The annexed engravings represent a section and top view of the invention ot Messrs. Hy-polite Uhry, and Henry A. Luttgens, both of Patterson, N. J., for overheating steam within the smoke box of locomotive engines for the purpose of improving the working of steam in cylinders with outside connection. It is well understood in practice that con densation of steam within cylinders of loco motives is a great disadvantage, not only in reducing the effective pressure upon the steam side of the piston, but also in creating a formi dable back pressure upon the exhaust side by the obstruction which is, by small particles of water, imposed upon the efflux of steam through the exhaust cavities. In Daniel Kinnear Clarks' " Treatise on the Mechanical Engineering of Railways," the author, discussing the first part of the question, " the difference of pressure on the steam side of the piston," says, on page 107, that the difference of pressure with in boiler and cylinder amounts in some cases from 25 to 30 per cent., where in well pro tected cylinders the difference is reduced to a small fraction, and in one instance page 105, the relative pressures within the boiler and steam chest are like 98 to 101, which was j cause;', by an incidental overheating of steam within the smoke box in steam pipes ot ordi nary construction ; the author on making his deductions from experiments on the subject remarks:—" It has been seen how by well protected cylinders, and especially by well dried steam, this reduction of pressure may be extinguished, and the tractive power oj the engine fully maintained at all speeds." This separate heating ol steam in the smoke box introduces us into a new field of inquiry,, flues attached to the flue sheet, C ; D is the steam pipe which leads the steam from the boiler into the throttle valve, E, which has as usual a cover, s, which is necessary for the ! finishing of the valve seat, and putting in of the V valve. Flanch, t, surrounds the regula tor, E, to receive the apparatus which carries, a corresponding flanch, r. The main body of the apparatus is of cast-iron, being provided with a flanch, u, to receive the sheet iron bot tom, , which is riveted to the flanch, u,— Plate v may be of cast-iron and in that case it is cast in one piece, with the main body of the apparatus, F, which does away with the flan ges, and considerably simplifies the fitting, also giving more space for the flues, p. The the centre line of the chimney, Which arrange-; ment may also be adopted in the case where ; the flue, K, is of brass or copper, when also the length of the exhaust pipes, H, may be reduced j to the clotted line, T. Within the appaiatus and below the throttle valve, there are two : partitions, X X, equi-distant from the centre,; ! and being cast in one piece with the main body, F, these partitions may be extended and ' as to which we shall now only say that if means can be devised for economically sur charging the steam after it leaves the boiler, converting it into what has been called "an hydrous ste m," or "stame," much benefit may be anticipated from such a course. On the figures the same letters of reference refer to like parts. G is the smoke box attached to the cylin drical part of a locomotive boiler; B are the ase so formed is from 4 to 8 inches high, ac cording to the size of the smoke box, and is perforated with as many flues, p, as can be got in, in accordance with the strength of the cast-iron, there is however one larger flue, K, of copper or brass in this case about 7 inches inside diameter, which allows the exhaust pipes, H H, to discharge the steam into the chimney. This latter flue, K, in case the bot tom, v, is cast solid with the main body of the apparatuses likewise of cast-iron, and is cast in one piece with, F. In the latter case though the copper flues together with the main body of the apparatus may with advan tage be put at an angle, it is more correct to have thecentreline of the flue K,ina line with placed at greater distances from one another; their object is to insure a better circulation of steam between tho flues, or to prevent the steam from immediately passing into the steam pipes, J. Plate q is attached below the apparatus, which plate if looked upon from the side in contact with the apparatus, repre sents a surface perforated with holes exactly corresponding with the flues of the apparatus, which holes are bevelled to sharp edges on the opposite side for the purpose of easing the current of air; this plate may be cast in one with the apparatus, or be bolted to it, accord ing to the space allowed to the latter, as in the case where the plate, q, interferes with the removal of the upper row of boiler flues, it ought to permit of an easy removal. In case that the throttle valve is inside the boi ler, the apparatus is bolted directly to the flue sheet. Though this construction of an apara-tus is considered by the inventors to be the most simple and easy for repair, they are aware that the perforations may assume many different shapes and still answer as far as the heating of steam is concerned. The part of the apparatus subjected to the current of air may also be composed of a row or rows of wrought iron or copper tubes, their ends ter minating into three chambers of which the first around the throttle valve is designed to distribute the steam and the two others, one on each side of the smoke base, to deliver the heated steam into the steam pipes communi cating with the cylinders; it will be found that where the throttle valve is within the smoke box, the space allowed for this latter ar rangement is too narrow and even where the throttle valve is in the boiler, the arrange ment forms a greater obstruction to the draft, has less heating surface, and is inferior to the one represented in the engravings. There is a third arrangement which may be thus un derstood ; by introducing a second flue sheet, dotted lines P, say 4 to 8 inches from the end ot the boiler near the smoke box, a partition will be formed which excludes the water, if then an iron sheet (dotted lines, o,) is sus pended in the centre between the flue sheets fitting tight to the cylindrical part of the boi ler, steam being introduced, it will be made to circulate around the flues before entering the throttle valve, but this would probably im pose a duty upon the flues, without which they would be found more durable. This ar rangement may also be attached as a separate apparatus in front of the boiler, but it would meet with the aversion of the engineer from the fact that it would prevent an easy access to the main flues or in other words would require the removal of the apparatus as often as a leakage ot the main flues would require these to be repaired. There are two principal conditions which have to be complied with to insure success to the contrivance. 1. Can the apparatus be easily removed or attached 1 The flanches, t and r, are at sufficient distance from the flue sheet to allow of easy access to the lower bolts which connect the apparatus with the throttle valve, this, however, is not the case with the upper bolts, it will therefore be found that the bolts, nnn, extend the whole length of the regulator, resting in recesses open at the top ; the nuts of these bolts are below the chimney, and the engineer by in troducing his arm through the large flue, K, will find no difficulty in tightening these bolts; the lower part af the apparatus fully clears the boiler flues, and is merely the plate, 2, in case it extends much below the appara tus near the end of the smoke box which re quires to be replaced. 2. Does it spoil or im prove the draft ? Assuming the space above the apparatus to form a part qf the chimney, every exhaust from the cylinders will, as usual, form a certain vacuum below the smoke pipe, and immediately generate a cur rent of air through the fines, p, the air project ed towards the oblique angle of the smoke box, will be thrown towards the centre of the apparatus above the large flue, K, ready to be thrown out by the following exhaust, the short intervals between the exhaust cannot destroy the action of this principle. Through the better condition of the exhausted steam the vacuum will be considerably improved without counter pressure on the piston. Measures have been taken to secure a pa tent. More information may be obtained by letter addressed to the inventors. The French Courts do not allow milkmen ;o sell water for milk. A farmer of Cnrbeil who had been sending milk to Paris, or what pretended to be milk, when one-third of it was water, was recently fined a hundred francs and sentenced to a month's imprison ment.
This article was originally published with the title "Super-Heating Steam in Locomotives"