An artesian well of great depth is being bored at present at St. Louis, for a sugar re finery in that city. It was begun in 1849, an d has been worked 1,590 feet, nearly half the depth of the celebrated artesian well in Westphalia, Germany, which is sunk 2,385. The object is to obtain a supply of other than limestone water which is the only sort that can be found by the ordinary channels in that vicinity. At the present depth of 1,590 feet a pretty copious stream of sulphur water flows from the well, having precisely the taste of the Blue Lick water in Kentucky, although perhaps it is not quite so thoroughly impreg nated with sulphur. It is, however, conclu ded from recent indications, that a supply of pure sweet water will be now obtained. The following is a list of the different strata bored through in the course ot operations. 1st. Through limestone, 28 feet; 2nd, shale 2; 3rd, limestone, 231; 4th, chertz rock, 15; 5th, limestone, 74; 6th, shale, 30; 7th, limestone, 75; 8th, shale, 14; 9th, lime stone, 384 ; 10th, sandy shale, 7; 11th, lime stone, 1284 ; 12th, red marl, 15; 13th, shale, 30; 14th, red marl, 50; 15fch, shale, 30 ; 16th, limestone, 119 ; 17th, shale, 66; 18th, bitumi nous marl, 15; 19th, shale, 80; 20th, lime stone, 134; 21st, chertz rock, 62; 22nd, lime stone, 134; 23rd, shale, 70; 24th, limestone, 20; 25th, shale, 56; 26th, limestone, 34; 27th white soft sandstone, 15 feet. The well was first commenced as a cistern. From the surface of the.' ground, where it is tourteen feet in diameter, it has a conical form, lessening at the depth of thirty feet to a diameter of six feet. Thence the diameter is again lessened to sixteen inches, until the depth of 78 feet from the surface is attained. From that point it is diminished to nine inch es, and this diameter is preserved to the depth of 457 feet. Passing this line the diameter to the present bottom of the well, is three and a half inches. The lowest summer stand of the Mississip pi river is passed in the first stratum of the shale, at the depth of twenty-nine or thirty feet from the surface. The water in the well however, is always higher than the water line of the river, and is not affected by the va riations of the latter. The first appearance of gas was found at a depth of 566 feet, in a stra ta of shale one and a half feet thick, which was strongly imbued with carbonated hydro gen. When about 250 teet below the surface of the earth at the beginning of a layer of limestone, the water in the well became salty. The level of the sea—reckoned to be five hundred and thirty-two feet below the city ot St. Louis—was passed in the same layer— two hundred feet lower still, in a bed of shale, the water contained one-and-a-half per cent, of salt. At a depth of 950 feet, a bed of bitu minous marl 15 feet in diameter was struck. The marl nearly resembled coal, and on being subjected to a great heat, without actually burning, lost much of its weight. In the stra tum of shale which followed, the salt in the water increased to two-and-a-half per cent. The hard streak passed was a bed of chertz, struck at a depth of 1,179 feet from the sur face, and going down 62 feet. In this layer the salt in the water increased to full three per cent. The boring at present is, as ap pears by the statement above, in a bed of white soft sand rock, the most promising that has yet been struck for a supply of water, such as is wanted. Observations have been made with a Cel sius thermometer of the temperature of the well. At the'mouth of the orifice, the ther mometer marks 50 degrees ; at the depth of 45 feet, the heat is regular, neither increasing nor diminishing with the variations above, and at the distance of 351 feet, the heat has increased to 60 degrees. The calculations in the books give an increase of one degree in the temperature, lor every additional 100 feet of depth, so that at the depth of 5,000 feet, the heat is supposed to be so intense as to melt iron. [The greater part of the above is extracted from the '' Missouri Republican," we therefore do not take upon ourselves to endorse the opinion therein mentioned of a gradual rise of temperature on getting deeper from the earth's surface, such hypothesis is a favorite one among some geologists,but wemust have something more than theory before we can affirm that the phenomenon last mentioned is sure to occur at the depth indicated.
This article was originally published with the title "Artesian Well"