Macrocosm or the Universe Without. —This is the title of a new book by William Fishbough, a candidate for philosophic fame. As it is a work which treats of subjects connected with our legitimate pursuits, and teaches a philosophy at variance with ours, it is just and proper that we should at least point out some of its errors. The author is not a metaphysician, nor is he skilled in scientific lore; the brilliant passages in the book bear the impress of Prof. Nichol's genius, and there is not a single new scientificfact recorded in its pages. There is, however, a cool thread of egotism running through the whole of it, such a self- complacent, “ I know it all “ spirit exhibited that is really very amusing. Subjects that would appall Newton to approach, and about which Herschel and Humboldt would confess themselves ignorant, he rushes at with an audacity that is really' exhilarating. Knotty points that baffle the most eminent men of science, he unravels as easily as flying a kite, and with a few flourishes like political cheers, he sets down his doctrine as established. The author teaches the development hypothesis of animal life, and plainly states that “ in the lowest of the fossiliferous rocks the principal animal remains are Radiata, which form the connecting link with the vegetable kingdom,” and he presumes “ that more minute and simple species preceded these."— The development hypothesis—for it is not a theory—assumes that animal life commenced at a point, and gradually in a multitude of ages went on developing itself until man arose out of a mite. We believe that some of the developists hold to it that the dolphin was a very near predecessor of man. The reasoning of some advocates of this hypothesis, is indeed no better than what might be expected of a dolphin or such like fish, and they are therefore welcome to a system which intimately relates to themselves, but it is one which Hugh Miller has smashed to pieces, and which Prof. Agassiz, the eminent philosopher in a recent lecture delivered in this city gave his testimony against. Here is what he said :— "The extinct animals found in the lowest strata, it has been imagined by philosophers, were the first created, but this supposition has been overturned by modern science, which discloses the fact that the lowest strata contain radiata, molusca, articulata, and vertibra- ta. The plan which pervades the animal kingdom at the present day, is the same which was displayed at the first introduction of animals upon this earth. The same thought which planned the arrangement of animals now living and which has assigned to their different races their respective stations, is the same which has laid them from the beginning. Everywhere we see one active mind in nature from the beginning as now, from all time and all being, and have evidence ot the Creator in space, in time, and in every individual, as well as the whole animal creation." Thus speaks a real practical man of science; how lofty and profound in comparison with the superficial development hypothesist. Our macrocosm author assumes the professorship of Doctor of the Nebular Hypothesis, which is quite in harmony with his materialist views, and development ideas. The nebular hypothesis embraces the doctrine that the whole visible universe was once a mass of subtile gaseous matter, and that out of this, by rotation and cooling, the worlds made themselves. The author of this hypothesis is La Place, and his views have been embraced by many eminent philosophers, s.nd were inculcated by Prof. Guyot, in his lectures in this city last winter, and although some portions of the heavens have lately been resolved into stars by superior telescopes, which stars were once held to be nebull1l, still many men are so hard or thick headed, that they cannot yet renounce their gaseous or nebulous notions. The nebular hypothesis supposes that at one time the whole mass of matter of the sun and all the planets and satelites in our system was in a state of attenuated gas (fiery vapor,) and all rotated around the centre—a huge mass of rolling gas—the sun being the axis, and that in a multitude of ages, by certain - parts cooling and shrinking, the planets were first formed into rings, then broke up into spheres, and finally assumed their present forms and positions. There are eight objections to this hypothesis, which, if removed, would leave us little to say against it. 1st. There is no evidence that the matter of this world was originally in a state of gas. 2nd. By the known laws of chemistry, all matter cannot be reduced to a state of gas. 3rd. By the known laws of chemistry, an isolated fiery mass of gas cannot have but a momentary existence, and by analogy never had. 4th. [Mr. Fishbough says that the mass of gas received rotation by virtue of gravitation.] Gravitation cannot produce rotary motion.— By the laws of mechanical philosophy, a body must be acted upon by two forces to give it a rotary motion. 5th. The nebular hypothesis does not account for our planets having two motions, one on their axes and another around the sun. 6th. If the whole mass ofmatter now forming the solar system, once rotated along with the sun as its axis, then the outermost planet should revolve round the sun in 25 days 7 hours, 48 minutes—this being the time the sun revolves on its axis (not ia 27 days as Mr. Fishbough has it.) Instead of doing this, Saturn takes 29 years to revolve round the sun. 7th. If all the matter composing our system rotated together around the sun as an axis, then all ot it would still rotate in the same direction, but instead of this being the case, the satelites of the planet Uranus revolve in a contrary direction to the other planets, and not in the same plane. Well might Prot. Nichol say in reference to this fact, “ a comet would be very acceptable here." 8th. The present positions, the forms, and motions of the planets cannot be accounted for by gravity nor gas. By none of the known laws of chemistry could the matter of which this earth is composed, ever have been in a state of gas. If it ever was, different chemical laws must have been in force which now have no existence, and to prove a hypothesis by a hypothesis as Mr. Fishbough does, is like exterminating problems by the following rule—O—O=l an exceedingly convenient system of mathematics for dreamers. Prof. Nichol asserted while in this city, that “ no calculation or deduction can ever enable the human race to trace back our system to its origin,” yet in face of this Mr. Fishbough does so with the greatest ease, and lays down his deductions with the utmost sang froid as established facts. To show how he understands mechanical philosophy, let us just quote another paragraph from his work :— ” The kingdom of motion and forms, therefore, have ever been and still are (and we may confidently believe ever will be) making farther and farther encroachments upon the realms of chaos and inertia, and whatever is conquered by the former can never be fully reconquered by the latter, and this because the former power is positive and the latter negative." Not to speak of the grammatical richness of this sentence, here we have motion and forms called a kingdom, a;:d a conquering power, and inertia and chaos called realms having no motion; the man takes states and condition of matter for its properties, as all men who are ignorant of mechanical philosophy do. Inertia is simply the passive mechanical property of matter, whereby it has no inherent power to change its condition; it belongs to a body in motion as well as a body at rest, it is as much positive as negative. Men talk about chaos with great freedom; who knows anything about it Inertia belongs to all bodies in motion, and which have form; matter in every state, in every place, and at all times, has been, and is endowed with the property of inertia. We might easily fill a page in pointing out erroneous views put forth in this book, but perhaps we have said enough. List of Patent Claims For The Week Ending November 16, 1852. Expanding Bits—By Charles L. Barnes, of New York. city: I claim so forming and combining the movable and stationary parts of an expansion bit, for boring different sized holes, as that a cutting edge shall at all times be preserved entirely across the bit; and at the same time, the cutting point on the moveable part thereof, shall always be parallel with the shank of the bit, or the line of the hole. as described. I also claim the rising and falling of the movable part of the bit, as it is contracted and expanded, by means of the inclined slots and set screws or their equivalents; so that the lip on the movable part, shall become the cutter, when boring the largest size of holes, (the otherlip being at rest) aQd th e Up on the o ionery part shall become the cutter, whea boring small sized holes; the other lip being at rest, by which means I am able to form the lips .of the proper shape for different sized holes, witho ut changing the cutters, as described. Seed Planters—By H. Davis, and Samuel and Morton Pennock, of Kennett Square, Pa.: We claim, first, the employment of the sigmoid, or other simi- Iarly curved or angul ar receiving and diSCharging o pe nings. i n combination with the reciprocating slide and feeding stubs, for the purposes specified ; the said reciprocating slide having angular points projecting into the said sigmoid openings, for effecting the discharge of the seed from the outlets from which the stubs are receding, while the latter are feeding the seed to ward the opposite extremities or outlets of the openings, during each movement of the slide, by means of the inclined sides of said points, and the movement of the slide, Flax PULLERS—By Lewis S. Chichester, of Brooklyn, L. 1.: I do not wish to limit myselfto the mere construction or arrangement of the parts.—I claim the employment of one or more pairs of rollers, as described, in combinati on With the fingers or separators, or their equivalents, for presenting the stalks to the bite of the rollers, to be drawn in as described; also, in combination with the rollers— the revolving arm, or arms, for collecting and drawing the stalks to the bite of the rollers, and also the employment of the fulcrum bar, as described. Carpet Looms—By Jno. A. Van Riper, of New York city : I claim, first, actuating a positive let-off for the de'ivery of yarn, a positive take-up of the woven cloth, and a variable winding upon a beam of the cloth, delivered fromthe take up ro lers, by the combination of the crank pin or cam on the disc, or the equivalent thereof, with the alternating bar and its appendages, as set forth. Secondly, the method of working the trap-boards. by means of the crank cam, rock shaft, and arms, lifting rods, cam and lever, and the other devices acting in connection with these for raising and lowering and oscillating the lifting rods—the whole operating as described. Thirdly, the temples, constructed, arranged, and operated as described; so that they will be open during the time the take-up rollers are acting, closed at the time the lay beats up. Machine for making Thimbles for Rigging, Etc.—By Wm. Field, Providence, R. I,: I claim the arranging the two halves of the forming groove, upon the adjacent ends of two independent revolving mandrels or shafts, which ate free to slide towards and from each other, so as ao hold the two halves of the groove in contact, while the article is being shaped, and to separate the two halves of the groove, to allow the finished article to drop out: also the combination of the divided shaping groove, with a reci procating former operating in connection therewith, as set forth. Cotton Seed Punters—Wm. A. Gates, Mount Comfort, Tenn.: I claim, in combination with a rotary cylinder or box, having apertures in its perimeter, the projecting edges or wings, radial ribs or plates, and projeoting fingers or prongs, arranged around the axle; the whole operating to separate or disentangle the seeds to be sown, immediately previous to the disposition thereof, in the furrow—as setforth. Sash Fastener—By J. B. S. Hadaway, of E ast Weymouth, Mass. : I claim, first, the combination of the rocking plate with the angular lever, the swinging lever, and the spiral spring, constructed and arranged and operating in the manner and for the purposes specified. Secondly, the rocking plate combined with either a simple or compound lever, in the manner and for the purpose specified. Blind ane Shutter OpERAToR—By Robt V.Jones, of Birmingham, Pa.: I claim, the tubular shanked box hinge, with roller contained therein, as arranged with respect to the roller within the building, when the rollers are connected by a chain, and the w ho le i s constructed as described. tanning—By D avid Kennedy, of Reading, Pa.: I claim, the use of borax in combination with nitre, alum, and terra japonica, in solutions of tannin, for , :e purposes set forth. Bottle St opper—By E.&D. Kinsey, of Cincinnati, Ohio : We claim, the combination of the ball stopper together with the rod attached to it, and the guides, in the manner and for the purpose set forth. Cylinder Printing Press—By Joel G. Northrup, of Syracuse, N, Y.: I claim, first, such a combinati on and arrangement of a horizontalbed and cylinder of a printing press, as will enable each forward movement of a bed to impart a revolution to the cylinder, for the purpose of taking or giving an impression, and permit it to remain stationary during the reverse movement of the bed, as described. Secondly, in combination with a horizontal cylinder moving in one direction, with alternate rest and motion, the inking and flyingapparatus as described. Perspective Drawing APTARPTUS-By Prof. Adolph Richter, of New York city: I claim, delineating natural and other objects, in a diminished or increased size, with a lens, whan used with the ap. paratus and in the manner described. Printing PRESSSES-By Stephen P. Ruggles, Bos- ; ; 'oass. : I claim, hanging or k: In-.i-iu.r the bed V ..... holds the form and moves up and down for each impression, upon springs, so as that its own weight shall compress the springs to a great extent, and the entire compression of them be completed by drawing the bed further down whilst in motion and so that the elasticity of the springs, when the bed is to rise, will raise it up to the extent of their power, and the upward motion be completed by a separate arrangement, whilst in motion, for the purpose of relieving the machine from overcoming the inertia in moving the bed fro m a state of rest, the power to complete its motion being applied near the termination of its movement, as described ; also, the arranging of the frisket and the inkingrollers in separate carriages, moving on the same ways, with such relative velocities as not to interfere with each other, and so that the frlsket may carry off and bring back the sheet quickly, whilst the inking rollers may travel more slowly and do more perfect work, as described ; also, the pointing of the sheet, whilst being prepared for receiving the first impression, by an automatic movement attached to some moving portion of the press; also the application of a biast of air, or its equivalent, for the purpose of forcing the sheets upon the registering points, when the paper is being prepared for the reverse impression; also the removing of the sheet from tho frisket, or from the press by means of atmospheric pressure, applied in the manner described, or its equivalent; also, making the registering points adjustable in- the paper table, by passing it through a friction plate, secured between two plates: also, the combination of the open toggle and adjustable eccentric shaft or pin, which operate the bed. C ard l'i:': i i —iiy Cornelius Speer, of New York city: I claim the application of the material herein described, to the front side of the leather fillet, holding the card teett, for the purpose of bracing and supporting said teeth. Serving Mallets—By Daniel H. Southworth, of New York city: I claim, first, the attachment and use of the clasp or hook to the hollow or concave part of saddle of a serving mallet, for holding it to the rope while the operator brings the end of the marline from the spool over the pulley in the handle and upper edge of the saddle to the rope, where it is ma- e f;< -t without being wound round both saddle and rope. Second, the attaching to a serving mallet, one or more set or thumb scre ws, or any analagous devices, for the purpose of pressing upon the spool, for enabling the operator to serve the rope with any degree of tightness the yarn will bear, without winding it round both saddle rope and handle ; the said screws being attached and operating in the manner and for the purpose described. Rail Road Car SEUS-By Daniel H. Wiswell, of Buffalo, N Y.: I claim the employment ofthe double jointed slides and jointed rods, with the j ointed arms, jointed seat and back, pillars, and supports ;— arranged and operating in the manner and for the purposes herel d fully set forth . Cordage Machinery—By H, S, Jennings and C. S. Collier, of Bethany, N. Y., and T. P. How, ofBuf- fa N. Y.; (Assignor to H. S. Jennings, and C. S. Collier, of Bethany, N. Y., D. Perry and A. Beards- ley, of Middlebury, N. Y., and A. Hemingway, of Perry, N. Y.:) We claim regulating the speed of the receiving reel, by the tension of the rope, as described. DESIGNS. Franklin STOVE-By Joseph Pratt, (Assignor to Bowers, Pratt&Co., of Boston, Mass.) Parlor Grate—By Joseph Pratt, (Assignor to Bowers,' -i..Mass.)
This article was originally published with the title "False Philosophy"