TheMillionth Patent UNMARKED by any pomp or ceremony and with a lack of ostentation that seemed totally inappropriate to the importance of the occasion, the one millionth patent was issued on Tuesday, August 8th. The wheel of chance which decided the recipient of the epoch-making patent-for the record number was awarded to the patent which happened to be on the top of the pile when the numbering machine passed the 999,999 figure-decided in favor of Frank H. Holton, of Akron, Ohio, who had applied for exclusive rights to manufacture and sell an improvement on inflated automobile tires. It was fitting that this patent, in itself a monument to progress, should have been awarded to an improvement on the automobile, for thero is probably no single recent invention which has done so much to mark American progress or to show the world the prosperity of the United States. The presentation of the patent was marked by a most undue democratic simplicity. It was thought at first that there would be no official recognition of the event at all, but Mr. Holton came on from Akron to receive the patent at the' hands of Commissioner Moore. The fact that the Secretary of the Interior had made plans to tour the reclamation projects of the West during August precluded his attending the presentation of the patent, and he evinced much disappointment at not being able to be present. The mere statement that the issue of patents has passed the million mark is, in itself, enough to provoke wonder, but a comparison of the number of patents issued in other countries-centuries older than the United States-brings to light many interesting figures. Prance comes nearest to the United States in the number of licensed inventions, 430,000 being approximately the number of her patents. Great Britain is next with 416,000; Germany has issued 236,000; Belgium, 228,-000; Canada, 126,000; Italy and Sardinia, 94,000, and Austria-Hungary, 68,000. All the other countries of .the world have issued less than 60,000 patents each, so that the United States may easily be said to have licensed more inventions than any two nations put together, and that her total exceeds that of Great Britain, Ger-· many, Belgium and Italy by several thousand. Perhaps it is because the :' American” is truly a cosmopolite, a mixture of all the bloods of the world, that this nation has so far surpassed others in inventions, but true it is that the majority of the important discoveries of science and the greatest labor-saving machines first saw the light of day in the United States and that the documents granting their inventors the exclusive right to manufacture and sell them are to-day reposing in the Patent Office at Washington. Among the historic documents in the Patent Office library are the specifications and models for the steamboat, the telegraph, the telephone, the cotton gin, the mowing and reaping machine, the impr;ved automobile, the aeroplane, nnd countless other machines the invention of which has lightened the labor of the world and improved its method of locomotion, correspondence and living to an almost incalculable degree. There exists in the Patent Office library at Washington the first patent ever issued in this country, shortly after the close of the Revolution. It is a queer document, this first patent, quaintly worded and with many a turn and twist of chirography peculiar to our forefathers. It was issued t Samuel Hopkins, July 31st, 1790, for a device for making pot and Dearl ashes. The archives of the department show that the issuance of a patent in those days was a state occasion. The President and cabinet met in solemn conclave and, after having deliberated upon whether it was proper for the inventor to have the sole right to the manufacture of the child of his brain, presented him with the papers bestowing this privilege upon him. Hopkins was warmly congratulated by President Washington and the event was recorded in all the diaries of those present. Thus it was for some time afterward. Every inventor had to submit his appeal for a patent directly to the Presidont, and it was acted upon by the entire cabinet. The consequence was that patents came few and far between and the year 179: saw only three of these documents issued. Besides the one to Hopkins, one was granted to Joseph S. Sampson for th( manufacture of candles and the other to Oliver Evans for the manufacture of flour and meal. All three of these were issued and signed by George Washington. Several other patents were issued and signed during the administration of the first President, but the records are not clear as to their number. Washington, himself a patron of the arts, was liberal and generous in his rulings concerning the issuance of patents, but President Jefferson, fearing that government grants might have the effect of promoting private monopolies, was particularly strict in his censorship of patents. Dr. William Thornton, an Englishman by birth, and formerly a clerk in the State Department, was the first Superintendent of Patents appointed. It was his duty to see that all the applications for patents were made in the proper form and that it was right that they should be granted. The actual issuance of the papers, however, was still retained in the hands of the President and the cabinet. Dr. Thornton's salary at the time he was first appointed was $1,400 a year. His term of office dated from May, 1802, and lasted twenty-four years. The Patent Office as it exists to-day was established by an act of Congress of July 4th, 1836, and the first Commissioner of Patents was Henry L. Ellsworth, of Connecticut. It was coincident with the establishment of the Patent Office that the searching system came into vogue. This consists in looking through all the fles of the office to see if any patent similar to the one applied for has previously been granted. This had not been done previous to 1836, as no adequate force had been available to perform the work. The year 1836 also marks the commencement of the present series of patents, numbered consecutively. Before this time 9,902 patents had been issued, but no record had been kept of their consecutive-ness. These were, therefore, disregarded in the establishment of a new system and the first patent of this series was awarded to John Ruggles, July 13th, 1836, for a .locomotive engine. It is rather a strange coincidence that Patent No. 1 and Patent No. 1,000,000 should both have been awarded to improvements in the foremost modes of locomotion of their times and that these inventions mark the progress of two machines which represent the highest form of power transference then known. From 1836 to the present time the number of patents issued has been steadily increasing until at the present time it is not unusual to see from 500 to 700 issued during a single week. An example of the enormous increase in the number granted can be found in the fact that Patent No. 500,000-awarded to E. S. Hyde for an improvement on sewerage-was issued on June 20th, 1893-only eighteen years ago\ Thus it took fifty-seven years to afcumulate the first half million patents and only eighteen years to gatl:r the last half million. Truly is this a wonderful growth, both in inventive ability as well as in recognition of this ability by the government, for in the first two decades of the system very few patents, com paratively speaking, were issued, the Jefer-sonian prejudice against government aid of private monopolies not having died. For each patent issued the government charges a fee of $35-$15 upon the filing of the application and $20 upon notice that the same has been granted, regardloss of the length of the specifications or the complexity of the invention. That this charge is extremely reasonable may be seen from the fact that every patent of the million and more stored away in the vaults of the department has to be gone over to discover if the application will conflict with any existing patent, or if tlie idea is such that a patent canno^fc be granted on it. This work, through a'complicated system of filing, is to-day rondered comparatively easy, though two deeades ago it was considered a tremendous task, although the patents were not half so “numerous at that time. From the first Superintendent of Patents in 1802 to the present Commissioner of Patents is a long step. Many changes have taken plnce during this time, but it is considered that the Patent Office to-day presents an example of a highly specialized and finely organized institution where the papers relating to any patent may be secured at a moment's notice and where there is not much difficulty in discovering whether an invention has been patented before or whether there is any other diff-culty in tho way of its being patented at the present time. When the first patent was issued the President of the United States made the grant, as we have seen, while the record was written by a clerk in the State Department. Then followed the Patent Board, composed of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War and the Attorney General. This was continued until 1836, when the first Commissioner of Patents was appointed, and this office has remained in force until the present day, Edward Bruce Moore being the present occupant of the chair. Mr. Moore has worked his way up to his present position from the rankE. His frst position in the Patent Office was that of Patent Examiner, in 1883, and he has remained constantly in the service of the department from that time to this. Before being appointed to his present position he was sent as a special commissioner to the Paris exhibition of H)OO. In 1907 he was appointed Commissioner of Patents and was sent as the special representative of the United States to the International Conference for the Protection of Industrial Property in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1908. He 31so served in a like capacity at the Fourth International Conference of American States at Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1910, and was the presiding American official at the recent International Patent Conference, held at Washington. Notes for Inventors A Laborer's Fireless Cooker.-A workman in a western city recently made an ingenious application of the laws of chemistry to his own purpose. A few minutes before noon a labore: on one of the big buildings then being constructed, proceeded to heat his coffee for lunch without the aid of a fire or even the use of a match. He took a bottle from his pail, and with it went to the wooden contrivance in which mortar was mixed. He put about half a shovelful of sand in a corner of the mortar-bed, having previously scraped that part of the bed dry and clean. Then he took a piece of lime about as large as his two fists. He pushed the lump of lime down into the yielding sand, put his bottle upright on the lime, banked up the bottle with sand to hold !t in position, and was ready for the important part of the work. Dipping about a pint of water from a barrel near by, he poured it on the molded sand easily, allowing it to percolate through the coarse grains. Putting on a little more sand to hold the bottle in position, he we11t back to his work. In ten minutes the noon whistle blew, nnd the laborer went to his fireless heater, took from it his coffee, boiling hot, in a bottle that had at no time hoon in danger of breaking in the heat, and proceeded to enjoy his meal. The Lure of Invention.—The lure of invention is one that influences all people and spares no class or condition of men. From the clergyman in his study to the convict in his lonely cell, it exerts its attraction, and both are found enrolled nmong the list of patentees, although not so precisely identified. The stimulus is not always the hope of fee or reward, for we find the millionaire as strongly interested as the very poor. There is something in the attraction that cannot be resisted. Someone has said that writing is like firting. If you cannot do it, no one can teach you to do it, and if you can do it, no one can keep you from doing it. So it is with invention; no one can teach you to do it, and if you have the divine afflatus, no one can prevent you from exercising it. This is fortunate; for the inventor is subjected many times to discouraging influences in the first instance. Have you ever noticed, however, the pride with which anyone will display an invention even of the simplest character? Surely this is commendable, for we all admire originality, and invention is originality, often of the highest order. While the lure may be regarded apart from the results, we cannot help realizing what a poor world this would be except for the benefcent works of the inventors of all times. A Swimming Apparatus.—John G. Alfier and Manuel J. Maneas of Oakland, Cal., have patented No. 998,146, a swimming appliance, in which a harness is applied to the swimmer and carries at tho back, near the shoulder blades, pivoted paddles which are connected up by means of cords with the legs of the fser, so the motions of the legs in swimming will also operate the paddles. A Cooper Hewitt P a t e nt.-Peter Cooper Hewitt of Ringwood Manor, N. J., assignor to Cooper Hewitt Electric Company of New York, has issued patent No. 998,175, for improvoments in the starting and operating of mercury vapor apparatus, in which is employed an hermetically sealed and completely exhausted container with a number of electrodes in it, including an anode and a vaporizable reconstructing cathode with a platinum wire sealed to the wall of the container and lying above and below the surface of the wall of the electrode, with a starting band outside the container with current supplying means and means for applying a momentary high-voltage impulse to the electrodes to accomplish the starting. Mercury to Weight a Fishing Line.-Fishermen will be interested in a fishing line which has mercury ineorporated in its texture in order to inerease the weight of the line. The patent is No. 998,341, and was granted to a resident of Ben Rhydding, England. A Self-protecting Check.-A self-protecting eheck is shown in a patent, No. 998,332, to Arthur J. Farmer of Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. The check has a number of separate signature spaces, and different limiting amounts are inscribed on the different Spa(eS, so the signature of the drawer of the check on any space will indicate that the amount of the cheek is not above the amount inseribed on such space. The Need of Bats and “Billies."-There appears to be a call for better baseball bats and improved batons or “billies” for poliee use. Only a few weeks ago the property clerk of one of our large cities was eomplaining of the breaking of the police batons when used upon the head of a resisting prisoner or when rapped upon the pavement; and now Hans Wagner, the popular baseball professional, is quoted as saying “A perfect bat has never been made amd never will be.” N ow he may be right as to what has been, but he is rash in his prediction, for none can say what may be. It is possible that future improvements in the national game may be most pronounced in the equipment of the bats and balls. Wanted: A Sounding Buoy That Will Sound in Still Water.-A sounding buoy which will souml when the water is still would be an important improvement. Such buoys, whether of the bell or whistle variety, are caused to operate by the movement of the water. In foggy or thick weather the water is usually still, and the buoys will not be caused to sound. Manifestly, the buoys are more useful in foggy or thick weather than when the weather is clear. Some of these buoys are large and heavy, weighing as much as twenty tons, the size and weight being necessary to compress the air for operating whistles, whoso tubes are sometimes as large as eighteen inehes in diameter, and for storing the carbide to furnish the gas for the light, the buoys being frequently combination sound and light buoys. While the problem may be somewhat eomplicated, it does not seem unreasonable to think that a huoy may be provided which will sound by the movemEmt of the water in a high sea, and will also sound when the water is comparatively still. A Woman's Score-sheet for Pivot Bridge.-A woman's interest in bridge is shown 1 a patent, No. 998,167, Issued to Alice N Gardiner of Haverhill, Mass., for a PIvot b rl·d ge score-sh eet wh I· e h h as t wo f old s, one 0f wh I· eh I·S d1·v·de d mto sectI· ons correspondmg In numb er t 0 the number of players, so the names of the players and the totals of the respective players may be placed in the separate sections, while the other field is divided into sectiolls corresponding to the predetermined number of rubbers, eaeh of sueh seetions receiving the seore for one rubber and the name of one of the players. A Peculiar Patent Claim.-As an instance of peculiar claims, a recent patent, No. 998,156, for a blue vat dye, is interesting. The first of the claims of the patent reads: “The herein described new dyestuffs having probably the following general formula,” followed by a formula; while the second claim reads: “ The herein described new dyestuff having probably the formula,” followed by the formula. The use of the word “probably” in the elaims seems an unusual one, but possibly the invention was one difficult to define in conventional terllls. Metal Cul v erts.-There is considerable' activity in metallic culverts, and Charles j A. loster of Portland, Ore., has patented, No. 997,:82, a culvert strueture having a number of culvert seetions seeured together side by side and in whieh a transversely corrugated base plate has upturned side :anges and an intermediate .:ange, and! arehed top members each engaging the intermediate flange and a corresponding side :ange. Mr. Foster has also issued a culvert patent, No. 997,383, including a spiral form of abutment comprising a plurality of complementary corrugated plates which are :anged for eonnection with the culvert. A New Knight Patent.-A German auto-mobile paper contains a notice of a new Knight valveless or sleeve valve engine, whose novel feature appears to be in the arrangement Of the inlet and outlet ports on the same SIde of the cylmder and m such position as to open both said ports ! into the hcad above the extreme working stFoke of the engine. We are not aware of the iS3ue of a United States patent for the improvement. The mere opening of both ports into the head appears to be sh wn n the English patent No. 16,289, of Hi09, although :n such patent the ports are located on opposite sides of the cylinder. A Matter of Clothing.-Is there any reason why we Americans, admitted to be the most ingenious people in the world, should suffer as our men do in the summer season because of our unreasonable style of dress? Notice a group of men and women in summer; while the women are attired in their cotton or linen garments,. the men will have on coats as warm as those worn by many women in the depth of winter. No one has as yet been able to devise or suggest any acceptable summer dress for men, who continue summer after summer to swelter in warm woolen garments. Is this not a fit subject for invention? A Telephone Repeater.-William Anderson of Longdale, Okla., has patented No. 997,.84, a telephone repeater, in which a repeater is in the telephone eireuit and is automatically operative in either direction of transmission. The repeater includes two transmitters and two receivers and two inductoriums. The transmitters are conneeted with the primaries of the indue-toriums, and the reeeivers being eonneeted with eaeh other are also eonnected with opposite secondaries of the inductoriums. A Starting and Alighting Gear for Flying Machines.-Matthew B. Sellers of Baltimore, Md., who has givAn mueh time and thought to aviation, has just secured a I patent, No. 997,860, for improvements in :ying machine. The machine has a series of planes arranged in stepped form and yieldingly supported at their rear edges, and the ehassis has both wheels and runners, the wheels being held in a relatively I low position in starting by means including I conneetions with the draft devices, and j the wheels are automatically released and n1 ted aft er th e mac h·ne: I eaves th e groun d and held elev ated relatively to the runner s, so the mach.ne may run on the w heels I. s t ar tl· llg an d W I· 11 a1 I· gh t on th e runners. An Edison Phonograph Improvement.- Thomas A. Edison has in a patent, No. 996,625, provided a new phonograph reprodueer seeking to avoid the friction of the I stylus sliding over the record by making the stylus in tho form of a roller or ball and rotatably supporting the ball so that it will press upon and roll along the record surface. The patent also prOVIdes a support for the stylus which enalile.s it to rotate WIth a mlUllum amount of frict.on. Legal Notes Foreign Words as Trade-marks.-In passing upon the registrability of the Spanish word “Elegancia” as a trademark for wine, the Commissioner of Patents in ex parte Julius Wile, Sons&Company reiterates tho well-settled doctrine that the foreign equivalent of a descriptive word is not registrable. The Commissioner's Powers Defned.- In the case of Cosper v. Gold and Gold and Cosper v. Gold, the Court of Appeals of the Distriet of Columbia has held that where in an interferenee involving more than two parties the Commissioner of Patents deeides that one of the parties is not the first inventor, sueh decision is fnal, but is appealable to the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia; also that where the Commissioner affirms a deeision dissolving an interferenee on the ground that one of the parties thereto has no right to make the claims, the Commissioner had jurisdietion to enter an order that such party is not the first inventor. Mandamus and the Commissioner.-The Supreme Court of the District of Columbia by Justice Barnard has just deeided in the sase of Lang v. Moore, Commissioner of Patents, that where a claim was finally •ejected which was not identical with the ilaIm presented, but which the Commis- Possibilities of Motor Trucks U nlimited D HERE is practically no limit to the possibilities of m otor-d riven trucks -*"-l in the busin es s world. Ever y man who has a cartage problem must feel a personal interest in knowing The White Company have hundreds of trucks in operation in almost every conceivable kind of business-under practically every known condition-and there is not a single owner to whom we could not refer a prospective buyer-not one but has found White trucks to exceed his expectations. Inc re a se d Wite trucks serve their owne rs , frst c . of aJI, by increasing the service. They Service make it possible to do things you have never done before-to secure trade you were unable to reach -to be prompt where you were compelled to be dilatory before-to increase your service and thereby increase your business. Increased Under the majority of conditions, T^ White trucks increase the economy Economy of your del;very-not aJways-there are conditions where trucks only increase the service. The truck replaces two or three teams-is not as expen s ive to maintain as two teams and requires no more men to operate than one team, saving salaries. White Trucks-The Solution j White trucks secure these results because they are well designed for economy's sake,having a long-stroke, medium-bore engine, which is powerful while [ economical. They are built for economy's ske because the best materials modern science has produced is used in them-the special alloys of steel, heat-treated, that are best suited to each of the var ious purposes to which they are put. White trucks, made in three sizes, with standardized engines in all types, are adapted j to any business, any special or unusual requirements. I i Let us submit a solution of your delivery problem, jj with catalogue and testimonials of the world's largest users. J: c 0 The White IKfe Company 838 East 79th Street, Cleveland 154 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN August 12, 1911 DAHLSTROM MET ALLIe DOORS and TRIM bring forth a powerful editorial from a great newspaper THE PHILADELPHIA EVENING ITEM Progress in Fire Protecti on The Phila. Evening Item• SIXTY.FOURTH YEAR, “The Paper of the People. “ Philadelphia, Pa., .uly 10, 1911. We are in receipt of a kind letter from the Rochester (N. Y.) Chamber of Commerce, by its President, Albert B. Eastwood, in which we are assured o the appreciation by that body Uof your : plendid editorial, entitledr 'Public Rising to Pre!;nt Fir:.'” * * ; Tha; the “Rochester Chamber of Commerce is by that editorial stimulated to carry on this work aggressively, not promiscuously, for the country at large, but for the results to be obtained within the limits of the City of Rochester. '4 our example will stimulate other tommunities to like activity, this stupendous tre waste tan be somewhat checked." We reproduce that letter in part as an instance of a popular aprising among the business iIterests all over the country to reduce our enormous fire losses, losses which the present year Ihows to be largely on the increase. In connection h ith this subject we have just received, with tlie pner sonal com plime1ts off its author, F. W. Fitzpatrick, consuIting architect, formerly of Uni ted States Service, etc., ent itled, “Fire and Fire Losses,” a handsome work most care;ul1y prepared for Instructive purposes. Mr. Fitzpatrick says fire is the most dreaded of devastators· “it has been used in war for discharging weapons, and in its crud; 6tate, so to speak, as an auxiliary which ranks with carnage and rapme. "In the form of conflagrations, it has supplied some of the mort spectacular and memlrable and saddest events in history.” Mr. Fitzpatnck very properly puts the weight of his argument for fire prevention upon the tre-resisting construction of buildings. I.n connection with that conclusion, which is practically !nanimous among those :ho :a;e made a Study of :he matter, we recently gave !nsiderable time to an examination oi the recent development of using drawn steel in the place of the i- terO, wood wo,k 01 dwelling and olce buildings; ad lo, inted"r furniture in both classes of buildings, and for interior railway car work. ;: be frank about it. we were greatly astonished at the BE A UTY, STYLE AflD FINISB O F TBS S TEE L INTERI O R WORK. whicb is now in use aboard steamships for stateroom and :::: : ntenor work, as well as in the other cases above mentioned^ This ;nterio, “eel wo,k cannot be detected by visible inspector!. I m so closely resembles the finest wood work, both in d-Slg n . grain, rounded edges, and inlaid ornamentations. that the occupier of a room so fitted up would not suspect, were be not told' lhat be was not surrounded by the finest wood work producible. Then, tOO',this steel interior work is used for practically every purpose—flooring S xcepted-fne or plain woods are used for, Of course, It is firepro 18 f, will not burn, and overcomes that compla .nt of fireptoof bullding .onstructor I who have said: I How tOn “e fakt a buifinf fireproof when its occupants fill it up I with infla!mable furniture;f ! For :indow f:ramf:, ;rs ant frames, i otting, walls and ceiling, and Tll interior :ork, this bAWN STIEL iS , MADE AS BEAUTIFUL A THE FINEST CAB INET FINISH I OF THE BEST TROPICAL WmOO DS. An d far more beautiful i artistic work Is possible 10 sha ping this steel than could be worked ouil m Wood. I In fact, artistic deSIgns in thIS steel, as beautiful to-day as I they are. m study and practice are in theiI ifancy. The preceding excerpt can give but the faintest idea of the beauty and utility of the Dahl. strom Products. We are the originators of this class of work and have developed drawn steel construction to its highest efficiency. The Dahlstrom Prod:cts are to be found in the structures exemplifying “fireproof reality” such as The Singer Building, New York; William Hunter High School, Philadelphia; First National Bank Building, Denver; Amicable Life Insurance Building, Waco, Texas; U. S. Battleships Florida and Utah, and so on. "Buildings as They Should Be" -a book, fully describes the Dahlstrom Products. To the interested a copy free for 6 cents postage. DAHLSTROM METALLIC DOOR COMPANY Executive Offices and Factories, 27 Blackstone Avenue, Jamestown, New York Branch Offices in all Principal Cities PEN PERFECTION. S*^,. The “Swan Safety” ^- Every particle of material used in the manufacture of this pen is of the finest possible quality. No expense is spared. and each part is s e p arate l y examined before learesthe factory. The patent “LADDER FEED” prevents flooding. The “SCREW -DOWN CAP” prevents leaking. The Pen point is made of 14-Kt. (;)i;:* :;) and wears for years. Fountpen »»y YwO,U i * send yon trated Nrice lisis or a selec-tio d of pels throngh Excellence of quality combinerl with expert wor]nu:llship has made HSwan Safety” t h e most perfect pen possibk. Prices $2.50, $3.50, $4.00, $5,00 and up to $50.00 17 Maiden Lane, Ne w York IMABIF* TODD T CO 209 South Sta te St .• C hicago. 79 I 80 High Holbo rn, Lo ndon1,E, « . !r • 124 York St., To ronto Manchester, Eng. Paris Brussels Sydney Why Do You Keep That Corn Why do you pare it, nurse it, protect it? Why let it torture you ? Millions of peop l e s i mp l y cover the corn with a little Blue-jay plaster. It is done in a jiffy. The pain ends instantly. In two days the corn comes out. No pain, no soreness, no inconvenience. No feeling whatever. All because of a bit of soft B&B wax. It loosens the corn while you simply forget it. In 48 hours the corn is gone. I These results are unfailing. They are guaranteed. Five million corns annually are removed in this way. Go get a I package-stop that pain. It's folly to have corns. A in the picture is the soft B&B wax. It loosens the corn. B protects the corn, stopping the pain at once. 1 C w raps aro und the toe. It is n arr owed t o be comfortable. D is rub b er adhe siv e to fasten the plast e r on. Blue=jay Corn Plasters !!;; (7) Bauer Also Blue-jay Bunion Plasters. All Drnegists Sell and Guarantee Them. Sample Mailed Free.&Black, Chicago and New York, Makers of Surgical Dressings, etc: sioner decided did not differ in matter or substance therefrom, the Commissioner was exercising his judgment within the discretl.on and J. udgment and authon.ty given him, and that the Court cannot in such case compel him to reverse such judgment, even if erroneous, by issuing a writ of mandamus. The Conservation of Fishery Resources (COlltinllet fmm page 149.) cial and other benefits of oyster culture, as contrasted with the primitive methods that formerly prevailed, should appeal :0 the few States that insist on doing nothing and are satisfied with letting their oystermen follow the same course that their grandfathers did, regardless of the depletion of the grounds and the neglect of the opportunity to reap large revenue from the sale or lease of barren or exhausted bottoms. The valuable inshore sponge grounds on the Florida (oast long ago became exhausted, and the fishermen were obliged to extend their operations into deeper and deeper water. This condition was brought about by the activity of the operations, the demand for sponges, and the indifference of the State. To make bad matters worse, a new destructive ele-me.nt was introduced into the fishery at ttle most inopportune time for the conservatlOn of the sponge supply. The decline of the sponge fisheries in the lediterranean Sea, and the interdiction of the use of diving apparatus in some parts of the sea, threw many spongers out of business and resulted in a great influx of Greek divers to the Florida eoast. TheSE people have shown no regard for the ultimate welfare of the fishery, and have not hesitated to violate a Federal law for the protection of the industry, so that the present outlook is grave. In order to make possible the re·establishment of sponges on depleted grounds as well as to encourage the raising of sponges as a private enterprise, the Bureau of Fisheries has devised a method of growing sponges from cuttings that is susceptible of commercial application and should be extensively availed of when the State grants to sponge cultiva tors the proper measure of protection. The Decline of the Lobster. In spite of the most active possibl8 hatching operations conducted by the Federal Government at three stations on the New England coast. and notwithstanding perennial attention from the State legislatures, the lobster has declined to an extent that causes much concern among those most interested in the welfare of the fisheries. This most valuable of Ollr crustaceans reached the climax of its importance in 1889 or 1890, since. which time there has been no interruption to the annually diminishing catch, while the price hlS steadily advanced. The immediate cause of the decline was the absolute disregard of the lobster fshermen for the welfare of the species. There is no set of fishing laws that has been more systematieally. ruthlessly. and unanimously violated than those designed to protect short lobsters and egg-bearing lobsters. These laws have been admirably conceived, execrably enforced. There is scarcely a hotel or boarding-house on the entire New England coast that has not had illegal dealings with the lobster fishermen. I have personal knowledge of a State fishery official who encouraged lobs:er fishermen to bring him short lobsters for his table. I have heard of a United States senator who secretly bought lobsters illegally caught. Water Pdlution. One of the strongest anti-conservation agencies is the pollution of water by industrial wastes. In thousands of locatities insignificant factories or mills have been permitted, if not encouraged, to discharge their refuse into a stream, thereby polluting not only the immediate vicinity but many miles below, and driving out or killing every living thing. What can compensate a community for the fouling of the waters and banks of a beautiful stream or lake? In the long run, a trout or bass stream is of far greater value :,o a neighborhood than is a mill that pours noxious substances into that stream. This Is of course true in the rsthetlc sense, but it is equally true of the material aspeets, for a properly administered fishing stream is a perpetual source, of wealth, food, and recreation to a community. Industrial establishments can and should be conducted without injury to the fishes and other inhabitants of the water·courses on which located. Some of the States have fully recognized this, and have enacted and enforced anti-pollution laws without harm to legitimate business interests; but there is still need for a country-wide crusade against the desecration of public waters and the senseless destruction of useful aquatic creatures. The Alaskan Fur Seals. When the Pribilof Islands came into the possession of the United States in 1867 as a part of Alaska, the fur seals thereon, it has been variously computed, numbered from 2,000,000 to 7,000,000, with 4,000,000 as a safe estimate, At the close of the season of 1910 the herd consisted of less than 135,000 seals of all ages. During this entire period the government exercised absolute jurisdiction over the herd while on land, and partial jurisdiction while in the water, and it is therefore the opinion of many people that the government is responsible for the present precarious condition of the herd, This, however, is true only to the extent that the government failed to secure international agreements by which the seals would have received adequate protection while at sea. It is now universally appreciated that the decline of the fur-seal herd was coincident with and dependent on hunting at sea. The early efforts of the United States government to prevent pelagic sealing in Bering Sea culminated in the arbitration proceedings at Paris in 1893. The award of the arbitration court was against the United States in both of the main contentions, namely, that Bering Sea is a closed sea and that the property right in the seal herd warranted the government in protecting the seals while on the high seas. Since the award of the Paris tribunal, the case of the fur-seal herd has gone from bad to worse. Pelagic sealing is a cruel, wasteful, wholly unjustifiable business that can only be prosecuted in flagrant disregard for or indifference to the question of the perpetuation of the fur seal as a commercial animal. The preponderance of the pelagic catch consists of pregnant mother seals which have left their nursing pups on shore and gone to sea to feed. The killing of every cow seal therefore involves the loss of her unborn offspring and her pup on shore, which inevitably succumbs to lingering starvation, to say nothing of the cow's potential productivity, which may extend over a pmiod of ten years or more. In all of its aspects pelagic sealing is repugnant to one's sense of decency and propriety. Our interests are largest and we have suffered most, but Japan and Russia have also had their herds depleted and almost wiped out by foreign or domestic hunters and raiders. Notwithstanding that only a remnant of the once mighty fur-seal hosts is left, it is believed that the outlook for th9 preservation and restoration of the herd is more propitious than at any previous time. This optimistic view is based on the facts that the administration of the seal islands has recently been vested in the Bureau of Fisheries, where the fur· seal service logically belongs, and where it should have been years ago; that the seals arc TCW reeeiving what they never before had, namely, continuous scientific supervision on which the conduct of the commercial features of the business will depend; and that under the authority and direction of an enlightened Secretary of Commerce and Labor the affairs of the seal islands will (ontinue to be conducted with regard for both seal herd and government, whose interests are necessarily iUf'ntical. The most important augury for a new and improved dispensation for the fUr seals is afforded by the treaty recently concluded between the United States, Great Britain, Japan. and Russia, by the terms of which the killing of seals on land will be continued at the discretion of the respective governments that are custodians of the seal herds, while all-pelagic sealing will be prohibited for at least fifteen years-and let us hope forever, * * * August 12, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 155 The Point of Absolute Control E ACH operation of every typewriter; part culminates at the Printing] Point. The splendid efficiency of the L . C . S ml·t&B ros. T ypewrl· ter ( Ball - Bearing. Long-Wearing) is due to absolute control of all operations as they relate to this exact spot. Three mechanical features determine the c h aracter 0 f wor k at th e pnl t'ng POllt - the type-bars, t h e carr. age , and the capital shift. All these, in the L. C SMITH&BROS. TYPEWRITER, operate on exactly adjusted ball-bearings, in a most dctive combination of completely controlled forces workin[ to[ether for a perfect result. Beautiful, rapid work and a velvety touch, as easy for the operator at the day's end as at its beginning. Ask f or aa free catalogue and learn abou t real type' riter efficiency. 1. C. SMITH&BROSo TYPEWRITER CO. Branches in all large cities. Head Office for Domestic and Foreign Business, Syracuse. N. Y., U. S. A. [BRIGHTEN UP l7Zgt*%ANK, SCHOOL or HOME h titing WASHBURN'S PATENT PAPER FASTENERS. 75,000,000 SOLD the pa=l YEAR ihovltl convince YOU of , (kelrSUPERlORITY. Trade 0. K.Mart _..de oEbraja, 3 sizes. In biara boxes of 100ast; Hadast;aDK.Compact,5trang.NoSEippLQ;»NEVER! All stationers. Send lac for sample box of SO, assorted sizes. Illustrated booklet free* The 0. K. Mfg. Co., SfffKBK, N. Y N9 1 B B£ST LIGHT More brilliant than electricity or acetylene and. cheaper than kerosene. Costs two cents per weelc Casts no shadow. :ost perfect light for ftores, facto-lies, churches. public halls or the home . Makes and bm'ns its own gas. Simple, durable and handsome. In use in every civilized country in the world. No dirt. No grease. No odor. Over two hundred different styles. Agents wanted evvryvJiytc. Write for catalog and piiees, THE BEST LIGHT CO. 87 E. 5th St., Canton, O. Maxim Silencer Specify Silencer Equipment on Your New Rife Checks the powder gases and prevents them from burstin2 into the air instantaneously. This annuls report noise and reduces recan two-thirds. The bole in the Silencei is very much larger than the bullet; accuracy in 5hootiot is not affected. Couplings furnished for attacbing immediately. Write make. model anti calibre of your rifle (giving dealer's name). We will tell what Silence: you need. price. etc. SEND FOR NEW CATALOG. MAXIM SILENCER, Hartford, Conn. Photographs in Railway Work THE uses of photography, are constantly extending. A western railr'clad has uses for it as a substitute for written reports on construction work. For example, the prog-ess of the work .of changing a grade crossing or buildjng a bridge is photographed at stated periods, and the photographs are preserved both as a record and as illustrations of method. Pictures are also taken of all the resources of the road in the way of matel'ial, and of every mile of track, showing curves, grades, switches and crossings. A complete set of photograph's is used, too, to illustrate the book of rules which is placed in the hands of every railroad man. This enables the men to refresh their memaries by reference to the view of any particular point on the road, and makes tlJem more readily interchangeable from one division to another. The book of rules also contains photographs of trains in more than one hundred combinations of circumstances, and the text informs the trainmen what to do in each case. The film companies are upitalized in the millions, and there is not tho slightest indication tnat any retrograde movement in this field will be permitted. The great problem whieh presents itself is the effect that modernism may have on the actual player and singer, but after all, it is the latter element which has maGe possible the great progress in the moving picture industry, for they are induced to accept the liberal payments offered. Recently $50,000 was offered to Caruso for the sole right to take his vocal records, and this sum was merely a bonus for exclusive privileges. Mme. Aclelina Patti, when in this country on her last tour, refused an offer 01 $100,000 for a similar privilege, and this, too, at a P8riod in her career when she was no longer the Patti of old. The writer believes that the motion picture theater of the future will be conducted on a far more important basis than that of the present. Already the “store” theater is passing away, and the tendency is to secure regular theaters. In all the larger cities, large and commadious establishments are being erected and millions of dollars of invested eapital are available at every turn. The e.ffect on the regular theaters has already been appalling. Two years ago the vast chain of theaters devoted to melodrama fuund their position untenable, and there are to-day less than a dozen of this class of amusement temples in operation. All have reverted to what is known as “pop” vaudeville, or else they are lying dormanto In Philadelphia there are twoscore of handsome theaters, newly built, some costing as high as $500,000 each, and all ereated through the really tremendous expans ion in the field whereof I write. The attendance is enormOl1S, It is not too much to assert that 100,000 persons attend these theaters daily in the Quaker City. In Boston the situation is quito similar; while in the smaller cities a singular state of affairs has come about. In what are called “one-night stands” the moving pieture has solved the problem of the local managers, who have not hesitated to cast the legitimate attractions to oblivion and turned their “opery” houses into “nickelodeons” and “bijou dreams.” Heretofore, the local managor would get one or two companies a week for his publiCs entertainment, and he had a hard time to pay his way. To·day, by the simple process of installing a moving picture machine and engaging a few minor acts of vaudeville, he is able to entertain from two to three thousand persons each day, at an average price of admission of ten cents. The expenses are small; the profits are. huge. I have in mind a little town near New York, with a population of 30,000. Up to two years ago it was impossible to attract a paying audience with anything. To.day the one theater available gives three performances daily! Hardly a week goes by that less than 60 per cent of the population does not enter this theater at least once; while it is an absolute normal condition to find as many as 1,000 persons waiting in the lobbies and on the sidewalks, at 9 P. l, for an exodus of the seated audience, so that they may enter and witness the second show. The public created by all this procedure is constantly being educated and gradually becomes more exacting in its demands, hence the advent of the “talking” picture, with all the enhancement which it promises to bring, should resuit in a general uplift, together with much benefit to the masses who must naturally appreciate any effort which will make possible for them to see and hear for ten cents that which has heretofore cost from fifty cents to two dollars. It remains yet to be seen how nearly science and artifice haye. served to dUllicate the original interpretation in music and drama. Mr. Edison has promised that the counterfeit will be almost perfeet. N Rubber Bath Sponges T ATURAL bath sponges aro becoming scurce· ant attemljts have be811 made tD inerease the production by artificial sponge culture. The increasing priee of sponges has also led to the invention of artifieial sponges made of vulcanized Incia rubber, which have been in the marjet for a number of years and are already very largely used. Until retfmtly the method of producing these substitutes, which are remarkably similar to natural sponges in structure, remained the secret of a few German firms, and the efforts of foreign manufactur"rs to produce ruhber sponges were fruiHess. It has long been poss'ble to make porous vulcanized rubber, but the imitation of the peculiar structure of the sponge and the proc1uction of pores and cavities of various sizes iu communication with each cther appeared impossible. This object is eCcomplished in tlre manufacture of rubber sponges, which is now carried on in other countries than Germany, in the following nnnner, according to an Ul tide in Caoutchouc et GuUa-percfia. In the preparation io.f the rubber, certain volatile constituents are added which, in the process of vulcanization, inflate tlie rubber, producing an effect similar to that of yeast in bread. Usually a mixture of alcohol and amyl acetate is employed for this purpose. In order to preveut premature evaporation of these very volatile liquids, the rubber is first incorporated with the usual additions, sul1hur, ehalk, etc., and rolled out cold into thin sheets. These sleAts are clipped in the mixture of alcohol and amyl acetate and passed again through the rollers. These operations of dipping and rolling are repeated ten ·nr twelve times. The mass is then divided into pieees the size of Ure fist, which are saturated with a solution of Para rubber and wrapped tightly in Sm paper. In this condition the pieces are placed in the vll:caniler, in whieh the pressure of the steam is allowed to rise to about one-half atmosphere in fifteen minutes, is held a1 this point for twenty minutes, tlien increased to two and one-half atIcspherps and after twenty minutes more is allowed to sink to the pressure of the external air. The sponges are then taken from the vulcanizer, allowed to cool in the air. and washed and brushed in water in order to remove the silk paper. They are finally boiled in a two per cent sclution of soda and cut up into pieces of t1e desired form and size. These rubber sponges cannot compete with the finer grades of natural sponges, but they form very good substitutes for the medium and coarser grades. Summary of the Reclamation Projects (Continued from vaue 14.) been built, so that now, on many streams, no water escapes whatever, and the lower roaches of the river bed have been grown over with trees and vegetation. Tlt0 reclamation work in this district is scattered over the States of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and southern Wyoming. In the valleys the rainfall varies from 6 to 16 inches; in the mountains above the project, it reaches as high as 30 and 40 inches. The value of the irrigated lands ranges from $75 to $100 per acre in the northerI y projects, to $100 to $1,000 in the southern projects, much of this land having sold for $3 to $10 per acre before the projects were inaugurated. UXCOMPAHGRE PROJECT, COLORADo.-In the Uncompahgre Valley is a body of fine land of 150,000 acres, but the run-off of the Uneompahgre River is limited, and after settlement a succession of crop failures followed. It was found that the run-off of the Gunnison River in the adjoining valley was very large; hence arose the suggestion to tunnel the intervening mountain, and divert the Gunnison River into the Uncompahgre Valley. An attempt was made to do this, bnt the cost was too great. The Reclamation Service took hold of the ,ork, and completed the tunnel, SIX mIles Il length, whIch has been I. I use now durl. llg tho past two seasons. One hundred an(l forty thousand acres :n the Uncompahbre Valley have now an assured water Slpply, which is to be augmented by bUl. ldllg a reservoir on Taylor RiveT, a tributary of the Gunnison. GRAND VALLEY PROJECT, COLORA])O.-This project in :1esa County, western Colorado, is designed to irrigate the higher Mesa lands, which include th.) PROVED POWER That i s the kind you have back o f your machinery when you install an I H C Gasoline Engine. Provecl in efficiency, smoothness of operation, economy of fuel. length of service. IHC Gasoline Engines are made in sizes from 1 to 35-horse power. in all Style,; vertical . ho rizontal. statio nary, port:bk, a:i or valr'r-cooled; and tractor-;, 12 tJ 45 ho rse power . C \ hatcvcr yoar power innis, there Is au I H C to meet them to Ldter advalltazc than any other power you can apply. 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GILSON lit KEFS GASOLENE liiltt!* ENGINE For Pumping, Cream ^Separators, Churns, Wash Ma- Jj^chines, etc. FKEE TEIAL _______________|_i8S_ Askfor catalog-ai! sizes GILSON MFG. co, »08 Pari St. Port Washington, Wis. 2 «».” 4 CvcLt _L3-'J 'li~—----s I ENGINES FROM 2 TO 40 H.P.- PALMER BROS:, lt4 STOCK' • - ~ "POROX" Storage Batteries The best for ignition ana \ ght. No Joss of current. Ablollltely f8liable, 'ransparent jars ane u:ed for alJ batrerie s. 6 volt. tSP u mpere hou r batlery. Pl 'ice $24.00. Send jor catoi.Ofa ALBERT MULLER Hoffman Boulevard, near Hillsia. Ave. JAMAICA, N. Y. Aircraft An Encyclopedia of Aeronautical Development Published in Monthly Installments Read by everybody interested in the subjec S $1. 50 per year 1.00 eight months .50 four months . 15 per cory The Lawson Pub'g Co. 37-39 East 28th Street, New Yo r k City August )2, 1 9) J SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 1.57 best and most fertile country. The Reclamation Serviee has planned a cana! which will furnish water to 60,000 acres of irrigable land from the flow of the Grand River. NORTH PLATTE PnOJECT, \Vymu:G AND NEBRAsKA,-One of the chief water courses in the Middle West is the North Platte River, hcading in the high mountains of Colorado and flowing through Wyoming and Nebraska on its way to the Missouri. Although its flow is large during the spring months, it goes practically dry during the later summer months, and is generally limited in flow after July 1st. To conserve these waters, a large dam 218 feet in height has been built to form the Pathfinder Reservoir, which has a capacity of over a million acre-feet, and will irrigate some 350,000 acres in 'yoming and Nebraska. The frst unit, comprising 117,000 acres, is nearing completion; the second, comprising 80,000 acres, will shortI! be started, and the third is now under inves,ilgatlOl1. BELLE FOURCHE PnOJECT, SOUTH DAKOTA. -Surrounding the Black Hills in South Dalwta are situated numerous bodies of land of more or less limited areas, which would be fine farming land If there was sufficient moisture; but as the ramfall IS below what is needed to produce crops. these areas are practically unoecupled and of very little value. The Belle Fourche Project, nearing completio:, stores the water of the Belle Fourche River in a reservoir which will have a capacity of 200,000 acre-feet of water, and will conserve about 100,000 acres of irrigable land. The water is diverted into the reservoir from the river by a canal 70 feet wide and 10 feet deep. From the reservoir two large main canals carry the water to the land, from which lateral canals distribute it to the farms.