Madhusree MukerjeeSenior Editor, Technology/Mind Jen SchwartzSenior Editor, Evolution/Ecology Kate Wong
- Senior Editor, Mind/Brain Gary StixSenior Editor, Space/Physics Lee BillingsAssociate Editor, Sustainability Andrea ThompsonAssociate Editor, Technology Sophie BushwickAssociate Editor, Health and Medicine Tanya LewisAssistant News Editor Sarah Lewin Frasier
- Senior Editor, Multimedia Jeffery DelViscioSenior Editor, Multimedia Steve Mirsky Senior Editor, Audience Engagement Sunya Bhutta Senior Editor, Collections Andrea Gawrylewski
- Art Director Jason MischkaSenior Graphics Editor Jen Christiansen Photography Editor Monica BradleyArt Director, Online Ryan ReidAssistant Photo Editor Liz TormesAssociate Graphics Editor Amanda Montañez
- COPY AND PRODUCTION
- Senior Copy Editor Daniel C. SchlenoffSenior Copy Editor Aaron ShattuckSenior Copy EditorAngelique RondeauManaging Production Editor Richard HuntPrepress and Quality Manager Silvia De Santis
- EDITORS EMERITIMariette DiChristinaJohn Rennie
- EDITORIAL Gareth CookKatherine Harmon CourageLydia DenworthFerris JabrAnna KuchmentRobin LloydMelinda Wenner MoyerGeorge MusserRicki L. RustingDava SobelClaudia Wallis
- ARTEdward BellZoë ChristieLawrence R. GendronNick HigginsKatie PeekBeatrix Mahd Soltani
- Editorial Administrator Ericka Skirpan Executive Assistant Supervisor Maya Harty
- CUSTOM MEDIA
- Managing Editor Cliff RansomCreative DirectorWojtek UrbanekMultimedia Editor Kris FatsyMultimedia Editor Ben GershmanEngagement Editor Dharmesh Patel
- PRESIDENTDean Sanderson
- Executive Vice President Michael Florek
- Vice President, Commercial Andrew Douglas
- Vice President, Magazines, Editorial and Publishing Stephen Pincock
- Publisher and Vice President Jeremy A. Abbate
- CLIENT MARKETING SOLUTIONS
- Marketing Director, Institutional Partnerships and Customer Development Jessica ColeProgrammatic Product Manager Zoya LysakDirector, Integrated Media Jay BerfasDirector, Integrated Media Matt BondlowManager, Global Media Alliances Brendan GrierSenior Administrator, Executive Services May Jung
- CONSUMER MARKETING
- Head, Marketing and Product Management Richard Zinken Development Team Lead Raja AbdulhaqMarketing Manager Chris Monello Product Manager Ian Kelly Product Manager John Murren Senior Web Producer Jessica Ramirez Senior UX Designer Denise McDermott Senior Commercial Operations Coordinator Christine Kaelin Marketing & Customer Service Assistant Justin Camera
- ANCILLARY PRODUCTS
- Associate Vice President, Business Development Diane McGarveyCustom Publishing Editor Lisa PallatroniRights and Permissions Manager Felicia Ruocco
- Head Communications, USA Rachel ScheerPress Manager Sarah Hausman
- PRINT PRODUCTION
- Production Controller Madelyn Keyes-MilchAdvertising Production Controller Dan Chen
letters to the editorScientific American
1 New York Plaza, Suite 4600
New York, NY 10004-1562
Letters may be edited for length and clarity. We regret that we cannot answer each one. Join the conversation online—visit Scientific American on Facebook and Twitter.
how to contact us
For new subscriptions, renewals, gifts, payments, and changes of address: U.S. and Canada, 800-333-1199; outside North America, 515-248-7684 or www.ScientificAmerican.com
To submit article proposals, follow the guidelines at www.ScientificAmerican.com. Click on “Contact Us.” We cannot return and are not responsible for materials delivered to our office.
To order bulk reprints of articles (minimum of 1,000 copies): Reprint Department, Scientific American, 1 New York Plaza, Suite 4600, New York, NY 10004-1562; 212-451-8415; RandP@sciam.com. For single copies of back issues: 800-333-1199.
For permission to copy or reuse material: Permissions Department, Scientific American, 1 New York Plaza, Suite 4600, New York, NY 10004-1562; RandP@sciam.com; www.ScientificAmerican.com/permissions. Please allow three to six weeks for processing.
www.ScientificAmerican.com has electronic contact information for sales representatives of Scientific American in all regions of the U.S. and in other countries.
Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), Volume 322, Number 4, April 2020, published monthly by Scientific American, a division of Springer Nature America, Inc., 1 New York Plaza, Suite 4600, New York, N.Y. 10004-1562. Periodicals postage paid at New York, N.Y., and at additional mailing offices. Canada Post International Publications Mail (Canadian Distribution) Sales Agreement No. 40012504. Canadian BN No. 127387652RT; TVQ1218059275 TQ0001. Publication Mail Agreement #40012504. Return undeliverable mail to Scientific American, P.O. Box 819, Stn Main, Markham, ON L3P 8A2. Individual Subscription rates: 1 year $49.99 (USD), Canada $59.99 (USD), International $69.99 (USD). Institutional Subscription rates: Schools and Public Libraries: 1 year $84 (USD), Canada $89 (USD), International $96 (USD). Businesses and Colleges/Universities: 1 year $399 (USD), Canada $405 (USD), International $411 (USD). Postmaster: Send address changes to Scientific American, Box 3187, Harlan, Iowa 51537. Reprint inquiries: (212) 451-8415. To request single copies or back issues, call (800) 333-1199. Subscription inquiries: U.S. and Canada (800) 333-1199; other (515) 248-7684. Send e-mail to RandP@sciam.com. Printed in U.S.A. Copyright © 2020 by Scientific American, a division of Springer Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at www.springernature.com/us). Scientific American maintains a strict policy of editorial independence in reporting developments in science to our readers. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
- Rachel Scheer
- Sarah Hausman