Consequences of ischaemic heart disease (graphic).
Credit: Nature

The pathologies of heart conditions are complex and interwoven, but they often start with ischaemia.

Infographic detailing the development of ischaemic heart disease.
Credit: Mohamed Ashour. Sources: 1. British Heart Foundation Heart & Circulatory Disease Statistics 2020 available at (2020); 2. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Morbidity & Mortality: 2012 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung and Blood Diseases (NIH, 2012); 3. Bottle, A. et al. Heart 104, 600–605 (2018); 4. British Heart Foundation

The incidence of many heart conditions in wealthy countries is declining. In the United Kingdom, for example, the rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction and heart failure have decreased since 2005. The incidence of atrial fibrillation has increased, probably because of an ageing population.

The incidence of many heart conditions in different wealthy countries (charts).
Credit: Mohamed Ashour

This article is part of Nature Outlook: Heart health, an editorially independent supplement produced with the financial support of third parties. About this content.