A very inge nious contrivance for the above purpose has bee n invented by Safford E. Stur- tevant, of Hartford, Vt., who has taken measures to secure a patent. It consists in secii- ring the shafts of vehicles to the axle or the ax le to the shafts, by mean s of an eye or collar with taper or conical ends, which fit in sockets attached to the shafts. A screw-bolt is inserted longitudinally through the eye or collar and the sockets to keep the ends firmly secured. To obviate any inconvenience trom the wearing of the eye or collar, so that the ends would not fit tight, the shanks in which the sockets are sunk, can be brought nearer together by means of a nut on the bolt. The apparatus, although simple, will be found very efficient for the intended purposes, and it is a useful improvement on the ordinary method of uniting together the axle and shaft. Compressed-Air Railroad Brake The annexed engravings represent an improvement on Railroad Brakes, invented by Abner Cutler and Jackson A. Rapp, of the city of Buffalo, N. Y., who have taken measures to secure a patent for it. Figure 1 is a plan view of a car truck with the improvement applied to the brakes. 2 is a side elevation of fig. 1, the side of the truck being removed. Figure 3 is a detached .ai a “ u-v",,, 11 proviri«d with “ The same letters refer to like parts. An air pump is employed to be worked by the locomotive, which forces air through tubes the whole length of the train, and operates pistons in cylinders, which act upon levers that ope rate the usual brakes. A is a car beds and B B are trucks attached to it. C C are common brakes on the trucks; they have shoes, a, which are made to bear against the tace of the wheels. 6, by means of the rods, r. Fig. 3. and levers, d. D is an air-pump placed in any convenient position, and worked constantly Hy the locomotive when it is in motion. A fubs, •:, 1, passes from the air-pump and irads intu a receiver, E, which is provided with 11F. at its upper part, as shown in 'i:is operated by a levet:.,f A tube.. G, passes from the receiver, along the whole length of the tram ; the tubes ot the several cars are connected by joints of some flexible material , sue h as vulcani zed in dia rubber ; each car has&separate tube ; the several tubes, when unitcd, form a continuous one the whole length of a train. H is a cylinder communicating with tube, G ; there is a like cylinder for each car. Each cylinder has a piston inside, which is moved to one end, when air is ad mitted ; g is the piston rod; I is a system of jointed levers, the piston rod, acts against them. A toggle joint is placed kept constantly working while the locomo- ti ve is in motion, and air is forced through the tube, e, into the receiver, E. The Jever,f, of the val ve, F, is arranged by any suitable means, 80 as to be kept elevated, and the air then passes out. When it is necessary to apply the brakes, the lever, f. is depressed hy a b rakestnan or engineer, and the valve is then closed, consequently the air is forced by the a«r pump, D, into the tube, G, and as th« cylinder, H, communicates with the tube, G, the piston in the cylinder is forced out, ' and 1ln' rod, g, acts against the toggle joint, I—the toggle joint drawing the ends of the rods, c, nearer to each otto, and forces the brakes, a, against the faces of the wheels, b. When the brakes have been applied a sufficient time, the brakesman or engineer withdraws his hand from the lever,/, which rises, and the air then passes from the receiver through the val ve, and the springs of the brakes throw the toggle joints back. Another brake arrangement is represented in the front trucks of figures 1 and 2, to cause instantaneous stoppage of the cars; J J are two shoes on an axle, It. The shoes are in line with wheels b h, and directly over the rails; they are of circular shapl! and have horns, K. There is a half pulley, L, attached to the middle of axle It ; it has a pin, i, passing through it. which, when the horns, K, are elevated catches into a recess, , on a lever, M, directly over the half pulley. By means of the half pulley and pin, the horns are pre vented, when not required, from falling upon the rails. These shoes are operated in the same manner as the brakes previously described. N is a cylinder provided with a piston, and communicating with the tube, 0, which is connected with the receiver. The tube, O, has a stop-cock,/, in it near the recei ver; this c uts off communication with the recei ver, when the brakes, C, previous 1 y described, are applied. But when it is necessary to stop the cars instantaneously, in case of obstructions on the rails, the stop-cock, j, is turned to let the air into the tube, O, the lever,f, of course being depressed at the same time. The air then acts on the piston in cylinder, N, its rod, is forced outwards, and the lever, M, frees the pin, i. from its recess, I; the homs, K, then drop down upon the rails, and by their great The under the centre of each car bed, and is con nected to the ends of the rods, c, of the brakes, friction arrest the progress of the cars. The manner in which the brakes are operated tube, 0, may be continued the whole length will be readily understood by what has been of the train in the same manner as tube G. said.These shoes are elevated by It chain, m, the The air-pump, D, it will be recollected, is end of which is attached to the periphery of the half pulley, and the other to the winch P. By turning the winch, the half pulley is turned, and the horns, K, are elevated, the pin, i, catching into the recess, I, in lever, M. When the horns are elevated, the winch is reversed and the chain slacked, when the shoes are ready for instantaneous operation. More information may be obtained by letter addressed to the inventors.