A Shorter Course in Woodworking. A Practcal Manual for Home and School. By Charles G. Wheeler. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911. 8vo.; 286 pp.; 765 illustrations. Manual training is so recent an addition to the general curriculum that its exponents are apt to be either professional teachers whose knowledge of the subject is superficial, or skilled mechanics whose ideas of teaching are somewhat crude. This '"Shorter Course” is intended to help both classes, and the independent student as well. Its first division, “Common Tools and Their Uses,” is very exhaustive and clear, being so profusely illustrated that the figures are often some pages in advance of the text which refers to them. The second part, “Operations in Shaping, Fitting, and Finishing,” tells how to miter, dowel, splice, cleat, chamfer, and groove. This division also gives instructions for moldings, for panel and door making, and for the elementary operations in simple carved work. appendix deals with such primary principles of construction as are embodied in gates, simple bridges, and roofs; and with practical problems in drawing and in laying out work. In every way the manual excellently fulfills the purposes with which it set out, and is a worthy follower of the same author's - “Wood-Working for Beginners." Garages, Country and Suburban. New York: The American Architect, 1911. 4to.; 80 illustrations. He must be hard to please whose eye is not gratified by the garages shown in the beautiful half-tone reproductions of this album. Even Cairo, Egypt, has yielded the publishers an artistic and satisfying model, - while has apparently been ransacked for buildings that delight the artistic sense and meet the most exacting practical requirements. The plans of most of these are included, so that much help is afforded the man who is deciding on the structural features of a new garage. Some twenty preliminary pages of text take under consideration the essentials of construction and equipment, including the safe handling and storage of oils. The Landscape Gardening Book. By Grace Tabor. Philadelphia : The John C. Winston Company, 1911. 8vo.; 180 pp.; illustrated. Price, $2 net. Gardens do not happen, declares Miss Tabor. A perfectly satisfying garden is the outgrowth of artistic sense, careful planning, and accurate execution. In the large plates of her attractive volume are presented not only perfect but scenes which fall just short of the effect aimed at, by reason of some too insistent feature or some subtle lack. Without dwelling at great length on the cultural side of the matter Miss Tabor treats of the country or suburban home of moderate size in relation to its setting, giving the laws that govern the arrangement of gardens, trees, shrubs and lawns as affected by the site and the house iself. In a word, she aims to clear up the whole difficult problem of making a house seem at home in its site. The utilization of natural features, the approaches, the blending of architecture and Nature, making the most of views, the garden furniture and accessories —all these phases of the subject are capably handled. The illustrations are fine half-tone plates of representative gardens and homes interspersed with practical diagrams and planting plans. The Ice Age in North America. And Its Bearings upon the Antiquity of Man. By G. Frederick Wright, D.D., LL.D., F.G.S.A. Oberlin, Ohio: Biblio-theca Sacra Company, 1911. 8vo. ; 763 pp.; illustrated. Price, $5.25. The first edition of this work was published twenty years but the interesting manner in which it is written, combined with the width and accuracy of its observations and the value of its deductions, makes it still a popular and standard book. Much material has been added to include the later discoveries, together with fifty new maps and illustrations. There are several chapters on glaciers other than those of North America, and the first part of the volume comprises an exhaustive study of ice and its action. The second part discusses the bearings which the studies of the first part have upon man's antiquity. the author of "Scientific Confirmations of Old Testament History,” Dr. Wright naturally leans toward an interpretation of Nature which conforms to Biblical statement, and it is his contention that recent discoveries have in no wise falsified his original reasoning and theories, but that, on the contrary, they show the date of the last glacial epoch to be really much later than it is represented to be. There is a bibliography covering no less than thirty pages. The House Fly. Disease Carrier. An Account of Its Dangerous Activities and pi the Means of Destroying It. By L. O. Howard, Ph.D. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1911. 8vo.; 312 pp.; illustrated. Price, $1.60 net. Here is a timely work on a subject intimately touching the public health and welfare. The recent increased agitation against house flies and the danger they represent is proved to be a sane warning against a very real menace. The author gives a life history of Westerham with its Surroundings. A Handbook to Wolfe-Land. By Gibson Thompson. New York: Frederick Warne&Co. 112 pp.; illustrated. The quiet little Kentish village of Wester-ham is the birthplace of General Wolfe. Although so near London, the surrounding district is intersected by rambling paths that give glimpses of some enchanting views. The village itself is little altered since the days of Wolfe. The philology of the name carries us back ten centuries. In the Domesday Book of William the Conqueror it appears as “Oistre-ham.” The handbook—one of the famous “Homeland” series—while serving as a brief history and general guide to the district, lays much stress upon connection with Wes- terham, sketches his boyhood and manhood, and presents pictures of the vicarage in which he was born and of the buildings and byways so familiar to him. Preliminary Report on a Visit to the Navaho National Monument, Arizona. By Jesse Walter Fewkes. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1911. 8vo.; 35 pp. ; illustrated. This, Bulletin 50 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, is a most instructive monograph on the important prehistoric ruins reserved under the name Navaho National Monument. These ruins are connected with Hopi pueblos still inhabited, in which are preserved traditions relating to them and' their ancient inhabitants. The Preliminary Report will be followed later by a more detailed account based upon a thorough and extended examination. In the mean-we have here much material for study and some admirable photographic reproductions of the major and minor treasures already revealed. There are maps of the groupings and sketches showing construction, with a map showing the surrounding country and indicating the location of the various objects of interest. Adventures in Home-making. By.Robert and Elizabeth Shackleton. New York: John Lane&Co., 12mo.; 350 pp. Price, $1.75; postage, 10 cents extra. There is a for a book which deals with the of an old house into a modern dwelling. The potentialities which exist in old houses, especially old Colonial houses, is very great, and the authors of this book have performed a difficult task in an admirable manner. The finding of the home is discussed ; this is followed by the planning, which begins with the library, then the fireplace and the secret stair are takon up; then the old parlors are dwelt upon, and this is followed by a description of th](, white-paneled dining room, the halls, the bed rooms, the guest room, and then we are taken to the outside, where a formal garden, the the shrubs, the trees, the spring house, and the stone-walled pool are all discussed. The illustrations, which are inserted apart, are excel-There is little question but that the book will be warmly received. Tiie Manual of Statistics. Stock Exchange Hand-Book. 1911. New York: The Manual of Statistics Company. 8vo.; 1092 pp. Price, $5. It is hardly necessary to commend the thirty-third annual issue of this hand-book to those who are familiar with earlier editions. For th e benefit of such investors as may not have seen the work we may say that it is a compilation of information about industrial, and government enterprises, including all those of the United States, Canada, and Mexico whose securities are listed in the leading stock markets. Following the style of each corporation is the date of its formation and a brief history of its life to with a statement of its stock authorized and issued, its holdings, its earnings in the past, and its funded debt. In the case of railroads even freight traffic statistics are given, and in all cases much detail as to dividends, surplus, and depreciation is added. Other features of the manual are tables of securities showing the high and low quotations of the past three years, and statistics on mining cotton produce money and banks. This reference book sh ould be upon the desk of every investor, broker and man of business. LEGAL NOTICES MTENTS If you have an invention which you wish to patent you can write fully and freely to M unn &1 Co. for advice in regard to the best way of i p ct s e d r model of your invention and a description of the device, explaining its operation. All communications are strictly confidential. Our vast practice, extending over a period of more than sixty years, enables us in many cases to advise in regard to patentability without any expense to the client. Our Hand Book on Patents is sent free on request. This explains our methods, terms, etc., in regard to PATENTS, TRADE MARKS, FOREIGN PATENTS, etc. All patents secured through us are described without cost to the patentee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. MUNN &1 COMPANY 361 B R O ADWA Y, NEW YORK Branch Office, 625 F Street, Washington, D. C. PA TEN T S SECURED OR fee Ai UR D Free report as to Patentability. Illustrated (Guide Book. and What To Invent witb List of Inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for inventions sent free. VICTOR J. HV ANS&CO.. Washington, D.C. Classified Advertisements Advertising in this column is 7iJ cents a line. No leas tban four nor more than 12 lines accepted. Count seven words to the line. All orders ru ust be accompanied by a remit? ance. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. I UNDERTAKE the placing ana give all information concerning the purchase and the sale of oil fields, oil products, mining-, etc. in Caucasus. I seek also representation of good firms for Baku and Caucasus. Address G. Kalnin, Russo-Caucasian Naphtha Company, Baku, Beli Gorod, Russia. We represent “ Windsor Square,” a city residential park in los Angeles City. of the highest type, and we want bids, suggestions and samples of the” last word “ in conduit system to carry ail service and lighting wires and cables for telephones, domestic and street lighting —maximum 250 b ouses, and complete ornamental street lighting system for 8 miles of streets, minimum conduit 5 miles. R. A. Ro wan&Co., H. W. Hellman Building, Lob Angeles, California. BOOKS. GET WISE—$1.00 BUYS SEVERANCE'S GREAT Work on Rapid Methods in Mental and Written Arithmetic, J92 pages; size Sent postpaid on receipt of price. D. . Severance, Detroit, Mich. FOR SALE. FOR SALE—A Patent Curtain Haneer or Holder where no pins, hooks or rings are needed. Full partic-e i 8 as Thompson Street, Bridesburg, Philadelphia, Pa. LOCAL REPRESENTATI VE WAN'l'ED.-Splendid income assured right man to act as our representative er learnng our business thoroughly by mai. Former experience unnecessary. All we require is honesty, ability, ambition and willingness to learn a lucrative business. No soliciting or traveling. This isan exceptional opportunity for a man in your section to get into a big paying business without capital and become independent for lite. Write at once for full particulars. Address E. R. Marden, Pres., The National Co-Operative Real Estate Company,L 378 Marden Build ing, Washington, D. C. PATENTS FOR SALE. FOR SALK-Patent No. 929,419. Burglar-proof sash-lock. A fortune can be marie from this patent. Price very moderate. No reasonable offer refused. Address L. H. Grau, 2590 Pine Street, san Francisco, Cal. WANTED. MUNN&CO. —Desires to secure the services of a competent patent attorney, wkilled in the preparation of patent specifications. Address llumi&Co., Patent Attorneys, 361 Broadway, New York City. October 28, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 397 The Aeroplane in Naval Service (Concluded from page 381,;) the deck of this boat and returns to it. It rises obliquely or in spirals above its floating nest, and having reached a variable height, according to the lucidity of the atmosphere, it can, on a clear day, discover the presence of the enemy on a horizon a hundred miles in diameter, while itself remaining invisible and unassailable. Then it can redescend upon its ship and, by means of wireless telegraphy, send the results of its observation to the friendly fleet a couple of hundred miles in the rear. Thus, ten hours before coming in contact with theenemy, the commanding admiral would know of the presence, the strength, and the position of his opponent, and would be able to evade or attack, to join another divi-ision of the fleet, or to commence a flanking movement, etc. At present we make use of wireless telegraphy alone. One or several scouts are sent ahead of the squadron. When they discover the enemy they are at close quarters, and even so they have a pretty poor view; they see from below, with a visual ray which grazes the sea and loses the relief, and at the same time it is necessary that they inform the commander-in-chief as soon as possible; the wireless is set to work, but it speaks without having seen or having seen but imperfectly. . . . The aeroplane, on the contrary, takes its survey overhead, undisturbed, and out of harm's way. It is the indispensable auxiliary of the wireless; it is the eye of the scout, as the radio-telegraph is his mouthpiece; the two elements complement each other; they are inseparable. But I insist on this point, that for its present use, as yet the aeroplane of the high seas be considered only as a “giant aerial periscope"; i. e., it must not go far from its point of support, it must not get out of sight of it, so that if any vexatious motor troubles occur, the convoy may immediately hasten 'to the succor of the poor shipwrecked bird. For our flying machine is not yet acclimated to extended maritime excursions, and over sea as over land the stoppage of the motor may happen suddenly. On -land this accident is of minor importance; a landing is made with more or less difficulty, but the landing is made; the injury is repaired, and you depart once more. But at sea the aeroplane which descends to the water because of motor trouble, even if provided with floats, is very probably not in a position to be repaired by the pilot. The aviator cannot leave his seat to change a spark plug or mend a feed-pipe. He cannot get off again by himself, at least with the present motors. * ... We have to-day flying machines, which fly as well over water as over land, if not better. Let us make use of them at once, such as they are; that is the most urgent point; and afterward we can apply ourselves to the long and arduous task of making them veritable sea birds, with untiring wings, masters of wind and wave. And to this end what is necessary? No great thing to begin with, and above all not many operators:—a few aviators with sufficient knowledge of the technique of aviation, a few carpenters and mechanicians, a much greater number of machines, naturally, than there are pilots, a repair shop, and a judiciously chosen aviation fleld on the seacoast in a favorable climate. Then, on the sea, a specially equipped cruiser, two torpedo boats, or better, two motor-boat scouts, and a tug. Maritime aviation exists already in latent fashion; to co-ordinate its elements and to how to set them in motion would be sufficient to endow the marine with this new service which might' be to it of so much assistance. Indoor Lighting, Natural and Artificial (Concluded from paye 385'.) that no light shall fall directly downward, and its glass sides shall be, at such an angle as to deflect the entering light * This can now be accomplished, thanks to a device mounted on the “ Canard” of Voisin, by which the pilot himself can start the motor without leaving his Beat.—Ed. as much as possible away from the vertical and all of the glass surfaces should be of a quality of glass that will cause a diffusion of the light. To make it impossible for the sun's rays to fall directly on the floor, and to direct the light toward the walls, the superstructure must have the form of a large prism, the top being entirely opaque, and the sides sloping at an angle of 30 degrees. With this construction the light is admitted only through the sloping sides, it is partially diffused and its principal force is directed toward the gallery walls. The under skylight or ceiling glass gives a further diffusion and if the quality is correctly selected, it will thus practically obscure the source of light from the observer's eye and if the color of the floor is made darker than that of the walls, the result is very satisfactory and' thetrue requirements are met without the introduction of a canopy or other objectionable screen, at least so far as daylight lighting is concerned. The artificial illumination equipment must necessarily be of a design that gives full consideration to the fundamental principles observed in connection with daylight lighting. Owing to our ability to direct and regulate the force of the light more readily under artificial conditions, we can, with this form produce results even more perfect with respect to diffusion and uniform wall intensity, than are possible under daylight illumination, perhaps not exactly reproduced, the quality and color of the daylight can be approximated closely. For many reasons electric lamp is the most suitable for interior lighting. A type, however, must be selected that will give a steady light and the electric wiring must be so planned as not to interfere with this condition. As in the case of the power of a water fall, the energy of light, if under control and suitably applied, will accomplish much, but if incorrectly used, its efforts may do more harm than good. Fig. 3 is an illustration of this latter condition, from which it will be seen that two brilliant electric lamps have been placed between the observer's eye and the objects which it was intended should be. lighted. Another mistake frequently made in lighting pictures, or other similar exhibits, is to use an electric lamp in a trough reflector, the whole device. being placed in front of one or more pictures, the idea being that a strong light is thus cast, and the source of light is screened from the observer's eye, all of which is true, but the effect is a very “spotted” picture. The best results from artificial lighting will be obtained when the light sources are entirely outside of the room in which the exhibits are displayed. Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate galleries of equal size where the artificial lighting has been so arranged and where the prism-shaped superstructure has been used to provide the best natural lighting. The photograph from which Fig. 2 is reproduced was taken by daylight only with a three-minute exposure, and it is clear from the reproduction that the principles governing the best interior lighting have been well carried out in this installation. The prism superstructure also serves another excellent purpose, for it provides a housing in which the simplest, but most effective artificial lighting equipment can be arranged. Within this space, specially constructed electric fixtures should be hung, the lamps being supported in rows, and at a uniform distance from the under glass. The fixtures themselves will thus be entirely screened, as the glass, when properly selected, will diffuse the entering light and practically nothing can be distinguished through this glass from below. The fixtures themselves being entirely screened can be made of the simplest pipe construction, thus involving a minimum of cost. By placing a concentrating type of opaque mirror reflector just back of each of the incandescent lamps and adjusting these lighting units at a pre-determinsd angle, numerous beams of light will be thrown directly on the walls of the room below, and by properly calculating the location of the lamps and their number, and by giving the inner surface of the mirror reflector a double angle, thus making its sectional form approach the "I can say that I have used Sanatogen in a great i^-ber of cases (that is, in those disturbances of metabolism which were mainly ol a nervous or neurasthenic j oiigin), and have obtained j excellent results." Emperor of Austria's P"'vate Physician j?^?"-general D -ktrzl of vienna: ' S “l have been usi g Sa natogen with £plend,d tes"Ite and recommend !t contmually and everywhere b^use I am ' ha°f tgh,y convinced rood-tonic. Those Praises of Sanatogen Set Me Thinking There is a thought-stimulating power in the earnest words of famous men and women who testify to the benefit they have received from the world's greatest food-tonic. They will set you thinking—they will remind you that nature has set limits to your endurance, and that when you have drawn too heavily upon your mental and bodily resources you must make good the loss. You cannot borrow continually from your strength account—you must pay back, and Sanatogen is the direct, natural and consistent means of restoring to jaded nerves and exhausted tissues the losses they have endured. Sanatogen the food-tonic is scientifically prepared to do this very thing.. Its splendidly combined body elements give it a natural, constructive, assimilative force in reaching weakness and in imparting strength. Sanatogen is a rebuilder. In place of the dangerous stimulation of a drug, it supplies a steady food-force that nourishes and gladdens the system. Fifteen thousand practising physicians bear written testimony to this unique and vital quality in Sanatogen. —Nothing will “set you thinking” like Sanatogen itself! We ask you earnestly to get acquainted with Sanatogen. Investigate our claims first if you like, and we are only too glad to have you do so. Ask your doctor about it, and in any case write at once for our book, “Our Nerves of Tomorrow,” written in an absorbingly interesting style, beautifully illustrated and containing facts and information of vital interest to you. This book also contains evidence of the value of Sanatogen which is as remarkable as it is conclusive. Sanatogen is sold in three sizes, $1.00, $1.90, $3.60 get sanatogen from your druggist ; if not obtainable from him, sent upon receipt of price, THE BAUER CHEMICAL CO 515 Everett Building, Union Sa.Ne'\olT York Hon. Shelby M. Cullom -I u. S. senator from 'l illinois, writes: M I can state that I have been decidedly | benefited by the use of ! your Sanatogen. I con-^ i aider this preparation j very valuable as a reconstructive of the nerv-/ “~'^Si^^ ous system." L i / /. ' / ^5^*5 L q A HOME-MADE 100-MILE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH SET Read Scientific American Supplement 1605 for a thorough, dear description, by A. Frederick Collins. Numerous adequate diagrams accompany the text. Price, 10 cents, by mail. Order from your newsdealer or il6ccunn&co., inc., 361 Broadway, N.Y. 1912 Copyright Edition AUTOLOG Is Free To Motor Car Owners and Users: This 1912 ^Copyrighted Edition is the most valuable book we have ever published. Justoff the press, and one copy only is yours for the asking, if you give the name of your Motor. The book not only tells you how to remedy all your Motor troubles on I Land, Air and Water, but ' what price you should pay for any and all supplies, beside s explaining the latest devices of merit, not shown in any other publication. Send postal card today to Kansas City Automobile Supply Co. 1527 Grand Avenue Kansas City, Mo. M Actual Size A DECIDEDLY unique Watch Fob. Metal gun inserted in stitched leather holster —- exact miniature of the weapon of the “gun-fighter” of the West. A Striking Novelty Be among the first to show this new idea in Watch Fobs. makes/fiends on sight. For sale by all up-to-date tobacconists, newsdealers, druggists and novelty stores. Mail us twenty-five cents (coin) and we will send you one of these unique fobs by return mail. five/or $1. charges paid. Alamo Leather&Novelty Company Dept. S. A. 425 Avenue D - SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS Overnight Between New York or Boston and Chicago Save a business day and enjoy a perfect night's rest over the comfortable Water Level Route' ' via the x 20th Century M Limited =1 Lv. New York 4.00 i Lv. Boston Ar. Chicago 2.30F 1.30 Ki. 8.55 m. M. a. Lv. Chicago Ar. Boston 11.50 m. Ar. New York 9.25 M. 398 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAA October 28, 1911 many who worn Jaeger Underwear do not need to be told of The few who should lose no time in adopting it, as it benefits pocket as well as health in the end. A// weights for a// wants Dr. Jaeger's S. W. S. Co.'s Own Stores New York: 306 Fifth Avenue, 22 Maiden Lane. Brooklyn : 504 Fulton St. Boston : 228 Boylsion St. Philadelphia: 1516 Chestnut St. Chicago: 126 N. State St. Agents in all Principal Cities. For over 60 years has been acknowledged to be an absolutely reliable pen. The “Swan Safety” NEVER LEAKS— and ALWAYS WRITES. all Stationers and Jewelers. I'rices $2.50 and t MABIE, TODD CO. V Maiden Lane, New York; 209 S. State St.,Chicago Loudon, Paris, Brussels, Sydney. CRUDE ASB ESTOS DIRECT FROM MI NES R. H. MARTIN, OFFICE. ST.PAUL BUILDING 220B'way, New York. PREPARED ASBESTOS FIBRE for anufacturers use Water Raised to Any Height' and in big quantities without pumping expense or bother with automatic Rife Rams. Raise water 30 feet for of fall no trouble or /, ________________ pumping expense. Satisfaction guaranteed. RI FUEE RIFE ENGINE CS., 2538 Trinity Blflg. N.Y. S EiLiEiVUVll* Dynamos SPECIAL Grinders MACHINES Polishers ROTH ELECTRIC MOTORS 1 98 Loomis Street, Chicago. Ills. The University of Chicago Correspondence-Study Dept. HOME STUDT 19th Year offers 350 claas-room courses to non-res-do for i i for Teachera, Writers, Accountants,Bankers, Business Men, Ministers, SocialWorkers, Etc. Begin any time. U.of C.(Div. 9)Chicajo.m Your PATENTS and BUSINESS io ARIZONA Incorporate Laws the most liberal. Expense: the least. Hold meetings, transact business anywhere. Blanks. By-Laws and forms for making stock full-paid for cash. property or services. free. President Stoddard, FORMER SECRETARY OF ARIZONA. resident agent for many thousand companies. Reference: Any bank in Arizona. STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, Box 8000 PHOENIX, ARIZONA Build Your Own Motor —* m a set of pur castings. Motorcycle, larine or Stationary. Our attach- able outfits fit any wheel. Send stamp for particulars. Steffey Mfg. Co. 2941 . Girard Ave. Philadelphia, Pa. i. safe, very i brilliant, powerful, steady, white light. Is better than electricity or acetylene ^ and cheaper than kero-| Bene. Kverylamplsa complete self-con-tuined miniature ligrht works. I Clean—bright— odorless -portable. Made in over 200 styles for every pur-1 pose. Fully guaranteed. Catalogfree. Agents wanted. THE BEST LIGHT CO. 87 E. 5th Street Canton, O. line of the true parabola, we will obtain the greatest benefit from each unit of illumination provided. The photograph from which Fig. 1 is reproduced was taken entirely by the artificial light provided by an overhead electric lighting equipment of this kind, and it is interesting to note that while the exposure in this instance was the same as that of Fig. 2 (three minutes) the diffusion of the light, in the case of Fig. 1 is superior to that obtained from Nature's lighting and the relative intensities of illumination of the interior surfaces of the room in Fig. 1 more nearly accord with perfect conditions, the intensity on the wall surface being almost exactly uniform throughout. This latter result is accomplished in a very interesting way, for as stated before, the force of the light from the incandescent lamps is thrown directly on the walls, but the beams of light are so adjusted that the fringe of one overlaps that of the next, all of which in turn are diffused as they pass through the ceiling glass. An observer standing underneath the ceiling glass, looking upward, can scarcely detect the position of the sources of the light, so nearly are 'they screened by the underside of the opaque reflectors. A comparison of Figs. 1, 2, and 3 brings out clearly the importance of eliminating the source of light from the field of vision and the need for a uniform intensity of illumination on the wall surfaces, also, the fact that artificial illuminating equipment can be planned for interior lighting that will produce results very closely approximating the best to be had under natural lighting conditions. This application of illumination might suitably be termed directed-indirect lighting and its field is almost unlimited for interior use. A Landsman's Log Aboard the Battleship “ North Dakota “-11 (Concluded from page 391.) Philip, whose “Don't cheer, boys, the poor fellows are dying! “ as it rang down from the bridge when the “Texas” drew up to one of the sunken Spanish cruisers after the Santiago fight, was one of the finest expressions of the spirit of the navy that ever became a classic. Times have changed since then, and people too. Certainly the navy has changed, and in nothing so greatly as in its gunnery. I crawled around the ship looking for broken metal, whose white fractures would show that they were recent and had been made by the “Delaware” in that day's firing. There they were—holes near the channel plate, where the shots had entered, and exit holes near the water line on the lee side of the ship, where they had left it. There must have been others—I had no time to look for them. Indeed, I was perfectly satisfied to find this much evidence that projectiles fired at these unprecedented ranges had struck the diminutive mark afforded by this little ship, whose freeboard in her sunken condition was not more than ten or twelve feet. The “Delaware,” in hitting the “San Marcos” at eight to ten mile ranges, had done incomparably finer shooting than the whole fleet at Santiago, which made less than four per cent at a twojmile range. Then it was “all aboard” for the “Delaware,” and after another four or five mies of nautical gymnastics (the behavior of these steam cutters in the lumpy seas of the Chesapeake and on the southern drill grounds wa,s something that must be seen and felt to be under-stood—our particular boat did everything on that trip but stand on its head and sit up on its stern), we boarded the “Delaware,” to hear its gunnery officers and everybody else connected with the ship bewailing the fact, forsooth, that they had not done better shooting! To me the work, in view of the great range, had seemed to be truly wonderful. As I was merely a landsman,' however, I had to be content to believe that they considered their shooting to have been indifferent, and that by giving more time between salvos for the spotter's directions to be . plotted and sent to the gun stations, they could have greatly bettered the performances. It is this setting of an exceedingly high standard—this determination to be satisfied with nothing short of the best possible results—that enables our ships to shoot accurately and swiftly at ranges that are not attempted in any other navy in the world. “The first salvo that lands will practically win the fight,” is a statement that I heard frequently repeated during that two weeks' cruise with the Atlantic fleet; and I saw enough, that day, to satisfy me that, as matters stand, our ships would drop their shells upon an enemy long before he could hope to make any effective reply.
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