One of the most ambitious and extreme experiments on Earth opened at the South Pole in 2010. IceCube, a giant particle detector buried in the polar ice, captures elusive, high-energy species of neutrinos—fundamental particles that fly straight through almost everything they touch. The project, for which I am the principal investigator, aims to use neutrinos to study distant cosmic phenomena—particularly the mysterious, violent processes thought to produce the charged particles known as cosmic rays, which continually bombard Earth.