THE September Monthly Meteorological Ohart 01 the Indian Ocean, published by the British Meteorological Office, contains a most useful account of the icebergs of the Southern Ocean, as reported by ships of all nationalities during the twenty years 1891-1910. In the southern hemisphere icebergs attain dimensions far exceeding that attained by similar formations in the northern hemisphere. They may be fallen in with anywhere poleward of the parallel 30 deg. S. As many as 4,500 different bergs have been actually counted in a run of 2,000 miles; estimated heights of from 800 to 1,700 feet are not uncommon; and instances of bergs having lengths ranging from 6 to 82 miles are numerous. The most northern ice of the Southern Ocean. so far as the records from the beginning of the nineteenth century show, was a fragment of a berg sighted by the barque “Dochra” in 26 deg. S., 26 deg. W., in April. 1894. Icebergs are seldom sighted on the regular trade routes south of Australia. between the west coast of South America and the meridian of 80 deg. W., and between the Falkland Islands and the east coast of South Ame;·ica. As to the abundance of icebergs in certain years, besides the case above mentioned of 4,500 bergs seen in one voyage, several other remarkable records are cited. Thus in March, 1910. the “Prima” passed between 2,000 and 3,000 icebergs in two days. while steaming from 54 deg. S. 36 deg. W. to 47 deg. S. 38 deg. W. The many flotillas of icebergs passed by vessels during the prolific period 1892 to 1897 included some of the loftiest on record. In January, 1893. when 400 miles east of the Falklands. the “Loch Torri-don” passed many bergs varying in estimated height from 500 to 1.000 feet, and one of 1,500 feet. The “Charles Racine” sighted a berg 1.500 feet high, midw.lY of the Cape and Australia, in December. 1896; and one of the same height was sighted from the “Zinita,” in November, 1904, about 120 miles south of the spot where that of the “Loch Torridon” was observed. The loftiest berg on record. which had an estimated height of 1,700 feet above sea-level, was passed by the bark “Emil Julius” in June, 1884. when in 44 deg. S. 49 deg. E. Since the heginning of 1889 there have been reported 39 instances of bergs from 800 to 1.700 feet in height; and 16 of these had an altitude of 1,000 feet. So far back a s 1840 a berg 1,000 feet high was sighted not far from the Cape of Good Hope. Since the beginning of ]884, 42 ships have reported bergs having estimated lengths of from 6 to 82 miles. In May, 1892, the “Strathdon,” in 44 deg. S. :W deg. W., sailed 40 miles along the side of a berg. This ice-island was 1,100 feet high. In January, 1893, the “Loch Torridon,” in 50 deg. S. 45 deg. W., by sailing along the side of a berg determined its length to be 50 miles; and two months later, about 2CO miles farther west, the bark “}thelbert” is said to have passed one which was 82 miles long! Some of the extreme lengths reported in good faith are. however, perhaps based on optical illusion; as a berg is sometimes unwittingly viewed through a gap between two other huge bergs, situated on either side of it, and overlapping its ends. A case of this kind was observed during the “Challenger” expedition. A cubical iceberg will float with about one-ninth of its total height above the water. It is not difficult, however, to imagine a lofty pinnacle berg having its base spread over a large area. and the under-water depth comparatively insignificant. In the majority of bergs the vertical heights of the submerged and visible portions seldom vary directly as the corresponding volumeJ. Throughout the five months ended April, 1855, a book-shaped ice-island drifted about between the parallels of 40 deg. S. and 44 deg. S. and the meridians of 20 deg. W. and 28 deg. W. The longer side stretched 60 miles, and the shorter parallel side 40 miles. Between the two was a bay quite 40 miles from side to side at its widest part. Several ships entered this cul-de-sac under the erroneous supposition that there was an exit; and one was lost with passengers and crew. In 1892 and 1893 the “Cromdale,” “Was- MaJe by JOSEPH RODGERS. iSONS, SHEFFIELD. ENGLANtV "ADE ON 1l0NOR This t a z or is absolutely perfed, both in shape and sbaving qualities. No tiDer quality ot steel can pos,lbl. be put intoa razor. Rodders steel h:s 230 y ears ot quality behind H. 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Annual Motor Number JANUARY MAGAZINE NUMBER 0/ the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Issue 01 JANUARY 6th, 1912 In what respect do leading types of motor trucks for 191 2 differ mechanically? How can the owner best protect his investment in motor trucks? What is the cost of operation as compared with horse-drawn trucks ? Can truck chauffeurs be made of ordinary teamsters ? These are vital questions to the intending purchaser of motor trucks, which are ably discussed in an article entitled “Selection of a Motor Truck." The pleasure vehicle has now become so standardized that the Riding Qualities of an Automobile (the subject of an another article) now receive more thought than heretofore. The springs, the upholstering, the balance and hang of the body, all enter into the maig up of a comfortable car. Other matters now of paramount importance to the motorist are the Abolition of the Starting Crank, Lighting Systems, which make automobiling at night safe and pleasurable, and the efforts to solve the Tire Problem. These form the subject of three special articles. The Comparative Cost of Light and Heavy Cars is debated by a man who has made a painstaking comparison of every detail of his personal expenses in connection with the two types of cars. The various phases of the automobile industry are discussed. Price Fifteen Cents on All News Stands Munn&Co., Inc .• 361 Broadway, N. Y. December 9, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 545 "Red Devil No. 024 Far Famed as a GLASS CUTTER 'Mtllzons ha'e been sold It will cleanly cut a maxImum number of feet of glass with a minimum effort -and the tool will prove it. “ It's all in the wheel “ At all dealers. lOc It's one 01 the “Red De'zl” Tool Famzly. 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