For centuries men dominated academic science and engineering. Gender bias once greatly imperiled the progress of any woman inclined to pursue science, technology, engineering or math (STEM). Over the past 40 years, however, society has gradually begun to accept, if not embrace, the notion of the female biologist, mathematician or engineer, and the number of women in science at all levels has increased dramatically. In the early 1970s women received 29 percent of bachelor's degrees and 10 percent of Ph.D.s in STEM. By 2011 women held just over half of STEM bachelor's degrees, about the same as their proportion of high school graduates, and 41 percent of Ph.D.s.